Skip to main content

Full text of "The Europa Year Book 1968 A World Survey Vol.-i"

See other formats






THE EUROPA YEAR BOOK 

1968 




THE 


EUROPA Y 






3 I#** 


VOLUME I. 

Part I. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 

Part II. EUROPE 



LONDON 


EUROPA PUBLICATIONS LIMITED 

1 8 BEDFORD SQUARE, 


W.C.i 

SUPPLIED BY-- 

"p RAF ASH PUBLISHERS 

Scientific & Technical BookseM 


EUROPA PUBLICATIONS LIMITED 1968 

All rights reserved 

FIRST PUBLISHED 192 6 
SBN 90036203 0 


Made and printed in England by 
STAPLES PRINTERS LIMITED 
at their Rochester, Kent, establishment 



FOREWORD 


The steady growth in international co-operation and its machinery poses to the 
editors of The Europa Year Book many difficult problems of selection and 
assimilation. This yeax a further 26 pages have been added to the directory of 
international organizations which opens this volume. New or expanded sections 
cover regional economic co-operation in Asia (ASEAN), Africa (The East African 
Community, and separate discussion in the UN chapter), the Caribbean (WIAS), 
and Latin America (CACM, OAS). To keep pace with the developing situation in the 
post-colonial systems, the chapters on the Commonwealth and the Franc Zone have 
been extensively reorganized. In order to simplify reference to the smaller regional 
and international organizations and associations, these have been listed as a 
combined series, following the separate chapters on major organizations. 

To keep the Year Book within reasonable bounds, some cutting and rearrange- 
ment has been undertaken in the country chapters of Part II, but major revision 
and expansion has again been undertaken, particularly in the chapters on France, 
German Federal Republic, Itafy, Poland, Romania, Spain, Turke\* and the U.S.S.R., 
where man}* detailed changes will be apparent. The polic\' of providing introductory 
text for directory material has been taken further by the addition of mam* new 
contributions, especially for the national Press systems. Statistical sections have 
again been expanded b}^ the addition of anafytical tables on the overall economic 
performance of the individual European countries. 

As alwa} r s the Editors of the Year Book are conscious of a great debt of gratitude 
to the many individuals and organizations supplying information for use in these 
pages. Responsibility for the accuracy of the text rests with the editors, however, 
who will welcome comments and suggestions for future editions. 


March 19GS. 


PART I 


INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 


The United Nations 
Members 

Permanent Missions 
Observers 

Information Centres 
United Nations Budget 
Structure of the United Nations 
General Assembly 
Security Council 
Economic and Social Council — ECOSOC 
Trusteeship Council 
International Court of Justice 
United Nations Secretariat 
Office of the UN at Geneva 
Economic Commission for Europe — ECE 
Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East — ECAFE 
Economic Commission for Latin America — ECLA 
Economic Commission for Africa — ECA 
Economic Co-operation in Africa 

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development — IBRD (World 
Bank) 

International Development Association — IDA 
International Finance Corporation — IFC 
International Monetary Fund — IMF 
Food and Agriculture Organization — FAO 
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade — GATT 
Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization — IMCO 
International Atomic Energy Agency — IAEA 
International Civil Aviation Organization — ICAO 
^.International Labour Organization — ILO 

International Telecommunications Union — ITU 

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization — 
UNESCO 

Universal Postal Union — UPU 
EWorld Health Organization — WHO 

World Meteorological Organization — WMO 
United Nations Children’s Fund — UNICEF 

United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the 
Near East— UNRWA 

United Nations Military Observer Group for India and Pakistan— 
UNMOGIP 

United Nations Tmce Supervision Organization — UNTSO 


Page 


4 

5 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

9 

io 

io 

12 

12 

13 

15 

1 6 
iS 
19 

21 

24 

25 

26 
28 
29 
32 

34 
37 

35 

40 

42 

46 

47 
5i 

55 

56 

59 

59 


INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 


The United Nations — continued 

United Nations Commission for the Unification and Rehabilitation of 
Korea— UNCURK 

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees— UNHCR 
World Food Programme — WFP 

United Nations Peace-Keeping Force in Cyprus— UNFICYP 
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development — UNCTAD 
United Nations Institute for Training and Research — UNITAR 
United Nations Development Programme — UNDP 
United Nations Industrial Development Organization — UNIDO 
United Nations Capital Development Fund — UNCDF 
United Nations Middle East Mission — UNMEM 
Charter of the United Nations 
Charter Amendments 
African Development Bank 
ANZUS Treaty 
Arab League 
Arab Common Market 
Asian and Pacific Council — ASPAC 
Asian Development Bank — ADB 
Association of South-East Asia — ASA 
Association of South East Asian Nations — ASEAN 
Bank for International Settlements — BIS 
Benelux 

Central American Common Market — CACM 
Central Commission for the Navigation of the Rhine 
Central Treaty Organization — CENTO 

Colombo Plan for Co-operative Economic Development in South and 
South-East Asia 

Columbia River Treaty 
The Commonwealth 

Conference des Chefs d’Etat de l’Afrique Equatoriale 
Conseil de l'Entente 

Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences — CIOMS 
Council of Europe 

Council for Mutual Economic Aid— COMECON (CMEA) 

Danube Commission 
East African Community 
East African Development Bank 
Eastern European Mutual Assistance Treaty (Warsaw Pact) 

European Association of Music Festivals 
European Broadcasting Union— EBU 
The European Communities 

European Economic Community — EEC (Common Market) 

European Coal and Steel Community— ECSC 

viii 


Page 


60 

60 

62 

63 
63 

65 

66 
68 
69 

69 

70 

79 

80 

81 
83 
89 

92 

93 

95 

96 

97 
99 

106 

109 

in 

114 

116 

ri8 

129 

131 

133 

134 
140 
148 

150 

151 
158 
161 
163 



in iijj.vnnAAVJ.uu* 

Page 

The European Communities — continued 

European Atomic Energy Community — EURATOM 189 

Private Organizations within the Community 194 

European Conference of Ministers of Transport — ECMT 202 

European Free Trade Association — EFTA 204 

European Organization for Nuclear Research — CERN 210 

European Organization for the Safety of Air Navigation — 

EUROCONTROL 212 

European Space Research Organization — ESRO 214 

European Space Vehicle Launcher Development Organisation — ELDO 216 

The Franc Zone 217 

African Financial Community 2x8 

Economic Aid 219 

French Community 219 

Indus Waters Treaty 220 

Inter-American Development Bank — IDB 222 

Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration — ICEM 225 

International Air Transport Association — IATA 227 

International Association of Universities — IAU 228 

International Bank for Economic Co-operation — IBEC 229 

International Bureau of Education — IBE 230 

International Chamber of Commerce — ICC 231 

International Telecommunications Satellite Consortium — INTELSAT 233 

International Confederation of Free Trade Unions — ICFTU 235 

Associated International Trade Secretariats 236 

International Co-operative Alliance — ICA 238 

International Council of Scientific Unions — ICSU 240 

International Federation of Christian Trade Unions — IFCTU 242 

Trade Internationals 243 

International Organisation of Employers — IOE 245 

International Press Institute — IPI 246 

International Radio and Television Organisation— OIRT 24S 

International Red Cross 250 

International Committee of the Red Cross 250 

League of Red Cross Societies 251 

International Secretariat for Volunteer Service — ISVS 253 

Inter-Parliamentary Union 254 

Joint Institute for Nuclear Research 255 

Latin American Free Trade Association — LAFTA (ALALC) 257 

Andean Development Corporation 25S 

Lenin Prize Committee 261 

Maghreb Permanent Consultative Committee 2 62 

Nobel Foundation 264 

Nordic Council 265 


IX 


INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 

North Atlantic Treaty Organization— NATO 
Olympic Games 

Organisation Commune Africaine et Malgache — OCAM 
Afro-Malagasy Co-operation 

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development — OECD 
European Monetary Agreement — EMA 
European Nuclear Energy Agency — ENEA 
Organization of African Unit}' — OAU 
Scientific, Technical and Research Commission — STRC 
Organization of American States — OAS 
Inter-American Economic and Social Council— IA-ECOSOC . 
Inter-American Council of Jurists 
Inter-American Cultural Council 

Inter- American Nuclear Energy Commission — IANEC 
Pan American Highway Congresses 
Alliance for Progress 

Organization of Central American States — ODECA 
Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries — OPEC 
Regional Co-operation for Development — RCD 
St. Lawrence Seaway 

South-East Asia Treaty Organisation — SEATO 
South Pacific Commission 

L’Union Douaniere Economique de l’Afrique Centrale — UDEAC 
L’Union Douaniere Economique de l’Afriquc de l’Ouest — UDEAO 
Union of International Fairs 
Western European Union 
West Indies Associated States 
World Council of Churches — WCC 
World Federation of Trade Unions — WFTU 
Trade Unions Internationals 

World Federation of United Nations Associations — WFUNA 
Other International Organizations 


Page 

270 

277. 

278 

279 
281 
283 
287 
290 
293 
295 

299 

300 
300 

302 

303 
305 
3x0 
3ii 
313 
317 
319 
322 

324 

325 

326 

329 

334 

337 

339 

340 
342 
345 



PART II 


EUROPEAN COUNTRIES 


Albania 

Andorra {see France) 

Austria 

Belgium 

Bulgaria 

Channel Islands ( see United Kingdor 
Cyprus 

Czechoslovakia 

Denmark 

Finland 

/France 

Andorra 

Federal Republic of Germany 
German Democratic Republic 
Gibraltar 

'Great Britain ( see United Kingdom) 
Greece 
Hungary 
Iceland 
Irish Republic 

Isle of Man ( see United Kingdom) 
Italy 

San Marino 


Page 


Page 

431 

Liechtenstein 

8x9 


Luxembourg 

S22 

439 

Malta 

832 

458 

Monaco 

843 

484 

N etlierlands 

846 

1) 

498 

Northern Ireland ( see United Kingdom) 

Norway 

880 

513 

Poland 

903 

530 

Portugal 

925 

55i 

_ _ r 

Romania 

947 

076 

623 

San Marino ( see Italy) 


624 

Spain 

967 

Sweden 

1000 

679 

Switzerland 

1026 

702 

Turkey 

1051 

709 - 

U.S.S.R. 

1074 

726 

United Kingdom 


Great Britain 

1x28 

753 

Northern Ireland 

1196 

754 

Isle of Man 

1209 


Channel Islands 

1214 

774 

Vatican 

1220 

81S 

Yugoslavia 

1226 


Index of International Organizations page 1247 


x\ 



ABBREVIATIONS 


A.A 

A.B 

abbrev. 

A.C.A 

Acad. 
acc.(s) . . 
accred. 

A.C.C.S. 

A.C.I.I. 

A.C.I.S. 

ADB 

A.D.C 

Adm. 

adm., admin. . . 

A.F.C 

ag., ags. 

A.G 

a.i. 

A.I.B 

A.Inst.P. 

A.Inst.P.I. 

A.L.A 

AL.A.A. 

ALALC. . 

A.L.S 

A.M.I.E.E. 

A.M.I.Mech.E. . . 

A.M.I.Min.E. .. 

A.M. . . 

A.M.A. 
amalg. . . 
A.M.I.C.E. 

A.M.Inst.C.E. . . 


A.M.Inst.T. 

A.M.T.P.I. 

approx. 
A.R.A. . . 
A.R.C.A. 
A.R.C.M. 

a.r.c.o. 

A.R.C.S.(c). 

A.R.I.B.A. 

a.r.s.a. 


A.R.S.M. 

A/S 


Automobile Association 
Bachelor of Arts 
abbreviation 

Associate of the Institute of Chartered 
Accountants 
Academician, Academy 
account(s) 
accredited 

Associate of the Corporation of Secre- 
taries 

Associate Chartered Insurance Institute 
Associate of the Chartered Institute of 
Secretaries 

Asian Development Bank 

Aide-de-Camp 

Admiral 

administration 

Air Force Cross 

agency (ies) 

Aktien-Gesellschaft 
ad interim 

Associate of the Institute of Bankers 
Associate of the Institute of Physics 
Associate of the Institute of Patentees 
and Inventors 

Associate of the Library Association 
Associate of the London Association of 
Certified and Corporate Accountants 
Asociacidn Latinoamericana de Libre 
Comercio 

Associate of the Linnasan Society 
Associate Member of the Institution of 
Electrical Engineers 
Associate Member of the Institution of 
Mechanical Engineers 
Associate Member of the Institution of 
Mining Engineers 
Master of Arts 

Associate of the Museums Association 
amalgamated 

Associate Member of the Institution of 
Civil Engineers 

Associate Member of the Institution of 
Civil Engineers (changed 1946 to 
A.M.I.C.E.) 

Associate Member of the Institute of 
Transport 

Associate Member of the Town Plan- 
ning Institute 
approximately 

Associate of the Royal Academy 
Associate of the Royal College of Art 
Associate of the Royal College of Music 
Associate Royal College of Organists 
Associate of the Royal College of 
Science 

Associate of the Royal Institute of 
British Architects 

Associate of the Royal Scottish Aca- 
demy; Associate of the Royal Society 
of Art. 

Associate Royal School of Mines 
joint stock company (Aktieselskapet- 
Norwegian) 

xiii 


Association of South-East Asia 
Association of South East Asian 
Nations 

Asian and Pacific Council 

association 

associated 

assistant 

Agence Transequatoriale des Com- 
munications 

Association of Technica Institutions; 

Associate of the Textile Institute 

August 

authorised 

Avenue 

Avenida (Avenue) 

Awocato 


Bachelor of Arts 
Bachelor of Agricultural Science 
Baccalaurius in Arte Ingeniaria 
(Bachelor of Engineering) 

Bachelor of Obstetrics 

British Broadcasting Corporation 

Bachelor of Surgery 

Bachelor of Civil Law 

Bachelor of Commerce 

Bachelor of Divinity 

Boulevard 

Bachelor of Dental Surgery 
Bachelor of Engineering; Bachelor of 
Education 

British European Airways 
British Empire Medal 
Belgium-Netherlands-Luxcmbourg 
Union 

Biology, Biological 

Bank for International Settlements 

Bachelor of Law 

Bachelor of Letters 

Bachelor of Music 

British Overseas Airways Corporation 
branch (es) 

Belgische Radio en Televisie 
Brigadier 

Bachelor of Surgery 

Bachelor of Science 

Bachelor of Science (Engineering; 

Baronet 


central 

circa 

Chartered Accountant 

Central American Common Market 

capital 

Captain 

Cavaliere 

Cavaliere di Lavoro 
Companion of the (Order of the) Bath 
Commander of the (Order of the) 
British Empire 
Central Treaty Organization 


ASA .. 
ASEAN 

ASPAC . . 
asscn. . . 
assocd. . . 
asst. 

A.T.E.C. 

A.T.I. .. 

Aug. 

auth. 

Av. 

Avda. . . 
Aw, 


B.A 

B.Agr.Sc. 

B.A.I 

B.A.O 

BBC . . 

B.Ch., B.Chir. . . 

B.C.L 

B.Comm. 

B.D 

Bd„ Blvd., Bid. 

B.D.S 

B.E 

B.E.A 

B.E.M 

Benelux 

Biol. 

BIS 

B.L 

B.Litt. . . 

B.Mus. 

B.O.A.C. 

br.(s) 

BRT 

Brig 

B.S 

B.S., B.Sc. 

B. Sc. (Eng.) 

Bt 


C., cen. . 
c, ca. 
C.A. 

CACM . 
cap. 

Capt. . 
Cav. 

Cav. Lav 
C.B. . 
C.B.E. . 

CENTO 



ABBREVIATIONS 


CERN .. 


C.H. . . 
Chair. . . 
Ch.B. . . 
Chr.Dem. 
Chr.Soc. 
C.I. 


Cl AP 


C.I.E. .. 
c.i.f. 

C.I.M. .. 


C.-in-C. 
CINS . . 
CIOMS . . 

circ. 

C.I.V. . . 


Cmd. 

Ciruir. 

CMEA .. 
C..M.G. .. 

Co. 

Col. 

COMECON 
Comm. . . 
Commr. 
Comp.I.E.E. 

Confcd. 

Cons.-Gen. 

corresp. 

COSPAR 

C.R. 

Cttec. . . 

cu. 

curr. 

C.V.O. . 


cwt. 


Organisation Europeenne pour la 
Recherche Nuclfiaire (European Or- 
ganisation for Nuclear Research) 
Companion of Honour 
Chairman 

Bachelor of Surgery 
Christian Democrats 
Christian Socialist 

Channel Islands; Imperial Order of the 
Crown of India 

Inter-American Committee for the 
Alliance for Progress 
Companion of (the Order of) the Indian 
Empire 

carriage, insurance and freight 
International Convention Concerning 
the Transport of Goods by Rail 
Commander-in-Chief 
CENTO Institute of Nuclear Science 
Council for International Organization 
of Medical Sciences 
circulation 

International Convention Concerning 
the Transport of Passengers and 
Baggage 
Command 
Commander 

Council for Mutual Economic Aid 
Companion of (the Order of) St. 

Michael and St. George 
Company, County 
Colonel 

Council for Mutual Economic Aid 

Commcndatorc 

Commissioner 

Companion of the Institution of Electri- 
cal Engineers 
Confederation 
Consul-General 
corresponding 

Committee on Space Research 

Community of the Resurrection 

Committee 

cubic 

current 

Commander of the (Royal) Victorian 
Order 

hundredweight 


D Agr, . . 
D.B.E. . . 

D.C.. 

D.C.L. 

D C O. . . 

D. dc 1'Univ. 
D.D., D.Dr. 
D.n.R. . . 

Dec. 

D.Econ. 

Dcm. 

D.Ung. . . 
dep. 

depos. . . 
Dept. . . 
D.l'.C. .. 
IAEA. 

D.Ing. .. 
Dip.Kd, 

Dipl. . . 

Dip It. A. P. A. 


Doctor of Agriculture 
Dame Commander of (the Order of) the 
British Empire 
District of Columbia 
Doctor of Civil Law 
Diploma of the College of Optics 
Doyen dc l’Univcrsite 
Doctor of Divinity 
Deutsche Demokratisclic Republik 
Dcceml>cr 

Doctor of Economics 

Democratic 

Doctor of Engineering 

deposits 

depositary 

Department 

Distinguished Flying Cross 
Deutscher Innen- und Aussenhandel 
Doctor of Engineering 
Diploma of Education 
Diploma 

Diploma of Royal Academy of Drama- 
tic Art 


Dir. 

Div. 

D.Lit(t). 
D.M. . . 


D.M.R. 

D.Mus. 

Dott. 

D.P.A 

D.P.H 

D.Phil 

D.P.M 

Dr., Doc. 

Dr.Jur 

Dr.rer.Nat. 

dr.(e) 

Dr.Sc.Pol. 

D.Sc 

D.S.C 

D.Sc.(Eng.) 

D.S.O 

DSR 

D.Tech.Chem. . . 
d.w.t. 


Director 

Divisional 

Doctor of Letters; Doctor of Literature 
Doctor of Medicine (Oxford); Deutsche 
Mark 

Diploma in Medical Radiology 

Doctor of Music 

Dottore 

Diploma of Public Administration 

Diploma of Public Health 

Doctor of Philosophy 

Diploma in Psychological Medicine 

Doctor 

Doctor of Laws 
Doctor of Natural Science 
drachma (e) 

Doctor of Political Sciences 
Doctor of Science 
Distinguished Service Cross 
Doctor of Science (Engineering) 
Distinguished Service Order 
Danmarks Radio 
Doctor of Technical Chemistry 
dead weight tons 


E 

EACSO 

EBU 

ECA 

ECAFE 

ECE 

ECLA 

ECMT .. 

Econ. 

ECOSOC 

ECSC 

Ed 

Ed.B 

Edin. 

EEC 

EFT A . . 

e-g 

eKv. 

ELDO .. 

EMA . . 
ellv. 

ENEA .. 

Eng 

E.R.P 

Esc. 

ESRO 

cst. 

etc. 

EURATOM ’. . 
EUROCHEMIC 


EUROCONTROL 

cxcl. 

exec. 


East, Eastern 

East African Common Services Organi- 
zation 

European Broadcasting Union 
Economic Commission for Africa 
Economic Commission for Asia and the 
Far East 

Economic Commission for Europe 
Economic Commission for Latin 
America 

European Conference of Ministers of 
Transport 

Economist, Economics 
Economic and Social Council 
European Coal and Steel Community 
Editor 

Bachelor of Education 
Edinburgh 

European Economic Community 
European Free Trade Association 
exempli gratia (for example) 
electron kilovolt 

European Space Vehicle Launcher 
Development Organisation 
European Monetary Agreement 
electron megavolt 
European Nuclear Energy Agency 
Engineer, Engineering 
European Recovery Programme 
Escuela, Escudos 

European Space Research Organization 
established, estimate, estimated 
etcetera 

European Atomic Energy’ Community 
Sociiite europeenne pour le traitement 
chimiquc des combustibles irradids; 
(European Company for the Chemical 
Processing of Irradiated Fuels) 
European Organization for the Safety 
of Air Navigation 
excluding 
executive 


f. 

F.A.C.C.A. 
FAO . . 


founded 

Fellow of the Association of Certified 
and Corporate Accountants 
Food and Agriculture Organization 


xiv 


ABBREVIATIONS 


F.B.A. .. 
F.B.A.A. 

F.B.I. .. 
F.C.A. .. 

F.C.C.S. 

F.C.I.I. . . 
F.C.I.S.. . 

F.C.S. .. 
F.C.W.A. 

F.D.G.B. 
Feb. . . 
Fed. . . 
F.F.R. .. 
F.G.S. .. 
F.G.S.M. 
F.I.Ae.S. 

F.I.B. 
F.I.C. .. 
F.I.L. .. 
F.I.M. .. 
F.Inst.P. 
F.Inst.P.I. 

F.L.A. .. 
F.L.S. .. 
F.M. . . 
F.M.A. . . 
fmrly. , . 
f.o.b. 
F.P.S. .. 
F.R. . . 
Fr. 

f.r.a.s. 


F.R.Ae.S. 

F.R.C.O. 

F.R.C.O.G. 

F.R.C.P. 

F.R.C.S. 
F.R E.S. 


F.R.G.S. 
F.R.Hist.S. . . 

Fri 

F.R.I.B.A. 

F.R.I.C. 

F.R.Met.Soc. . . 

F.R.M.S. 

F.R.N.S. 

F.R.S 

F.R.S.A. 

F.R.S.C. 

F.R.S.E. 

f.r.s.l. 
f.s.a 


Fellow of the British Academy- 
Fellow of the British Association, of 
Accounts and Auditors 
Federation of British Industries 
Fellow of the Institute of Chartered 
Accounts 

Fellow of the Corporation of Certified 
Secretaries 

Fellow Chartered Insurance Institute 
Fellow of the Chartered Institute of 
Secretaries 

Fellow of the Chemical Society 
Fellow of the Chartered Institute of 
Cost and Work Accountants 
Free German Trade Union 
February 
Federation 

Fellow of Faculty of Radiologists 
Fellow of the Geological Society 
Fellow of Guildhall School of Music 
Fellow of the Institute of Aeronautical 
Sciences 

Fellow of the Institute of Bankers 
See F.R.I.C. 

Fellow of the Institute of Linguists 
Fellow of the Institute of Metallurgists 
Fellow of the Institute of Physics 
Fellow of the Institute of Patentees 
and Inventors 

Fellow of the Library Association 

Fellow of the Linnaean Society 

Frequency Modulation 

Fellow of the Museums Association 

formerly 

free on board 

Fellow of the Pharmaceutical Society 

Federal Republic 

Franc 

Fellow of the Royal Astronomical 
Society; Fellow of the Royal Asiatic 
Society 

Fellow of the Royal Aeronautical 
Society 

Fellow of the Royal College of Organists 
Fellow of the Royal College of Obstetri- 
cians and Gynaecologists 
Fellow of the Royal College of Physi- 
cians (Edinburgh) 

Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons 
Fellow of the Royal Empire Society; 
Fellow of Royal Entomological 
Society of London 

Fellow of Royal Geographical Society 
Fellow of the Royal Historical Society 
Friday 

Fellow of the Royal Institute of British 
Architects 

Fellow of the Royal Institute of Chemi- 
stry (formerly F.I.C.) 

Fellow of the Royal Meteorological 
Society 

Fellow of the Royal Microscopical 
Society 

Fellow of the Royal Numismatic Society 
Fellow of the Royal Society 
Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts 
Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada 
Fellow of the Royal Society of Edin- 
burgh 

Fellow of the Royal Society of Litera- 
ture 

Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries 


F.S.A. A. 

F.S.I.A. 

F.S.S. .. 
ft. 

F.T.C.L. 

F.T.I. .. 
F.Z.S. 


GATT .. 


G.B.E. .. 

G.C.B. .. 

G.C.I.E. 

G.C.M.G. 

G.C.S.I. 

G.C.V.O. 

G.D.R. . . 
Gen. 

Glam. . . 
G.M. . . 
G.M.B.E. 

G.m.b.H. 

Gr. 

Gr. Cr. 
g.r.t. . . 
Gr.Uff. . . 


h.c. 

H.E. .. 
Herts. . . 
His. 
h.l. 

H.M. . . 
H.M.S.O. 
Hon. 
H.R.H. 
H.S.H. .. 


IAEA .. 
IA-ECOSOC 

IANEC . . 

IATA . . 

IAU . . 

IBE 

IBEC . . 
IBRD .. 
ICA 

ICAO . . 
ICC 

ICEM .. 


Fellow of the Society of Incorporated 
Accountants and Auditors 
Fellow of the Society of Industrial 
Artists 

Fellow of the Royal Statistical Society- 
foot (feet) 

Fellow of Trinity College of Music, 
London 

Fellow of the Textile Institute 
Fellow of the Zoological Society 


General Agreement on Tariffs and 
Trade 

Knight (or Dame) Grand Cross of (the 
Order of) the British Empire 
Knight Grand Cross of (the Order of) 
the Bath 

(Knight) Grand Commander of the 
Indian Empire 

Knight Grand Cross of (the Order of) 
St. Michael and St. George 
Knight Grand Commander of the Star 
of India 

Knight Grand Cross of the (Royal) 
Victorian Order 
German Democratic Republic 
General 

Glamorganshire 
George Medal 

Grand Master of the Order of the 
British Empire 

Gesellschaft mit beschrfmkter Haftung 
(Limited Liability Company) 

Gran 

Grande Croix 

gross registered tons 

Grand Ufficiale (Grand Officer) 


honoris causa 

His Eminence, His Excellency 
Hertfordshire 
History, historical 
hectolitre 

His (or Her) Majesty 

Her Majesty's Stationery Office 

Honorary (or honourable) 

His (or Her) Royal Highness 
His Serene Highness 


International Atomic Energy Agency 

Inter-American Economic and Social 
Council 

Inter-American Nuclear Energy Com- 
mission 

International Air Transport Associa- 
tion 

International Association of Universi- 
ties 

International Bureau of Education 

International Bank for Economic Co- 
operation 

International Bank for Reconstruction 
and Development (World Bank) 

International Co-operative Alliance 

International Civil Aviation Organiza- 
tion 

International Chamber of Commerce 

Inter-Governmental Committee for 
European Migration 


xv 



ABBREVIATIONS 


I.C.F.T.U. 

. . International Confederation of Free 
Trade Unions 

I.C.S. . . 

. . Indian Civil Service 

ICSU .. 

. . International Council of Scientific 
Unions 

IDA . . 

. . International Development Association 

IDB - • 

. . Inter-American Development Bank 

1 FBWW 

. . International Federation of Building 
and Woodworkers 

IFC 

. . International Finance Corporation 

IFCTU . . 

. . International Federation of Christian 
Trade Unions 

IFPCW. . 

. . International Federation of Petroleum 
and Chemical Workers 

ILO - . 

. . International Labour Organization 

IMCO . . 

, . Inter-Governmental Maritime Consul- 
tative Organization 

IMF . . 

International Monetary Fund; Inter- 
national Metalworkers’ Federation 

I.M.S. .. 

Indian Medical Service 

in. (ins.) 

inch (inches) 

Inc.,Incorp.,I 

ncd. Incorporated 

incl. 

including 

Ing. 

. . Ingenieur 

Insp. 

. . Inspector 

Int. 

. . International 

INTELSAT 

. . International Telecommunications Sat- 
telite Corporation 

INTERPOL 

. . International Criminal Police Investi- 
gation 

IOE .. 

. . International Organisation of Em- 
ployers 

IPI 

. . International Press Institute 

IPU .. 

. . International Parliamentary Union 

Is. 

. . Islands 

ISLWF 

. . International Shoe and Leather Wor- 
kers' Federation 

ISVS . . 

. . International Secretariat for Volunteer 
Service 

ITA 

. . Independent Television Authority 
. . International Transport Workers’ Fed- 
eration 

ITF .. 

ITGWF 

International Textile and Garment 
Workers’ Federation 

ITU .. 

. . International Telecommunication 
Union 

IUF .. 

International Union of Food and Allied 
Workers' Associations 

Jan. 

. . January 

Jnr. 

. . Junior 

J.P. .. 

. . Justice of the Peace 

Jr. 

. . Jonkheer (Netherlands) 

K.B.E. . . 

. . Knight Commander of (the Order of) 
the British Empire 

K.C.B. 

. . Knight Commander of (the Order of) 
the Bath 

K.C.M.G. 

. . Knight Commander of (the Order of) 
St. Michael and St. George 

K.C.S.I. 

. . Knight Commander of the Star of 
India 

KX.V.O. 

. . Knight Commander of the Royal 
Victorian Order 

Kg. 

. . Kilogram 

K.G. . . 

. . Knight of (the Order of) the Garter: 
Kommandit Gesellschaft 

K.L.M. 

. . Koninklijke Luchtvaart Maatschappij 
N.V. (Royal Dutch Airlines) 

km. 

. . kilometre 


Kr. 

kWh. 

kW.(s) 


Krone (Denmark, Norway), Krdnur 
(Iceland), Krona (Sweden) 
kilowatt hours 
kilowatt(s) 


LAFTA 

lb. 

L.C.P. .. 
Libr. . . 
L. 6s L... 
Litt.D. .. 
L.L. . . 
LL.B. .. 
LL.D. 
LL.M. .. 
L.R.A.M. 

D.R.C.P. 

Lt., Lieut. 
Ltd. 

L.Th. . . 


Latin American Free Trade Association 
pounds 

Licentiate of the College of Preceptors 

Librarian 

Licencie 6s Iettres 

Doctor of Letters 

Limited Liability 

Bachelor of Laws 

Doctor of Laws 

Master of Laws 

Licentiate of the Royal Academy of 
Music 

Licentiate of the Royal College of 
Physicians 
Lieutenant 
Limited 

Licentiate in Theology 


m. 

M.A. . . 

M.A.(Oxon) 

man. 

March. . . 
Maths. 

M.B. . . 
M.B.E. . . 

m-b.H. . . 

M.B.O.U. 

M.Ch. . . 

M.Com. 

M.Cons.E. 

Mc/s 

M.D. . . 

M.Ed. 
mem. . . 
Mem.A.S.M.E. . 

mfrs. 

Mgr. 

M.I.Biol. 
M.I.Brit.E. 
M.I.C.E. 
M.I.Chem.E. . 

M.I.E.E. 

M.I.Fire.E. . 

Mil. 

M.I.Loco.E. 

M.I.Mar.E. 

M.I.Mech.E. 

M.I.Min.E. 

M.I.M.M. 

M.I.Mun.E. 

M.Inst.C.E. 


million 

Master of Arts 
Master of Arts (Oxford) 
manager, managing 
Marchese 
Mathematics 
Bachelor of Medicine 
Member of (the Order of) the British 
Empire 

mit besclirankter Haftung (limited 
liability) 

Member British Ornithologists Union 
Master of Surgery 
Master of Commerce 
Member of Association of Consulting 
Engineers 

megacycles per second 
Doctor of Medicine 
Master of Education 
member 

Member of the American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers 
manufacturers 
Monseigueur; Monsignor 
Member of the Institute of Biology 
Member Institute of British Engineers 
Member Institution Civil Engineers 
Member of the Institution of Chemical 
Engineers 

Member of the Institution of Electrical 
Engineers 

Member of the Institution of Fire 
Engineers 
Military 

Member of Institution of Locomotive 
Engineers 

Member of the Institute of Marine 
Engineers 

Member of the Institution of Mechani- 
cal Engineers 

Member Institution of Mining Engi- 
neers 

Member of the Institute of Mining and 
Metallurgy 

Member Institution of Municipal Engi- 
neers 

Member of Institution of Civil Engi- 
neers (changed Feb, 1946 to M.I.C.E). 


xvi 


ABBREVIATIONS 


M.lnst.E. 
M.InstGas.E. . 

M.Inst.N.A, . 

M.Inst.Pet. 
M.Inst.P.I. . 

M.Inst.T. 
M.I.Prod.E. . 

M.I.R.E. 

M.I.Struct.E. . 

M.I.W.E. 

Mile. . . 

' M.M. . . 

Mme. . . 

M.P. . . 
M.R.C.P. 

M.R.C.S. 

M.R.C.V.S. 

M.R.I.A. 

M.Sc. . . 
M.Sc.Tcch. 

MSS . . 

m. t. 

M.Th. . . 
Mus.B. . . 
Mus.D. . . 
M.V.O. . . 

M. V.Sc... 
m\Vh. . . 

N. 

n. a. 

NATO . . 
n.e.s. 

N.I. 

No. 

NORDITA . 

Nov. . . 

nr. 

n.r.t. 

NTS . . 

N.V. . . 

N. Z. . . 

OAMPI . . 

OAS . . 

CAP . . 

O, 1V . . 
0.1VE. .. 

OC\M .. 

Cc. 

OPF.CA 
OECD .. 
oi- i-a: , . 

DPi'K . , 


Member of the Institution of Engineers 
Member of the Institution of Gas 
Engineers 

Member of the Institution of Naval 
Architects 

Member of the Institute of Petroleum 
Member of the Institute of Patentees 
and Inventors 

Member of the Institute of Technology 
Member of Institution of Production 
Engineers 

Member of the Institution of Radio 
Engineers 

Member of the Institution of Structural 
Engineers 

Member of the Institution of Water 
Engineers 
Mademoiselle 
Military Medal 
Madame 

Member of Parliament 
Member of the Royal College of Physi- 
cians 

Member Royal College of Surgeons 
Member of the Royal College of Veteri- 
nary Surgeons 

Member of the Royal Irish Academy 

Master of Science 

Master of Technical Science 

Manuscripts 

metric tons 

Master of Theology 

Bachelor of Music 

Doctor of Music 

Member of the Royal Victorian Order 
Master of Veterinary Science 
megawatt hour 

North, Northern 
not available 

North Atlantic Treaty Organisation 
not elsewhere specified 
Northern Ireland 
number 

Nordic Institute for Theoretic Atomic 
Physics 

November ! 

near 

net registered tons 

Nederlandse Rndto-Unic I 

Nnamlozc Vennootschap (Limited Com- j 
pany) j 

New Zealand l 

Office Afrirain ct Malgachc de la j 
Proprv'te Industriclle j 

Organization of American Stater, ; 

Organization of African Unity 
Outside Broadcasts 

Officer of (the Order o() the Britirh j 
Empire ■ 

Orrasn'-ati'ui Onimmui'- Africaint: <t , 
Malrncho i 

Oct rd Tr 

Orgamracfi'n de Estadon Centre .imtri- ! 
canes 

Ort’an.i'ation. for Economic Co-e:'- ra- 
tion. ami PrVrIapir.rnt , 

Orgsmmtmn for European Ecenomm , 
Co-operation 

O: -ani-ovtian Kuropeer.m* de C,vnp : ra- 
ts-n Fcor.or.tique 


O.F.M. . . 

Order of Friars Minor (Ordo Fru 


Mir.orum) 

OIRT . . 

International Radio and Tclev 


Orcanisation 

O.M. .. 

Member of the Order of Merit 

Or.. 

Onorevolc (Honourable! 

O.P. 

Order of Preachers (Dominicans) 

OPEC .. 

. - Organization of the Petroleum Exi 


ing Countries 

O.S.B. .. 

. . Order of St. Benedict 

p.a. 

. . per annum 

P.C. 

. . Priw Counsellor 

P.E.N. 

Poets, Playwrights, Essayists, Ed 


Novelists (Club) 

Pfr. 

. . Pfarrcr (Paster) 

Ph.D. . . 

. . Doctor of Philosophy 

Philos. . . 

Philosophy; Philosophical 

Phvs. 

. . Phvsics 

P.K. . . 

. . Post Box (Turkish) 

pi. 

. . platz. place, pjoshchad (square) 

P.O. Box 

. . Post Office Box 

polit. 

political 

P.P.R.A. 

Past President of the Koval Acr.de 

P.P.R.I.B.A. 

Past President Itoval Institute Br 


Architects 

P.R.A. 

. . President of the Roval Academy 

Pres. 

. . President 

Prof. 

. . Professor 

Propr. . . 

Proprietor 

Prov. . . 

. . Provisional. Provinciale (Dutch! 

P.R.S.A. 

. . President of the Royal Scottish .• 


demv 

PSI 

. . Public Services International 

FIT .. 

. . Posts, Telegraph, Telephones 

p.u. 

paid up 

publ. 

. . publication 

Q.C. .. 

Queen’s Counsel 

O.H.P. . . 

. . Honorary Physician of the Queer. 

Q.H.S. .. 

Queen's Honorary Surgeon 

q.v. 

quod vide 

R.A. . . 

Roval Academician: Roval Acadetr 

R.A.C. .. 

Roval Automobile Club 

R.A.D.A. 

Roval Academy of Dramatic Art 

Rag. (Comm.) 

Ranraierc (Commcrcialc) 

R.A. I'. .. 

Roval Air Force 

RAI 

. . Radiot-levisionc It.nliann 

R.A.M. . . 

. . Mrnilx’r of Kov.'il Accu!*rov of M*; 1 i 

K.C.D. .. 

Regional Co-operation for D*. 

R.D.I. .. 

Roval Designer fer Industry 

R.E. . . 

Roval Engineers 

Ref. 

K^f’*rcnc^ 

rt-g., rend. 

X~C "r* 

R E.N.F.E. 

I>.i ^ c * F ri-'l 1 <!‘ 4 * Q s, * 'e J-Jir i.** n y 


Jv’PnVvi'T- { N * : o r. * 4 fJV t v- f '? *. 



Hep. 

. R’-pub'.iz 

rep. 


reorr* 

r<: 


rr': vr* 

Trtd. . . 


Rev. 

. SN\r:-r.! 

R I. 




K.N.V.E 

jVvr.i N.v. at V, :• r.r--r 

K N K. . 

Ktv.-d Nav. * 

n o.j 

. K-VZ.1 Ivtltutr i f O ; f Pv t—. 

Rn 

. Rv:v~. 

K-B C 

Tbv.-.i O r* 


abbreviations 


R.S.F.S.R. 

R.S.R. 


RTB • • 
RTF . . 
Rt. Hon. 
Rt. 

R.W.S . 


Russian Soviet Federative Socialist 
Republic 

Republica Socialists Romania (Socialist 
Republic of Romania) 
Radiodiffusion-Tdlevision Beige 
Radiodifiusion-T<516vision Franfaise 
Right Honourable 
Right 

Royal Society of Painters in Water 
Colours 


U.A.R. .. 
UDEAC 


UDEAO 

Uff. 

UFI .. 

Ul. 

UN 

UNCDF 


s. 

. . South, Southern, San. 

S.A. 

. . Socicte anonyme (Limited Company) 

S.Af. . . 

. . South Africa 

SAS 

. . Scandinavian Airlines System 

Sat. 

Saturday 

SCAR .. 

. . Scandinavian Council for Applied 
Research; Scientific Committee on 
Antarctic Research 

SCOR .. 

. . Scientific Committee on Oceanic Re- 
search 

Scot. 

. . Scotland, Scottish 

Sc.D. . . 

. . Doctor of Science 

SEATO.. 

. . South-East Asia Treaty Organisation 

Sec. 

. . Secretary 

Sen. 

. . Senior 

Sept. 

. . September 

S.E.R. .. 

Sua Eccellenza Rcvcrcndissima (His 
Eminence) 

Sig. 

. . Signore 

S.J. .. 

. . Society of Jesus (Jesuits) 

Soc. 

. . Socialist 

S.p.A. .. 

. . Socicta per Azioni (Joint Stock Com- 
panv) 

sq. 

. . square 

S.S.R. .. 

. . Socialist Soviet Republic 

St. 

Saint; Street 

S.T.D. .. 

Sacrac Thcologiae Doctor (Doctor of 
Sacred Theology) 

STRC . 

. . Scientific, Technical and Research 
Commission 

stds. 

. . standards (timber measurement) 

Ste. 

. . Sainte 

subs. 

. . subscriptions 

Supt. 

. . Superintendent 


T.A.P. 

TASS 

T.C. 

T.D. 


techn. 

Tliurs. 

Tit. 

Trras. 

T.U. 

T.U.C. 

Tues. 

T.U.F. 

T.V. 


Transportes Acreos Portugueses (Portu- 
guese Air Transport) 

Telcgrafnoyc Agcnstvo Sovictskogo 
Soiura (Soviet News Agency) 
Technical College; Training Centre 
Territorial Decoration; Tcalta D&i! 

(Member of the Ddil) 
technical 
Thursday 
Titular 
Treasurer 
Trade Union 
Trades Union Congress 
Tuesday 

Trade Union Federation 
Television 


UNCTAD 

UNCURIC 


UNDP .. 

UNEF .. 
UNESCO 

UNFICYP 

UNHCR 

UNICEF 

UNIDO 

UNITAR 

UNMEM 

UNMOGIP 

UNRWA 


UNTSO 

U.K. . . 
U.P. . . 
UPU . . 
U.S.A. (U.S.) 

U.S.S.R. 


VEB .. 
VHF .. 
viz. 

V.M.H. 
vol.(s) . . 


W. 

W.C.C. . . 
Wed. . . 
WEU . . 
WFP . . 
W.F.T.U. 
W.F.U.N.A. 

WHO . . 
WMO . . 


• • unit of account (European Monetary I yr 

Agreement) i 

UAMPT .. Union Africaine et Malgache des Pastes l 

- ! Tvl'comrnunications. ! 7 . ! 


United Arab Republic 
Union Douaniere Economique de 
l’Afrique Centrale 

Union Douaniere Economique dc 
l’Afrique de l’Ouest 
Ufficiale (Official, Officer) 

Union of International Fairs 
Ulitsa (Street) 

United Nations 

United Nations Capital Development 
Fund 

United Nations Conference on Trade 
and Development 

United Nations Commission for the 
Unification and Rehabilitation of 
Korea 

United Nations Development Pro- 
gramme 

United Nations Emergency Force 
United Nations Educational, Scientific 
and Cultural Organisation 
United Nations Peace-Keeping Force 
in Cyprus 

United Nations High Commissioner 
for Refugees 

United Nations Children’s Fund 
United Nations Industrial Development 
Organization 

United Nations Institute for Training 
and Research 

United Nations Middle East Mission 
United Nations Military Observer 
Group for India and Pakistan 
United Nations Relief and Works 
Agency for Palestine Refugees in the 
Near East 

United Nations Truce Supervision 
Organization 
United Kingdom 
United Press 
Universal Postal Union 
United States of America (United 
States) 

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 

Volkseigcner Betrieb 
Very High Frequency 
videlicet 

Victoria Medal of Honour (Royal 
Horticultural Society) 
volume(s) 


. West, Western 
• World Council of Churches 
. Wednesday 
. Western European Union 
World Food Programme 
. World Federation of Trade Unions 
. World Federation of United Nations 
Associations 

World Health Organization 
. World Meteorological Organization 


. . year 


Zloty 



PART I 


INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 



THE UNITED NATIONS 

First Avenue, New York City, New York, U.S.A. 


Founded in 1945 to maintain international peace and security and to develop international 
co-operation in economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems. 



THE UNITED NATIONS CHARTER 


PREAMBLE 


We the peoples of the United Nations determined 

to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our 
lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind, and 

To reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of 
the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large 
and small, and 

to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations 
arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, 
and 

to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom, 


A nd for these ends 

to practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good 
neighbours, and 

to unite our strength to maintain international peace and security, and 

to ensure, by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that 
armed force shall not be used, save in the common interest, and 

to employ international machinery for the promotion of the economic and social 
advancement of all peoples. 


Have resolved to combine our efforts to accomplish these aims 

Accordingly, our respective governments, through representatives assembled 
in the city of San Francisco, who have exhibited their full powers found to be in 
good and "due form, have agreed to the present Charter of the United Nations and 
do hereby establish an international organization to be known ns the United Nations. 


1 



THE UNITED NATIONS 


ORIGIN 


The United Nations was a name devised by President 
Franklin D. Roosevelt. It was first used in the Declaration 
by United Nations of January ist, 1942, when representa- 
tives of twenty-six nations pledged their governments to 
continue fighting together against the Axis powers. 

The United Nations Charter was drawn up by the 
representatives of fifty countries at the United Nations 
Conference on International Organization, which met at 
San Francisco from April 25th to June 26th, 1945. The 
representatives deliberated on the basis of proposals 
worked out by representatives of China, the U.S.S.R., the 


United Kingdom and the United States at Dumbarton 
Oaks in August-October 1944. The Charter was signed on 
June 26th, 1945. Poland, not represented at the Confer- 
ence, signed it later but nevertheless became one of the 
original fifty-one members. 

The United Nations officially came into existence on 
October 24th, 1945, when the Charter had been ratified by 
China, France, the U.S.S.R., the United Kingdom and the 
United States, and by a majority of other signatories. 
October 24th is now universally celebrated as United 
Nations Day. 


PURPOSES AND PRINCIPLES 


The purposes of the United Nations are: 

To maintain international peace and security; 

To develop friendly relations among nations; 

To co-opcratc internationally in solving international 
economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems 
and in promoting respect for human rights and 
fundamental freedoms; 

To be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations in 
attaining these common ends. 

The United Nations acts in accordance with these principles: 

It is based on the sovereign equality of all its members. 

All members arc to fulfil in good faith their Charter 
obligations. 

They are to settle their international disputes by 
peaceful means and without endangering peace, 
security and justice 

They are to refrain in their international relations from 
the threat or use of force against other states. 

They arc to give the United Nations every assistance in 
action it takes in accordance with the Charter, and 
not to assist states against which preventive or 
enforcement action is being taken. 

The United Nations is to ensure that states which are 
not members act in accordance with these principles 
in so far ar, it is necessary to maintain international 
peace and security. 


Nothing in the Charter is to authorize the United 
Nations to intervene in matters which are purely the 
national concern of any state. 

The official languages of the United Nations are Chinese, 
English, French, Russian and Spanish. Its working 
languages are English and French. Spanish is also a 
working language of the General Assembly and of 
the Economic and Social Council. 

Membership of the United Nations is open to all peace- 
loving nations which accept the obligations of the 
United Nations Charter and, in the judgment of the 
Organization, are able and willing to carry out these 
obligations. 


The original members of the United Nations are those 
countries which signed the Declaration by United 
Nations of January ist, 1942, or took part in the 

Conference, and which signed and 
ratified the Charter. 


Other countries can be admitted by the General 
Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security 
Council. 3 


Members may he suspended or expelled by the General 
Assembly on recommendation of the Security 
Council. They may be suspended if the Security 
Council is taking enforcement action against them 
or expelled if they persistently violate the orincinles 
of the Charter. The Security Council can restore its 
rights to a suspended member. ' ' 



THE UNITED NATIONS 


MEMBERS, CONTRIBUTIONS, YEAR OF ADMISSION 

(% contribution to UN Budget for 1968) 


Afghanistan . 




O.O4 

1946 

Laos . 




O.O4 

1955 

Albania 




O.O4 

1955 

Lebanon 




. O.Oj 

1915 

Algeria 




O. IO 

1962 

Lesotho 




O 

6 

1966 

Argentina . 




0-93 

1945 

Liberia 




0.04 

1945 

Australia 




1-52 

1955 

Libya . 




0.04 

1955 

Austria 




0.57 

1945 

Luxembourg 




0.05 

19-15 

Barbados 




0.04 

1966 

Madagascar . 




0.04 

i960 

Belgium 




I.IO 

1945 

Malawi 




0.04 

196-1 

Bolivia 




0.04 

1945 

Malaysia 




0.11 

1957 

Botswana 




0.04 

19G6 

Maidive Islands 




0.04 

1965 

Brazil . 




0.89 

1945 

Mali . 




0.04 

i960 

Bulgaria 




0.18 

1955 

Malta . 




0.04 

1964 

Burma 




0.06 

1948 

Mauritania . 




0.04 

1961 

Burundi 




0.04 

1962 

Mexico 




0.87 

1945 

Byelorussian S.S.R. 



0.51 

1945 

Mongolia 




0.04 

1961 

Cambodia . 

. 



0.04 

1955 

Morocco 




0. 10 

1956 

Cameroon 

. 



0.04 

i960 

Nepal . 




0.04 

T 955 

Canada 

• 



3.02 

1945 

Netherlands . 




i.rG 

1945 

Central African Republic 


0.04 

i960 

New Zealand 




0.36 

1945 

Ceylon 


. 


0.06 

1955 

Nicaragua . 




0.04 

1945 

Chad . 


. 


0.04 

i960 

Niger . 




0.04 

i960 

Chile . 


. 


0.23 

1945 

Nigeria 




0.14 

i960 

China (Taiwan) 


. 


4.00 

1945 

Norway 




0.43 

1945 

Colombia 


. 


0.20 

1945 

Pakistan 




o *37 

1947 

Congo (Brazzaville) 

. 


O.O4 

i960 

Panama 




0.04 

1945 

Congo (Democratic Republic of) 

0.05 

i960 

Paraguay 




0.04 

1945 

Costa Rica . 




O.O4 

1945 

Peru . 




0. 10 

1945 

Cuba . 




0.19 

1945 

Philippines . 




o. 3 *l 

1945 

Cyprus 




O.O4 

i960 

Poland 




1.47 

1945 

Czechoslovakia 




O.92 

1945 

Portugal 




0. iG 

1955 

Dahomey 




O.O4 

i960 

Romania 




0.36 

1955 

Denmark 




0.62 

1945 

Rwanda 




0.04 

1962 

Dominican Republic 



O.O4 

1945 

Saudi Arabia 




0.05 

1945 

Ecuador 




0 

0 

1945 

Senegal 




0.04 

i960 

El Salvador . 




0.04 

1945 

Sierra Leone 




0.04 

1961 

Ethiopia 




0.04 

1945 

Singapore 




0.05 

1965 

Finland 




0.49 

1955 

Somalia 




0.04 

i960 

France 




6.00 

1945 

South Africa 




0.52 

1945 

Gabon 




0.04 

19G0 

Southern Yemen 




— 

1967 

Gambia 




0.04 

1965 

Spain . 




0.02 

1955 

Ghana 




0.08 

1957 

Sudan . 




0.05 

1956 

Greece 




0.29 

1945 

Sweden 




1*25 

1946 

Guatemala . 




0.05 

1945 

Syria . 




0.04 

1945 

Guinea 




0.04 

195 s 

Tanzania (United 

Republic of) 

O.O4 

1961 

Guyana 




0.04 

1966 

Thailand 

- 



0.13 

1946 

Haiti . 




0.04 

1945 

Togo . 

. 



O.O.J 

i960 

Honduras 




0.04 

1945 

Trinidad and Tobago 



0.04 

1962 

Hungary 




0.52 

1955 

Tunisia 




0.04 

I 95 6 

Iceland 




0.04 

1946 

Turkey 




0.35 

1045 

India . 




1.74. 

1945 

Uganda 




O.O.J 

1962 

Indonesia 




o .34 

195 ° 

Ukrainian S.S.R. 




3 *93 

1945 

Iran . 




0.22 

1945 

U. S.S.R. 




1 4 . 6 1 

5 945 

Iraq . 




0.07 

1945 

United Arab Republic 



0.20 

1915 

'Ireland 




0.17 

1955 

United Kingdom 




6.62 

'945 

Israel . 




0.20 

1949 

United States 




33*37 

1945 

Italy . 




3-24 

1955 

Upper Volta 




0.04 

i960 

Ivory Coast . 




0.04 

i960 

Uruguay 




0.00 

» 9 l 5 

Jamaica 




0.05 

1962 

Venezuela 




0.45 

'945 

Japan . 




3.78 

195 ^ 

Yemen 




0.04 

' 9(7 

Jordan 




0.04 

«955 

Yugoslavia . 




0 . 4 0 

'045 

Kenya 




0.04 

1963 

Zambia 



• 

0 . 0 j 

1 06 4 

Kuwait 




0.07 

1063 

Tot.m. Mr.v. 


ir 

1:3 (Ja 

nti ary r 



THE UNITED NATIONS 


PERMANENT MISSIONS TO THE UNITED NATIONS 


Afghanistan: 200 East 42nd St., 17th Floor, New York, 
N.Y'. 1 001 7. 

Albania: 446 East S6th St., 10th Floor, New York, NA. 


1002S. 

Algeria: 750 Third Ave., 14th Floor, New York, N.Y. 10017. 
Argentina : 300 East 42nd St., 18th Floor, New York, N.Y. 
10017. 

Australia: 750 Third Ave., 22nd Floor, New York, N.Y. 
10017. 

Austria: 14 East OSth St., New York, N.Y. 10021. 
Barbados: 8 ox Second Ave., 2nd Floor, New York, N.Y. 
10017. 

Belgium: 809 United Nations Plaza, 2nd Floor, New York, 
N.Y. 1 001 7. 

Bolivia: 211 East 43rd St., nth Floor, New York, N.Y. 


10017. 

Botswana: S66 United Nations Plaza, Room 498, New 
York, N.Y. 10017. 

Brasil: C05 Third Ave., 16th Floor, New York, N.Y. 10016. 
Bulgaria: 22 East 73rd St., New York, N.Y. 10022. 
Burma: 10 East 77th St., New York, N.Y. 1002 1. 
Burundi: 60 East 42nd St., Room 763, New Y'ork, N.Y. 


10017. 

Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic: 136 East 67th St., 
New York, N.Y. 10021. 

Cambodia: S45 Third Ave., 20th Floor, New York, N.Y. 
10022. 

Cameroon: S66 United Nations Plaza, Room 650, New 
Y'ork, N.Y'. 10017. 

Canada: 750 Third Ave., 28th Floor, New York, N.Y’. 10017. 

Central African Republic: 386 Park Ave. South, Room 
1614, New Y'ork, N.Y’. 10016. 

Ceylon: 630 Third Ave., 20th Floor, New Y'ork, NA’. 10017. 

Chad: 150 East 52nd St., Apartment 5C, New York, NAY 
10022. 

Chile: 211 East 43rd St., Room 2001, New York, NAY 1001 7. 

China, Republic of ( Taiwan ) : 201 East 42nd St., 15th Floor, 
New Y'ork, NA’. 10017. 

Colombia: 140 East 57th St., 5th Floor, New Y'ork, NAY 
10022 . 

Congo (Brazzaville): 444 Madison Ave., Room 1604, New 
York, NAY 10017. 

Congo (Democratic Republic) : 21 1 East 43rd St., 14th Floor, 
New Y'ork, NA’. 1001 7. 

Costa Rica: zn East 43rd St., Room 2002, New Y’ork, 
NAY 1001 7. 

Cuba: 6 East 07th St., New Y’ork, NAY 10021. 

Cyprus: 105 East 72nd St., Apartment 19J, New Y'ork, 
NAY 10021. 

C zeckoslorakia : 1 109-1 1 1 1 Madison Ave., New Y’ork, NAY 
10028 

Dahomey 4 East 73rd St., New Y’ork, NA’. 10021. 

Denmark: 235 East 42nd St., 32nd Floor, New Y’ork, NAY 
1 001 7. 

Dominican Republic 144 East 44th St., 4th Floor, New 
Y’ork, NAY 10017. 

AY a. -i dor: fYo Second Ave.. 15th Floor, New Y’ork, NAY 
1001 7. 

El Salvador: 211 East 43rd St., 19th Floor, New York, 
10017. 

Ethiopia: S 00 United Nations Plaza, Room 560. New Y’ork, 
NAY 1001 7. 

Finland: 866 United Nations Plaza, 2nd Floor, New Y’ork, 
NAY 1001 7. 

France: 4 East 79th St., New Y’ork, NA". 10021. 

Gabon: 866 United Nations Plaza, Room 536, New Y’ork, 
NAY 10017. 

Gambia: (not yet established, December 1967). 

China: 144 East 44th St., New Y’ork, NAY 10017. 


Greece: 69 East 79th St., New York, N.Y. 10021. 
Guatemala: 205 East 42nd St., Room 1320, New Y’ork, 
NA’. 10017. 

Guinea: 17 East 73rd St., New York, N.Y. 10021. 

Guyana: 355 Lexington Ave., New York, N.Y'. 

Haiti: 801 Second Ave., Room 300, New York, N.Y. 10017. 
Honduras: 290 Madison Ave., Room 603, New York, N.Y. 
10017. 

Hungary: 10 East 75th St., New Y’ork, N.Y. 10021. 
Iceland: 420 Lexington Ave., New Y'ork, NAY 10017. 
India: 3 East 64th St., New York, N.Y. 10021. 

Indonesia: 5 East 68th St., New Y’ork, N.Y. 

Iran: 777 Third Ave., 26th Floor, New York, NA’. 10017, 
Iraq: 14 East 79th St., New Y'ork, N.Y. 10021. 

Ireland: 866 United Nations Plaza, Suite 520-1, New York, 
N.Y. 1001 7. 

Israel: 11 East 70th St., New York, N.Y. 10021. 

Italy: 809 United Nations Plaza, 3rd Floor, New York, 
N.Y. 10017. 

Ivory Coast: 46 East 74th St., New York, N.Y. 10021. 
Jamaica: 235 East 42nd St., New York, N.Y. 10017. 
Japan: 866 United Nations Plaza, 2nd Floor, New York, 
NA’. 10017. 

Jordan: 866 United Nations Plaza, Room 550-552, New 
Y’ork, NA’. 10017. 

Kenya: 866 United Nations Plaza, Room 486, New Y'ork, 
N.Y. 1 001 7. 

Kuwait: 235 East 42nd St., 27th Floor, New Y’ork, N.Y. 
10017. 

Laos: 321 East 45th St., Apartment 7G, New Y’ork, N.Y. 
10017. 

Lebanon: 866 United Nations Plaza, Room 533-535, New 
York, NA’. 10017. 

Lesotho: 866 United Nations Plaza, Suite 580, New Y’ork, 
NA’. 1001 7. 

Liberia: 235 East 42nd St., New York, N.Y. 10017. 
Libya: 866 United Nations Plaza, New York, NA’. 10017. 
Luxembourg: 200 East 42nd St., New York, N.Y. 10017. 
Madagascar: 301 East 47th St., Apartment 2H, New Y’ork, 
N.Y’. 10017. 

Malawi 2777 Third Ave.. 24th Floor, New York, N.Y. 10017. 
Malaysia: S45 Third Ave., 16th Floor, New York, N.Y. 
10022 . 

Maldivc Islands: The Maldivian Philatelic Agency, Penn- 
sylvania Building, 225 West 34th St., New York, N.Y. 
roooi. 

Mali: 111 East 69th St., New Y’ork, N.Y’. 10021. 

Malta: 155 East 44th St., 22nd Floor, New York, NA’. 
10017. 

Mauritania: 150 East 52nd St., New York, N.Y. 10022. 
Mexico: 8 East 41st St., New Y’ork, N.Y. 10017. 
Mongolia: 6 East 77th St., New Y’ork, N.Y. 10021. 
Morocco: 757 Third Ave., 23rd Floor, New York, N.Y. 
1 001 7. 

Nepal: Envoy Towers, 300 East 46th St., Suite 14T New 
Y’ork, N.Y. 1001 7. 

Netherlands: 711 Third Ave., iSth Floor, New Y’ork, N.Y’. 
10017. 

New Zealand: 733 Third Ave., 22nd Floor, New Y’ork, 
N.Y’. 1 001 7. 

Nicaragua: Rockefeller Center, 1270 Ave. of the Americas 
Suite iSiS, New York, N.Y. 10020. 

Niger: S66 United Nations Plaza, Suite 570, New Y’ork, 
NA’. 1 001 7. 

Nigeria: 757 Third Ave., 20th Floor, New Y’ork, 10017. 

No rway : 757 Third Ave. , 1 4th Floor, New Y ork, N A’. 1 001 7. 
Pakistan: Pakistan House, 8 East 65th St., New Y’ork, 
N.Y. X0021. 


■I 



THE UNITED NATIONS 


Panama: 866 United Nations Plaza, Room 544—545, New 
York, N.Y. 10017. 

Paraguay: 211 East 43rd St., nth Floor, New York, N.Y. 
10017. 

Peru: 301 East 47th St., Room 16 A, New York, N.Y. 10017. 
Philippines : 13 East 66th St., New York, N.Y. 10021. 
Poland: 9 East 66th St., New York, N.Y. 10021. 

Portugal: Rockefeller Center, 630 Fifth Ave., Suite 2170, 
New York, N.Y. 10020. 

Romania: 60 East 93rd St., New York, N.Y. 10028. 
Rwanda: 120 East 56th St., Room 630, New York, N.Y. 
10022. 

Saudi Arabia: 633 Third Ave., Suite 2321, New York, 
N.Y. 1001 7. 

Senegal: 46 East 66th St., New York, N.Y. 10021. 

Sierra Leone: 30 East 42nd St., Room 608, New York, 
N.Y. 10017. 

Singapore: 711 Third Ave., nth Floor, New York, N.Y. 
10017. 

Somalia: 236 East 46th St., 3rd Floor, New York, N.Y. 
10017. 

South Africa: 300 East 42nd St., 17th Floor, New York, 
N.Y. 10017. 

Spain: 820 Second Ave., 17th Floor, New York, N.Y. 10017. 
Sudan: 757 Third Ave., 12th Floor, New York, N.Y. 10017. 
Sweden .'757 Third Ave., 16th Floor, New York, N.Y. 10017. 
Syrian Arab Republic: 757 Third Ave., Room 2505, New 
York, N.Y. 10017. 


Tanzania: 205 East 42nd St., Room 1300, New York, 
N.Y. 1001 7. 

Thailand: 20 East 82nd St., New York, N.Y. 10028. 

Togo: 801 Second Ave., New York, N.Y. 1001 7. 

Trinidad and Tobago: 801 Second Ave., New York, N.Y. 
10017. 

Tunisia: 40 East 71st St., New York, N.Y. 10021. 
Turkey: 866 United Nations Plaza, Suite 525, New York, 
N.Y. 10017. 

Uganda: 801 Second Ave., New York, N.Y. 10017. 
Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic: 136 East 67th St., 
New York, N.Y. 10021. 

U.S.S.R.: 136 East 67th St., New York, N.Y. 10021. 
United Arab Republic: 900 Park Ave., New York, N.Y. 
1002 1 . 

United Kingdom: 845 Third Ave., 10th Floor, New York, 
N.Y. 10022. 

U.S.A.: 799 United Nations Plaza, New York, N.Y. 10017. 
Upper Volta: 236 East 46th St., New York, N.Y. 10017. 
Uruguay: 301 East 47th St., Room 19 A, New York, N.Y. 
10017. 

Venezuela: 521 Park Ave., Apartment gB, New York, 
N.Y. 10021. 

Yemen: 21 1 East 43rd St., 19th Floor, New York, N.Y. 
10017. 

Yugoslavia: 854 Fifth Ave., New York, N.Y. 10021. 
Zambia: 641 Lexington Ave., New York, N.Y. 10022. 


OBSERVERS 


Federal Republic of Germany: 405 Lexington Ave., 56th 
Floor, Chrysler Building, New York, N.Y. 10017. 

Holy See: Holy Family Rectory, 323 East 47th St., New 
York, N.Y. 10017. 

Republic of Korea: 866 United Nations Plaza, 5th Floor, 
New York, N.Y". 1001 6. 


Monaco: 610 Fifth Ave., New York, N.Y. 10020. 
Switzerland: 757 Third Ave., Room 2x20, New York, 
N.Y. 1001 7. 

Republic of Viel-Nam : 866 United Nations Plaza, 5th Floor, 
New York, N.Y. 10017. 


U.N. INFORMATION CENTRES 


Afghanistan: Shah Mahmoud Ghazi Square, Kabul; P.O. 
Box 5. 

Algeria: 19 Avenue Claude Debussy, Algiers; P.O. Box 803. 
Argentina: Charcas 684, 3er piso, Buenos Aires. 

Australia: 44 Martin Place, Sydney; P.O. Box 4030, G.P.O. 
Bolivia: Avenida Arce No. 2419, La Paz; P.O.B. 686. 
Brazil: Rua Mexico 11, Rio de Janeiro; P.O. Box 1750. 
Burma: 24B Manawhari Road, Rangoon. 

Burundi: Avenue de la Poste et Place Jungers, Bujumbura; 
P.O. Box 1490. 

Cameroon: Yaounde, P.O. Box 836. 

Ceylon: 204 Buller’s Road, Colombo 7; P.O. Box 1505. 
Chile: Edificio Naciones Unides, Avenida Dag Hammer- 
skjold, Santiago. 

Colombia: Calle 19, No. 7-30, Septimo Piso, Bogota; P.O. 
Box 6567. 

Congo ( Democratic Republic of): Royal Hotel, Boulevard 
Albert, Kinshasa; P.O.B. 7248. 

Czechoslovakia: Panska 5, Prague 1. 

Denmark: 37 H. C. Andersen’s Boulevard, Copenhagen V. 
El Salvador: Avenida Roosevelt 2818, San Salvador; 
P.O.B. 1114. 

Ethiopia: Africa Hall, Addis Ababa; P.O.B. 3001. 

France : 26 Avenue de Segur, Paris 7. 

Ghana: Maxwell Road and Liberia Road, Accra; P.O. 
Box 2339. 

Greece: 36 Amalia Ave., Athens 119. 


India: 21 Curzon Road, New Delhi. 

Iran: Kh. Takhte-Jamshid, 12 Kh. Bandar Pahlavi, 
Teheran; P.O.B. 1555. 

Iraq: 27J2/1 Abu Nouwas St., Bataween, Baghdad; P.O.B. 
2048, Alwiyah. 

Italy: Palazzetto Venezia, Piazza San Marco 50, Rome. 
Ivory Coast: Abidjan [to be established) . 
fapan: New Ohtemachi Building, Room 411/412, 4, 
2-chome, Ohtemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo. 

Lebanon: P.O.B. 4656, Bir Hassan, Beirut. 

Liberia: ULRC Building, Monrovia; P.O.B. 274. 
Madagascar: 26 rue de Liege, Tananarive; P.O.B. 134S. 
Mexico: Hamburgo No. 63, 3er Piso, Mexico City 6, D.F. 
Morocco: 2 rue Lieutenant Revel, Rabat; P.O. Box 524. 
Nepal: Katmandu; P.O. Box 107. 

Nigeria: 17 Kingsway Rd., Ikoyi, Lagos; P.O.B. 1068. 
Pakistan: Havelock Road, Karachi; P.O. Box 349, G.P.O. 
Papua: Hunter Street, Port Moresby. 

Paraguay: Calle Coronel Bogado 871, Asuncion; P.O.B. 
1107. 

Peru: Edificio Pacifico, 2 do. Piso, Plaza Washington 125, 
Lima; P.O.B. 4480. 

Philippines: Taft Ave./Corncr Isaac Peral, Manila; P.O.B. 
2149- 

Senegal: 2 Avenue Roume, Dakar; P.O. Box 154. 

Sudan: House No. 7, Block 5 R.F.E., Gordon Avenue, 
Khartoum; P.O. Box 1992. 


a 



THE UNITED NATIONS 


U.N. Information Centres — continued.'] 

Switzerland: Palais des Nations, Geneva. 

Tanzania: Matasalamat Building, Dar es Salaam; P.O.B. 
9224. 

Thailand: Sala Santitham, Bangkok. 

Togo: 18 Ancien Boulevard Circulaire, Lome; P.O.B. 91 1. 
Trinidad: 19 Keate St., Port of Spain; P.O.B. 812. 
Tunisia: 61 Boulevard Bab Benat, Tunis; P.O.B. 863. 
U.S.S.R. : No. 4/16 Ulitsa Lunacharskogo 1, Moscow. 


United Arab Republic: Sh. Osiris, Immeuble Tagher, 
Garden City, Cairo; P.O.B. 262. 

United Kingdom: 14-15 Stratford Place, London, W.i. 
United States: Suite 714, 1028 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., 
Washington, D.C. 20006. 

Yugoslavia: Svetozara Markovica 58, Belgrade; P.O. Box 

157 - 


UNITED NATIONS BUDGET FOR 1968 


(U.S, dollars) 


Sessions, Special Meetings and Conferences : 


Travel and other expenses . ... ■ 

Special meetings and conferences ... 

x »270,7oo 

2 , 937 » x oo 

4,207,800 

75,497.300 

Staff Costs: 

Salaries and wages . . . . . 

Common staff costs ....... 

Travel of staff ........ 

Other payments ....... 

59,420,800 
r 3. 769.000 
2,182,500 
125,000 



Buildings, Printing and Common Services: 

Buildings and improvements ..... 

Permanent equipment ...... 

Maintenance, operation and rental of premises 

General expenses ....... 

Printing ......... 

4,861,200 

605,500 

4 A 35 .OO 0 

5,627,000 

1,624,400 

16,853,100 


Special Expenses ........ 

9,210,800 

9,210, Soo 

Technical Programmes: 

Economic development, social activities, public adminis- 
tration ........ 

Industrial development ...... 

Human rights advisor} 7 services ..... 

Narcotic drug control ...... 

5,113,600 

99 X ,400 

220,000 

75,000 

6,400,000 



Special missions ....... 

6,029 

6,029 

Office of United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees . 

3,469,000 

3,469,000 

International Court of Justice ..... 

1.356,350 

1 , 356,350 

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development 

9,175,000 

9,175,000 

United Nations Industrial Development Organization 

8,232,000 

8,232,000 

Total ....... 


140,430,950 


C 



THE UNITED NATIONS 


STRUCTURE OF THE UNITED NATIONS 


THE MAIN ORGANS 


General Assembly. 

Security Council. 

Economic and Social Council — ECOSOC. 


Trusteeship Council. 
International Court of Justice. 
Secretariat. 


REGIONAL ECONOMIC COMMISSIONS 

Economic Co mmi ssion for Europe — ECE. ] Economic Commission for Latin America — ECLA. 

Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East — ECAFE. I Economic Commission for Africa — ECA. 


SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 


International Bank for Reconstruction and Development — 
IBRD (World Bank). 

International Development Association — IDA. 
International Finance Corporation — IFC. 

International Monetary Fund — IMF. 

Food and Agriculture Organization — FAO. 

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade — GATT. 
Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization — 
IMCO. 

International Atomic Energy Agency — IAEA. 


International Civil Aviation Organization — ICAO. 
International Labour Organization — ILO. 

International Telecommunication Union — ITU. 

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural 
Organization — UNESCO. 

Universal Postal Union — UPU. 

World Health Organization — WHO. 

World Meteorological Organization — WMO. 


OTHER BODIES 

(in order of establishment) 


United Nations Children's Fund— UNICEF ( established 

_ 1946) 

United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine 
Refugees in the Near East — UNWRA (established 1948) . 

United Nations Military Observer Group for India and 
Pakistan — UNMOGIP ( established 1949). 

United Nations Truce Supervision Organization — UNTSO 
(established 1949). 

United Nations Commission for the Unification and Re- 
habilitation of Korea — -UNCURK (established 1950). 

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees — 
UNHCR (established 1950). 

World Food Programme— WFP (established 1963) 


United Nations Peace-Keeping Force in Cyprus — 
UNFICYP (established 1964). 

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development — 
UNCTAD (established 1964). 

United Nations Institute for Training and Research — 
UNITAR (established 1965). 

United Nations Development Programme— UNDP (estab- 
lished 1966). 

United Nations Industrial Development Organization — 
UNIDO (established 1967). 

United Nations Middle East Mission — UNMEM (established 

1967) . 

United Nations Capital Development Fund (established 

1968) . 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (The Main Organs) 


THE MAIN ORGANS 


GENERAL ASSEMBLY 

The General Assembly is the main deliberative organ of the United Nations. 


MEMBERS 

All members of the UN. Each delegation consists of not I many advisers, technical advisers and experts as may be 

more than five representatives and five alternates with as I required. 


ORGANIZATION 


President tor 22nd Session (1967-68): Corneliu Manescu 
(Romania). 

Vice-Presidents: Australia, China (Taiwan), Dahomey, 
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, France, Iceland, Jordan, 
Laos, Libya, Nepal, Nicaragua, Sudan, Tanzania, 
U.S.S.R., U.K., U.S.A. 

The Assembly meets regularly once a year, but special 
sessions may also be held. It has the power to adopt 
recommendations only, not binding decisions. Important 
questions are decided by a two-thirds majority. Each 
nation has one vote and each vote is equal. 

PRINCIPAL COMMITTEES 
Main Committees: There are seven committees on which all 
members have a right to be represented. 

General ( Steering ) Committee: twenty-five members. 
Credentials Committee: nine members. 

Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary 
Questions: standing committee of twelve members. 
Committee on Contributions: standing committee of ten 
members. 

SUBSIDIARY AND AD HOC COMMITTEES 

International Law Commission: f. 1947: twenty-five mem- 
bers; normally meets in Geneva once a year; promotes 
development of international law and its codification. 

Peace Observation Commission: f. 1950; fourteen members, 
including five permanent members of the Security 
Council; can be used by the General Assembly or 
Security Council to observe and report on areas of 
international tension. 

Collective Measures Committee: f. 1950; fourteen members. 

Disarmament Commission: all members of the General 
Assembly. 


Disarmament Committee: f. 1961; eighteen members. 

Advisory Committee on UN Emergency Force: f. 1956.' seven 
members; deals with UNEF. 

UN Conciliation Commission for Palestine: three members. 

United Nations Scientific Advisory Committee: seven 
members. 

Preparatory Committee for the Conference of Non-Nuclcar- 
Weapoit States: eleven members. 

Committee to Define Aggression: the twenty-five members 
of the General (Steering) Committee. 

Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space: f. 1961; 
twenty-eight members. 

Commission on Permanent Sovereignty over Natural Re- 
sources: nine members. 

Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation: 
fifteen members. 

Special Committee on the Ending of Colonialism: twenty-four 
members. 

Special Committee on the Policies of Apartheid of the 
Government of the Republic of South Africa: f. 1962; 
seventeen members. 

Ad Hoc Committee on Oman: f. 1963; five members. 

Special Committee on Peace-Keeping Operations: f. 1965; 
thirty-three members. 

Ad Hoc Committee of Experts to Examine the Finances of 
the UN and the Specialized Agencies: f. 1965; fourteen 
members. 

Council for South West Africa: f. 1967; eleven members. 

Committee on Conferences: f. 1966; fifteen members. 

Ad Hoc Committee on the Sea-Bed: f. 1967; thirty-five 
members. 

Commission on International Trade Law: f. 1966 to further 
the harmonization and unification of the law of inter- 
national trade; twenty-nine members to take office in 
January, 1968. 


8 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (The Main Organs) 


SECURITY COUNCIL 


The task of the Security Council is to promote international peace and security in all parts of the world. 


MEMBERS 

Permanent members: 

China (Taiwan) U.S.S.R. United Kingdom 

France U.S.A. 

The remaining ten members are normally elected by the 
General Assembly for two-year periods: 

Until December 1968: Brazil, Canada, Denmark, 
Ethiopia, India. 

Until December 1969: Algeria, Hungary, Pakistan, 
Paraguay, Senegal. 


ORGANIZATION 

The Council is organized to be able to function con- 
tinuously. The Presidency of the Council is held monthly 
in turn by the member states in English alphabetical order. 

Each member of the Council has one vote. On procedural 
matters decisions are made by the affirmative vote of any 
nine members. For decisions on other matters the required 
nine affirmative votes must include the votes of the five 
permanent members. 

SUBSIDIARY BODY 

Military Staff Committee: Consists of the Chiefs of Staff 
(or their representatives) of the five permanent members 
of the Security Council and assists the Council on all 
military questions. 


ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL— ECOSOC 


Promotes world co-operation on economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems. 


MEMBERS 


Twenty-seven members are elected by the General 
Assembly for three-year terms : nine are elected each year. 
Current membership: 

Until December 1968: Czechoslovakia, Iran, Morocco, 
Panama, Philippines, Sweden, U.S.S.R., United Kingdom, 
Venezuela. 


Until December 1969: Belgium, France, Guatemala, 
Kuwait, Libya, Mexico, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Turkey. 

Until December 1970: Argentina, Bulgaria, Chad, Congo 
(Brazzaville), India, Ireland, Japan, U.S.A., Upper Volta. 


ORGANIZATION 


The Council is mainly a central policy-making and 
co-ordinating organ. It has functional and regional com- 
missions to carry' out much of its detailed work. 

FUNCTIONAL COMMISSIONS 

Statistical Commission: Standardizes terminology and 
procedure in statistics. 

Population Commission: Tries to raise the standard and 
broaden the scope of national censuses. 

Commission for Social Development: Plans Social 
Development Programmes. 

Commission on Human Rights: Seeks greater respect for 
the basic rights of man, the prevention of discrimination 
and the protection of minorities. 

Commission on the Status of Women: Aims at equality 
of political, economic and social rights for women. 


Commission on Narcotic Drugs: Mainly concerned in 
combating illicit traffic. 

STANDING COMMITTEES 
Interim Committee on Programme of Conferences. 

Council Committee on Non-Governmental Organisations. 

The Committee on Housing, Building, and Planning. 
Committee for Programme and Co-ordination. 

Advisory Committee on the Application of Science and Tech- 
nology to Development. 

Committee for Development Planning. 

REGIONAL COMMISSIONS 
Economic Commission for Europe — ECE. 

Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East — EC A FE. 
Economic Commission for Latin America — ECLA. 
Economic Commission for A frica — EC A . 


0 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (The Main Organs) 


THE TRUSTEESHIP COUNCIL 

New York City 

Supervises United Nations' Trust Territories through the administering authorities to promote the political, 
economic, social and educational advancement of the inhabitants towards self-government or independence. 


TERRITORIES UNDER TRUSTEESHIP SYSTEM 

New Guinea (Australia). 

Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (U.S.A.). 


MEMBERS OF TRUSTEESHIP COUNCIL 

The Council consists of member states administering 
Trust Territories, permanent members of the Security 
Council which do not administer Trust Territories, and 
enough other non-administering countries elected by the 
Assembly for three-year terms to ensure that the member- 
ship is equally divided between administering and non- 
administering members. 

Administering Countries: Other Countries: 

Australia China (Taiwan) 

United States France 

United Kingdom 
U.S.S.R. 

Liberia 


ORGANIZATION 

The Council meets once a year, generally in June. Each 
member has one vote, and decisions are made by a simple 
majority of the members present and voting. A new 
President is elected at the beginning of the Council’s 
regular session each year. 

The Council is under the authority of the General 
Assembly for all its territories except the Trust Territory 
of the Pacific Islands. This has been designated a strategic 
area, and the supervisory functions of the United Nations 
are, in its case, exercised by the Trusteeship Council under 
the authority of the Security Council. 


INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE 

Peace Palace, The Hague, Netherlands 

Set up in 1945, the Court is the principal judicial organ of the UN. All members of the UN are parties to the 
Statute of the Court, and also Switzerland, Liechtenstein and San Marino. Parties to the Statute: 125. 


THE JUDGES 


End of term 

J. L. Bustamante y Rivero (Peru), 

President ...... 1970 

Vladimir Koretsky (Soviet Union), 

Vice-President ..... 1970 

Sir Gerald Fitzmaurice (United 

Kingdom) 1973 

Kotaro Tanaka (Japan) . . , 1970 

Philip C. Jessup (U.S.A.) . . . 1970 

Gaetano Morelli (Italy) . . . 1970 


Sir Muhammad Zafrulla Khan (Pakistan) 1973 


Luis Padilla Nervo (Mexico) 
Isaac Forster (Senegal) 

Andr£ Gros (France) . 

Fouad Ammoun (Lebanon) 

Cesar Bengzon (Philippines) . 
Sture PetrLn (Sweden) 
Manfred Lacks (Poland) 
Charles D. Onyeama (Nigeria) 
Registrar: Stanislas Aquarone. 
Deputy Registrar: William Tait. 


End of term 
1973 
1973 
1973 

1976 

1976 

1976 

1976 

1976 


10 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (The Main Organs) 
PROCEDURE AND POWERS 


Origin. The International Court of Justice operates in 
accordance with a Statute annexed to the UN Charter, 
which is based on the Statute of the former Permanent 
Court of International Justice, established in 1920 under 
the League of Nations and dissolved in 1946. It continues 
the work of the latter, references conferring jurisdiction 
on the Permanent Court in treaties or conventions still 
in force being deemed to be references to the present Court. 

Disputes may be brought before the Court only by States. 

The following States may bring disputes before the Court: 

1. All members of the UN, which are ipso facto parties 
to the Statute. 

2. Other parties to the Statute not members of the UN, 
on conditions laid down by the General Assembly on the 
recommendation of the Security Council (Liechtenstein, 
San Marino, Switzerland). 

3. States which are not parties to the Statute, in certain 
circumstances and under conditions laid down by the 
Security Council (Federal Republic of Germany, Republic 
of Viet-Nam). 

Advisory Opinions on legal questions may be requested 
by the General Assembly and the Security Council and by 
other organs and specialized agencies of the UN. The 
Court has given thirteen advisory opinions. 

The Jurisdiction of the Court comprises: 

x. All cases which the parties refer to it. 

2. All matters specially provided for in treaties in force. 

3. Legal disputes between States which have volun- 
tarily recognized as compulsory the jurisdiction of the 
Court for specified classes of disputes. Forty- two States 
have accepted the optional clause of the Statute which 
confers this compulsory jurisdiction. 

Disputes as to whether the Court has jurisdiction are 
settled by the Court. 

Judgements are without appeal, but are binding only 
for the particular case and between the parties. 

Thirty-seven cases have been referred to the Court. 
Some were removed from its list as a result of settlement 
or discontinuance, and in others it has found that it had 
no jurisdiction. The cases in which final judgement has 
been given include: 


Corfu Channel (United Kingdom v. Albania), Fisheries 
(United Kingdom v. Norway), Asylum (Colombia v. Peru), 
Rights of Nationals of the U.S.A . in Morocco (France v. 
U.S.A.), Haya de la Torre (Colombia v. Peru), Ainbaiielos 
(Greece v. United Kingdom), Minquiers and Ecrehos 
(France v. United Kingdom), Rights of Passage over Indian 
Territory (Portugal v. India), Application of the Convention 
of igo2 Governing the Guardianship of Infants (Netherlands 
v. Sweden), Sovereignty over Certain Frontier Land (Belgium 
v. Netherlands), Arbitral Award made by the King of Spain 
on 23 December igoS (Honduras v. Nicaragua), Temple of 
Preah Vihear (Cambodia v. Thailand), South West Africa 
(Ethiopia and Liberia v. South Africa). 

Compliance with Judgements. States appearing before 
the Court undertake to comply with its judgement. If a 
party to a case fails to do so, the other party may apply to 
the Security Council which may make recommendations 
or decide upon measures to give effect to the judgement. 

The Judges. The Court is composed of fifteen independent 
judges of different nationalities, elected from among 
persons of high moral character who possess high judicial 
or legal qualifications. Representation of the main forms 
of civilization and legal systems of the world is required to 
be borne in mind in election. Candidates are nominated by 
national groups appointed by governments under special 
conditions, and for election require an absolute majority 
in both the General Assembly and the Security Council 
sitting independently. Judges are elected for nine years 
and may be re-elected; elections for five seats are held 
ever}' three years. The Court elects its President and Vice- 
President for three years and remains permanently in 
session. Judges may not have an}' political, administrative, 
or other professional occupation, and may not participate 
in the decision of any case in which they have previously 
taken part as agent or counsel or as a member of a court 
or commission of enquiry, or in any other capacity. They 
undertake to exercise then powers impartially and con- 
scientiously. If there is no judge on the bench of the 
nationality of the parties, each party may choose a judge, 
who sits on terms of equality with his colleagues. AH 
questions are decided by a majority of the judges present, 
subject to a quorum of nine. 


BUDGET 




(1967 — U.S. dollars) 



INCOME 



EXPENDITURE 



From the United Nations 


. 1,149,900 

Salaries and Expenses of Members 

of 





the Court .... 


549,800 




Salaries, Wages and Expenses of 

the 





Registry .... 

. 

505,550 




Common Services of the Court 

. 

87,050 




Permanent Equipment 

• 

7,500 

Total 

# 

. 1,149,900 

Total 

. 

1,149,900 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (The Main Organs) 


UNITED NATIONS SECRETARIAT 

New York City 

Performs the administrative functions of the United Nations. 


SECRETARY-GENERAL 


Secretary-General: U. Thant (Burma) (November 3rd, 
ig6i~November2nd, 1966; re-appointed December 2nd, 
1966-December 31st, 1971). 

The Secretary-General is UN’s chief administrative 
officer, appointed by the General Assembly on the recom- 
mendation of the Security Council. He acts in that capacity 


at all meetings of the General Assembly, the Security 
Council, the Economic and Social Council, and the 
Trusteeship Council, and performs such other functions as 
are entrusted to him by those organs. He is required to 
submit an annual report to the General Assembly and may 
bring to the attention of the Security Council any matter 
which in his opinion may threaten international peace. 


SECRETARIAT 


Offices of the Secretary-General: 

Under-Sec.-Gen. for General Assembly Affairs and Chef 
de Cabinet C. V. Narasimhan (India). 
Under-Secs.-Gen. for Special Political Affairs: Ralph J. 
Bunche (U.S.A.), Josd Rolz-Bennett (Guate- 
mala). 

Office of Legal Affairs: Legal Counsel Constantin A. 
Stavropoulos (Greece). 

Office of the Controller: Controller Bruce R. Turner 
(New Zealand). 

Office of Personnel: Dir. (vacant). 

Department of Political and Security Council Affairs: 

Under-Sec.-Gen. Alexei Nesterenko (U.S.S.R.). 
Department of Economic and Social Affairs: 

Under-Sec.-Gen. Philippe de Seynes (France). 
Commissioner for Technical Co-operation: Victor Hoo 
(Chinese Republic — Taiwan). 

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development 
(UNCTAD): Under-Sec.-Gen. Dr. Raul Prebisch 
(Argentina). 

Department of Trusteeship Affairs and Non-Self-Governing 
Territories: Under-Sec.-Gen. Issoufou Saidou Djer- 
makoye (Niger). 


Office oi Public Iniormation: Under-Sec.-Gen. Jose Rolz- 
Bennett (Guatemala). 

Office of Conference Services: Under-Sec.-Gen. Jiri Nosek 
(Czechoslovakia). 

Office of General Services: Asst. Sec.-Gen. David B. 
Vaughan (U.S.A.). 

United Nations Development Programme: Administrator 
Paul Hoffman (U.S.A.), Co-Administrator David 
Owen (U.K.). 

United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF): Exec. Dir. 

Henry R. Labouisse (U.S.A.). 

United Nations Institute for Training and Research 
(UNITAR); Exec. Dir. Chief S. O. Adebo, c.m.g. 
(Nigeria). 

United Nations Industrial Development Organization 
(UNIDO); Exec. Dir. Ibrahim Helmi Abdel-Rahman 
(U.A.R.). 

Inter-Agency Affairs: Asst. Sec.-Gen. Martin Hill 
(Ireland). 

Staff: 3,388 (1967). Members do not represent any 
country but form an independent international civil 
service, with responsibilities exclusively international in 
character. 


OFFICE OF THE UN AT GENEVA 
Palais des Nations, Geneva 

The Office of the UN at Geneva is responsible, through its Directors, to the Secretary-General in New York 


EUROPEAN SECRETARIAT 

Director-General (Until June 1968): Pier Pasquale 
Spinelli (Italy). 

(From July 1968): Vittorio Winspeare Guicciardi 
(Italy). 

Deputy Director: Georges Palthey (France). 

Staff: 706 (1967). 


Principal Functions 

1. General United Nations work. 

2. Collaboration with Specialized Agencies based in Geneva. 

3. Servicing UN meetings held in Geneva. 

4. Servicing inter-governmental meetings held in Geneva. 


12 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Regional Economic Commissions) 


REGIONAL ECONOMIC COMMISSIONS 


ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR EUROPE— ECE 

Palais des Nations, Geneva 

ECE was established in 1947. Representatives of all European countries and of the United States study European 
economic and technological problems and recommend courses of action. 


Albania 

MEMBERS 

Greece 

Romania 

Austria 

Hungary 

Spain 

Belgium 

Iceland 

Sweden 

Bulgaria 

Ireland 

Turkey 

Byelorussian S.S.R. 

Italy 

Ukrainian S.S.R. 

Cyprus 

Luxembourg 

U.S.S.R. 

Czechoslovakia 

Malta 

U.K. 

Denmark 

Netherlands 

U.S.A. 

Finland 

Norway 

Yugoslavia 

France 

Poland 


Federal Republic of Germany 

Portugal 



Switzerland takes part in a consultative capacity. 


ORGANIZATION 


COMMISSION 

ECE is one of the four regional economic commissions 
set up by the UN Economic and Social Council. The 
Commission holds an annual plenary session and brief 
meetings of subsidiary bodies are convened throughout 
the year. Specialists seek agreements for later government 
approval, collect statistics and exchange technical informa- 
tion, both at meetings and through distribution of reports 
and special papers. ECE itself takes no action affecting 
governments. 


SECRETARIAT 

Executive Secretary: Janez Stanovnik (Yugoslavia). 

The Secretariat services the meetings of the Commission 
and its subsidiary bodies and publishes periodic surveys 
and reviews, including a number of specialized statistical 
bulletins on coal, timber, steel, housing and building, 
electric power, gas and transport. 


COMMITTEES 


Committee on Agricultural Problems. Keeps under 
review the market conditions, follows developments under 
the Protocol on the Standardization of Fruit and Vege- 
tables, examines problems arising from mechanization of 
agriculture, and drafts standard clauses for the inter- 
national sale of certain agricultural products (cereals and 
citrus fruits). Chair. L. Debouverie (Belgium). 

Industry and Materials Committee. Concerned with the 
ways and means of making fuller use of the existing 
capacity in particular industries, especially in the engineer- 
ing industry. Supervises the erection of plant and machinery 
in ECE countries; studies contract practices and auto- 
mation in industry; drafts general conditions of sale for 
industrial goods. Has not met since 1950. 


Timber Committee. Regularly reviews the market in 
sawn softwood, small-sized roundwood and hardwood, 
studies forest working techniques, compiles statistics, 
watches trends in the use of wood and its products and of 
wood waste, and drafts standard clauses for the inter- 
national sale of certain categories of timber. Chair. G. 
Hampson (United Kingdom). 

Coal Committee. Concentrates on problems of production 
and trade, makes recommendations on the use of solid fuel. 
With agreements reached on the international classification 
of brown coals and lignites, ECE has completed the classi- 
fication by type of all existing coals. Drafts general condi- 
tions of sale for solid fuels. Chair. B. Krupinski (Poland). 


13 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Regional Economic Commissions) 


Committee on Electric Power. Studies hydro-electric 
resources, thermal power plants, legal questions, rural 
electrification and the cost of financing new projects. ECE’s 
relationship with the International Atomic Energy Agency 
is close. Chair. D. Tonini (Italy). 

Committee on Gas. Deals with the economic and tech- 
nical aspects of the production, transport and utilization of 
gas, natural and manufactured as well as liquefied 
petroleum gases, and forecasts demand. Chair. G. Koranyi 
(Hungary). 

Committee on Housing, Building and Planning. Periodic- 
ally reviews trends and progress, with special reference to 
industrialization of construction and building costs. Studies 
land use and prices, urban renewal and physical planning. 
Housing problems of less industrialized countries receive 
special consideration. Chair. V. (ServenkA (Czecho- 
slovakia). 

Inland Transport Committee. Covers road, rail and in- 
land water transport, customs, contracts, transport of 
dangerous and perishable goods, equipment, statistics, 
tariffs, river law, road transport regime and road traffic 
accidents, construction of vehicles and passenger transport 


services by road. A number of international agreements are 
in force following their adoption through ECE. Chair. 
H. Raben (Netherlands). 

Steel Committee. Annually reviews trends in the Euro- 
pean and world markets, changes in price policy, growth of 
capacity supply factors and future prospects. Also studies 
long-term economic and technological problems. Chair. 
D. Taccone (Italy). 

Committee on the Development of Trade. Examines intra- 
European trade, especially east/west trade. Organizes 
facilities in arbitration, trade fairs and technical shows, 
standardization of general conditions of sale of goods, 
insurance, simplification and standardization of export 
documents, payments arrangements, including multi- 
lateral compensation procedures, and consultations. Chair. 
J. Kaufmann (Netherlands). 

Conference of European Statisticians. Promotes improve- 
ment of national statistics and their international com- 
parability in economic, social and demographic fields; 
facilitates exchange of information between European 
countries. Chair. S. Stanev (Bulgaria). 


BUDGET 

ECE's budget is included in the budget of the United 
Nations. 


PUBLICATIONS 

Economic Survey of Europe (annual); Economic Bulletin 
for Europe', frequent statistical and technical studies and 
bulletins, ECE News/Nonvelles (in English and French). 




U 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Regional Economic Commissions) 


ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR ASIA AND THE FAR EAST— ECAFE 

Sala Santitham, Bangkok, Thailand 

Telephone: 813544. 

Founded in 1947 to encourage the economic and social development of Asia and the Far East. 


Afghanistan 

Australia 

Burma 

Cambodia 

Ceylon 

China (Taiwan) 
France 


MEMBERS 


India 

Indonesia 

Iran 

Japan 

Korea, Republic of 

Laos 

Malaysia 


Mongolia 

Nepal 

The Netherlands 
New Zealand 
Pakistan 
Philippines 
Singapore 


Associate Members 


Brunei 


Hong Kong 


Thailand 

U.S.S.R. 

United Kingdom 
U.S.A. 

Viet-Nam, Republic of 
Western Samoa 


ORGANIZATION 


The Commission meets yearly, often in a different 
country. It operates through numerous working parties, 
sub-committees, ad hoc conferences, trade promotion 
meetings and seminars. Subsidiary bodies deal with: 

Trade. 

Industry and Natural Resources. 

Transport and Communications. 

Economic Development and Planning. 


Water Resources Development. 
Social Development. 

Economic Co-operation. 
Industrialization. 

Statistics. 

Commercial Arbitration. 

Executive Secretary: U. Nyun (Burma). 


ACTIVITIES 


ECAFE helps members in the planning and carrying out 
of national development programmes and to promote 
measures for regional co-operation. 

ECAFE compiles and analyses statistics, prepares 
economic surveys and studies, organizes seminars, working 
parties and study tours, and provides advisory services to 
member countries. 

Principal projects: 

LOWER MEKONG VALLEY PROJECT 

The Mekong Project aims to develop the water resources 
of the Lower Mekong Basin, including mainstream and 
tributaries, in terms of hydro-electric power, irrigation, 
flood control, drainage, navigation improvement, water- 
shed management, water supply and related problems. 

Work is directed by the Mekong Committee, established 
in 1957 hy the four riparian countries: Cambodia, Laos, 
Thailand, and the Republic of Viet-Nam. Twenty-two 
other countries, twelve UN agencies, three foundations and 
a number of private business organizations are collaborating. 

The Plan envisages three mainstream projects and 
fourteen tributary projects. Two tributary dams in 
Thailand have been completed; four other tributary 
undertakings are under construction; and investigations 
for three large multi-purpose mainstream projects are 
continuing. Among the largest tributary projects under 
construction is the $24 million Nam Ngum dam and hydro- 
electric power station with transmission lines in Laos. 
Finances are administered by the World Bank. By mid- 
1 9&7« more than §123 million had been pledged to the 
Committee or to projects sponsored by the Committee. 


ASIAN INSTITUTE FOR ECONOMIC 
DEVELOPMENT AND PLANNING 
The Institute was opened in January 1964. It provides 
annually two regional courses on economic and social 
development, a six-month General Course and a three- 
month Advanced Course in Planning Techniques, both 
held at Bangkok. It undertakes research to prepare educa- 
tional materials and case studies on development planning 
techniques and renders advisory- services when requested 
by governments. The budget for the five years 1964-68 is 
$3.3 million, of which two-thirds comes from the UN 
Development Programme while the other $1.1 million has 
been pledged by 24 governments. 


THE ASIAN HIGHWAY 

The Asian Highway Project, launched in 1958, envisages 
a system of routes of 57,000 km. in length, with two 
priority routes: (1) the northern route connecting Saigon 
with the Turkish border, 10,874 km. long, of which 685 km. 
are substandard (November 1967); (2) the southern route 
connecting Denpasser (Indonesia) with the Iraqi border 
(12,380 km.), with 1,900 km. being substandard. The pro- 
ject will eventually link Asian countries and bring them 
into direct road communications with the countries of the 
Middle East and Europe. 

Work on the project is co-ordinated by the Asian High- 
way Co-ordinating Committee, composed of Ministers from 
member countries, which held its first meeting in April 
1965. 


15 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Regional Economic Commissions) 


ASIAN INTERNATIONAL TRADE FAIR 
The Thai Government organized the First Asian Inter- 
national Trade Fair in Bangkok, November-December 
1966. The purpose of the Fair, which was the largest 


market ever held in Asia, was to increase trade and pro- 
mote investment and economic development. Over 3,000 
exhibitors participated from Asian and non-Asian coun- 
tries. The next Fair is to be held in Teheran, Iran, in 1969. 


PUBLICATIONS 


Economic Survey of Asia and the Far East. 
Economic Bulletin for Asia and the Far East. 
Development Programming Techniques Series. 
Mineral Resources Development Series. 

Small Industry Bulletin for Asia and the Far East. 
Flood Control Series. 

Industrial Development News. 


Water Resources Series. 

Transport and Communication Bulletin for Asia and the 
Far East. 

Electric Power in Asia and the Far East. 

Regional Economic Co-operation Series. 

Foreign Trade Statistics of Asia and the Far East. 


ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR LATIN AMERICA— ECLA 

Santiago, Chile 

Founded 1948 to co-ordinate policies for the promotion of economic development in the Latin American region. 


Argentina 

Barbados 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

Canada 

Chile 

Colombia 

Costa Rica 

Cuba 

Dominican Republic 


MEMBERS 

Ecuador 

El Salvador 

France 

Guatemala 

Guyana 

Haiti 

Honduras 

Jamaica 

Mexico 

The Netherlands 

Associate Member 
British Honduras 


Nicaragua 

Panama 

Paraguay 

Peru 

Trinidad and Tobago 
United Kingdom 
U.S.A. 

Uruguay 

Venezuela 


ORGANIZATION 


The Commission normally meets every two years in one 
of the Latin American capitals. The Commission has 
established two permanent bodies with various sub- 
committees'. 

Contra! American Economic Co-operation Committee: 

Central American Trade Sub-Committee. 

Central American Sub-Committee on Statistical Co- 
ordination. 

Central American Sub-Committee on Transport. 

Central American Sub-Committee on Housing, Building 
and Planning. 

Central American Sub-Committee on Electric Power. 
Central American Commission for Industrial Initiatives. 
Central American Sub-Committee on Agricultural 
Development. 

Trade Committee: 

Central Banks' Working Group. 

Working Group on the Regional Market. 

Working Group on Customs Questions. 

Executive Secretary: Carlos Quintana (Mexico). 

Secretariat: Santiago de Chile; branch offices at Mexico 
City, Rio de Janeiro, Montevideo, Washington, D.C., 


Port-of-Spain and Bogota. The Secretariat is organized 
into divisions of economic development and research, trade 
policy, social affairs, agriculture (jointly with FAO), 
statistics and administration, programmes on integration 
of industrial development (jointly with the Latin American 
Institute for Social and Economic Planning and IDB), 
natural resources and energy and transport (jointly with 
OAS) and Latin-American Center for Economic Pro- 
jections. 


LATIN AMERICAN INSTITUTE FOR ECONOMIC 
AND SOCIAL PLANNING 
Santiago, Chile 

The Institute was founded by ECLA in June 1962, with 
financial assistance from the United Nations Special Fund, 
the Inter-American Development Bank and the Chilean 
Government, and with the co-operation of OAS, FAO 
UNESCO, ILO and other international bodies. It operates 
as an autonomous body under the aegis of ECLA to 
provide training and advisory services on request to 
member countries and to undertake research in planning 
techniques. 


16 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Regional Economic Commissions) 

ACTIVITIES 


In the early years the Commission focused its activities 
on preparing studies and reports, but now concentrates 
more on the questions of a regional market and Latin 
American economic integration. 

REGIONAL MARKET 

Proposals for the setting up of a Latin American Com- 
mon Market, drawn up by the Market Group, were dis- 
cussed in detail at the 8th Session of ECLA at Panama in 
May 1959. The Latin American Free Trade Association 
was set up in February i960. First negotiations on tariffs 
between government members of the Association were 
held between September and December 1961. The first 
stage came into operation January 1962 ( see Chapter on 
LAFTA). 


RELATIONS WITH LAFTA 
The relations of ECLA with the Latin American Free 
Trade Association (LAFTA) are defined by the Montevideo 
Treaty. ECLA assists the organizations of the Association 
in an advisory capacity and attends meetings of the 
Executive Committee. 

RELATIONS WITH OAS 

ECLA has co-ordination arrangements with OAS. In 
1961 an agreement was signed setting up an ad hoc Co- 
ordination Committee of representatives of OAS, ECLA 
and the Inter-American Development Bank, which meets 
several times a year to take decisions on matters of common 
interest. 


CENTRAL AMERICAN INTEGRATION * 


1952 Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and 
Nicaragua established the Central American Econo- 
mic Co-operation Committee (CCE) to: 

1. Establish a common market. 

2. Integrate industrial development. 

3. Co-ordinate their agricultural economies. 

1954 Establishment of Central American Advanced 
School for Public Administration, San Jos6, Costa 
Rica. 

1956 Establishment of Central American Research Insti- 
tute for Industry (ICAITI) in Guatemala City. 

1958 Agreement on the Central American Agreement for 
Industrial Integration signed. 

Multilateral treaty on Central American Free Trade 
and Economic Integration signed, providing free 
trade for products representing one-third of inter- 
Central American trade. 

Studies of problems of roads, railways, shipping, air 
transport, finance, weights and measures, statistical 
co-ordination and demography. 

Panama became a member of the Central American 
Economic Co-operation Committee. 

1959 Draft agreement drawn up for the establishment of 
a customs union. 

Proposals for (1) establishment of a telecommunica- 
tions centre, (2) juridical unification, (3) common 
marketing information, (4) central tourist organiza- 
tion. 


1960 General Treaty on Central American Economic 
Integration signed between El Salvador, Guatemala 
and Honduras, aiming to establish a Central 
American customs code and uniform tariff legis- 
lation. 

Secretariat ( SIECA ): Guatemala City. 

1961 Central American Bank for Economic Integration 
(BCIE) set up. 

Equalisation of import duties completed for 90 per 
cent of the items to be subject to the Common tariff. 
Central American Uniform Customs Code was 
drafted. 

1962 Costa Rica acceded to General Treaty. 

Equalization of import duties extended to 95 per 
cent of the items to be subject to the Common 
tariff. 

Central American Agreement on Tax Incentives to 
Industrial Development signed. 

1963 Signing of Protocol to the Regime for Integration 
Industries and the special system pertaining to 
tariffs for the promotion of production activities. 

1965 Ministers of Economic Affairs agree on a Central 
American policy for investment. 

1966 Decision taken on special treatment for the bal- 
anced development of Honduras within the inte- 
grated economy. 


* For Central American Integration Organizations, sec chapter on Central American Common Market (CACM). 


PUBLICATIONS 

Economic Survey of Latin America, annually. 
Economic Bulletin for Latin America, twice yearly. 
Statistical Bulletin for Latin America, twice yearly. 


17 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Regional Economic Commissions) 


ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR AFRICA — ECA 

Africa Hail, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 

Telephone: 47200. 


Initiates and takes part in measures for facility ^ 


Algeria 

in 1958. 

MEMBERS 

Guinea 

Rwanda 

Botswana 

Ivory Coast 

Senegal 

Burundi 

Kenya 

Sierra Leone 

Cameroon 

Lesotho 

Somalia 

Central African Republic 

Liberia 

South Africa* 

Chad 

Libya 

Sudan 

Congo (Brazzaville) 

Madagascar 

Tanzania 

Congo (Democratic Republic of) Malawi 

Togo 

Dahomey 

Mali 

Tunisia 

Ethiopia 

Mauritania 

Uganda 

Gabon 

Morocco 

United Arab Republic 

Gambia 

Niger 

Upper Volta 

Ghana 

Nigeria 

Zambia 


* Has not participated since 1963. 


Associate Members 

(«) Non-Self-Goveming Territories situated within the 
geographical scope of the Commission. 

(6) Powers other than Portugal responsible for the inter- 
national relations of those territories (France, Spain 
and the United Kingdom). 

Associate Members may take part in the Commission’s activities but may not vote. 


ORGANIZATION 

COMMISSION 


Executive Secretary 

: Robert K. A. Gardiner (Ghana) 

The Commission has held eight sessions since its 
ception: 

1958 

December 

Addis Ababa 

ig6o 

January 

Addis Ababa 

19O1 

Eebruary 

Tangier 

1962 

February 

Addis Ababa 

1963 

February 

Leopoldville 

1964 

Eebruary 

Addis Ababa 

1965 

February 

Nairobi 

1967 

February 

Lagos 


Sub-Regional Offices: Lusaka, Niamey, Tangier, Kinshasa. 


ACTIVITIES 

The work of the Commission is determined by decisions 
of its plenary sessions. The seventh session decided on the 
creation of seven Working Parties, composed of experts, to 
assist the Secretariat in carrying out action decided on by 
the Commission’s various organs. They are concerned, 
respectively, with Intra-African trade. Monetary manage- 
ment and Inter-African payments, Industry and Natural 
Resources, Transport and Telecommunications, Agricul- 


ture and Training, Economic Integration (composed of the 
chairmen of the other six Working Parties). Other standing 
organs of the Commission are the Conference of African 
Statisticians and the Conference of African Planners. 

WHO maintains a liaison office at ECA; in co-operation 
with ITU, work has begun on a pan-African Telecom- 
munications system. ECA also runs a Joint Agricultural 
Division in conjunction with FAO. The Commission 
co-operates with the Organization of African Unity, and 
other organizations interested in African economic 
advancement. 

Four North African member states of the Commission 
have established a Permanent Consultative Committee of 
the Maghreb in Tunis ( see Chapter). 

Ten East African countries have signed Terms of 
Association setting up an interim Council of Ministers to be 
an Economic Community of Eastern Africa. 

The first meeting was held in November 1967 of the 
interim Council of Ministers for the establishment of an 
Economic Community of West Africa. 

Co-operation between ECA and the OAU was marked 
during 1967 by three joint meetings: African Preparatory 
Meeting of UNCTAD II (October), prior meeting of the 
African Group attending the African Preparatory Meeting 
of UNCTAD II (October), Conference on Legal, Economic 
and Social Aspects of African Refugee Problems (October). 


18 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Regional Economic Commissions) 


Economic Bulletin for Africa (twice yearly). 

The Statistical Newsletter (thrice yearly). 

Foreign Trade Newsletter (thrice yearly). 
Agricultural Economic Bulletin (twice yearly). 
African Trade Statistics (thrice yearly). 

Social Welfare Services in Africa (thrice yearly). 


PUBLICATIONS 

Natural Resources Newsletter (twice yearly). 

Foreign Trade Statistics, Series A: Direction of Trade 
(twice yearly'). 

Foreign Trade Statistics, Series B: Trade by Commodities 
(thrice yearly) . 


AFRICAN INSTITUTE FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND PLANNING 


Dakar, Senegal 


An autonomous organ of the ECA opened in 1963 with 
Special Fund assistance to train senior African officials in 
techniques of development planning and to serve as a 


clearing house and documentation centre on all African 
development questions. 

Director: Mamadou Toure (Mauritania). 


ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION IN AFRICA 

Member States of the Commission in each of the four sub-regions have set up organizations to foster regional 
economic co-operation. The Maghreb Permanent Consultative Committee (North Africa) and the Union Douaniere 
Economique de l’Afrique Centrale — UDEAC (Central Africa) are now- operative, while Articles of Association 
have been signed pending the establishment of Economic Communities for the Eastern African and the West 
African sub-regions. These and the other inter-state organizations concerned with economic co-operation are 

described below: 


NORTH AFRICAN SUB-REGION 

Maghreb Permanent Consultative Committee: Tunis, 
Tunisia; established 1965; Mems. Algeria, Libya , Morocco, 
Tunisia ( sec Chapter). 

EAST AFRICAN SUB-REGION 

Economic Community of Eastern Africa: Lusaka, 
Zambia. In 1965 an interim Council of Ministers was 
established, which met in May 1966 at Lusaka to discuss 
arrangements bridging the transitional period until this 
Community is established. The interim Council of Ministers 
has delegated to the ECA the task of drafting the proposed 
Treaty for the Community. An interim Economic Com- 
mittee has also been set up. 

Members : Terms of Association were signed at the Lusaka 
meeting by Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mauritius, 
Tanzania and Zambia. Somalia and Sudan were repre- 
sented at the meeting but did not sign. Somalia and 
Rwanda have since acceded to the Terms of Association. 

Aims: The aims of the Community will be to promote, 
through economic co-operation, the co-ordinated develop- 
ment of the economies of member states, with emphasis 
on Industry, Trade, Natural Resources and Agriculture, 
Transport, and the co-ordination of National Development 
Plans; and also to achieve the progressive elimination of 
customs barriers and of restrictions on current payment 
transactions and capital movements. 

Chair, of Interim Council of Ministers Abebe Retta 
(Ethiopia); Vice-Chair. Paul Bomani (Tanzania). 


East African Community: Arusha, Tanzania. The Treaty 
of Co-operation, signed June 1967, provides for the 
strengthening of the common market between Kenya, 
Tanzania and Uganda, and for the management of the 
common sendees and joint research undertakings of the 
three countries ( see Chapter). 

CENTRAL AFRICAN SUB-REGION 
Union Douani&re Economique dc I’Afrique Centrale 
(UDEAC): Bangui, Central African Republic. Established 
January 1966; mems. Cameroon, Central African Republic, 
Chad, Congo (Brazzaville), Gabon (sec Chapter). 

WEST AFRICAN SUB-REGION 
West African Economic Community: Accra, Ghana. 
Articles of Association were signed at Accra in May 19O7 
by Dahomey, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauri- 
tania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo, Upper 
Volta. An interim Council of Ministers was set up to 
negotiate a common market treaty. A provisional secre- 
tariat, an interim economic committee and committees on 
transport, energy and industry' were also established. The 
Industry Committee is at present specifically concerned 
with the proposed setting up of an Iron and Steel Industry 
for West Africa. 

Aims: the establishment of a common market to further 
the maximum exchange of goods and services between 
members and the elimination of customs and trade barriers 
between them; to promote tlirough the economic co- 


19 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Regional Economic Commissions) 


operation of the member states a co-ordinated and 
equitable development of their economies, especially in 
industry, agriculture, transport and communications, trade 
and payments, manpower, energy and resources; to con- 
tribute to the orderly expansion of trade between members 
and the rest of the world; to contribute to the economic 
development of Africa as a whole. 

Next meeting of interim Council of Ministers: Dakar, 
Senegal, 1968. 

Union Douani&re Economique de l’Afrique de I’Oucst 
(UDEAO): Ouagadougou, Upper Volta; established 1959; 
a new convention came into effect in December 1966; 
Mems. Dahomey, Ivory Coast, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, 
Senegal, Upper Volta (see Chapter). 

West African Free Trade Area: Monrovia, Liberia; f. 
1964; an interim organization has been set up and consists 
•of a Ministerial Committee and an Administrative Secre- 
tariat; aims to liberalize trade between the member states, 
•Guinea, Ivory Coast, Liberia and Sierra Leone. 

Inter-State Committee for the Management of the Senegal 
River: Saint-Louis du S6n6gal; set up July 1963; an inter- 
state committee of the four Senegal River States (Guinea, 
Mali, Mauritania, Senegal) for the development of the 
River Senegal Basin and the economic co-operation of the 
riparian States. The UN Development Fund has granted 
almost $7 million for the studies and other pre-investment 
activities covering a five and a half year period pre- 
paratory to the development of power and irrigation in the 
Senegal River Basin. 

Sec.-Gen. Robert N’Daw (Mali). 


Chad Basin Commission: Fort-Lamy, Chad; established 
May 1964. Mems. Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria; com- 
posed of an Executive Secretary and two Commissioners 
from each State. Responsible for the co-ordination of the 
development of the Chad Basin, transport and health 
policies. The UN Development Fund is contributing to a 
water resources survey costing $3 million. 

Executive Sec: Omotayo Ogunsulire (Nigeria). 

Niger River Commission: Niamey, Niger; established by 
the Act of Niamey (October 1963) which covers navigation 
and general economic development of River Niger. First 
project: survey of the navigability of River Niger, with 
the assistance of Netherlands. Commission meets annually 
and has a budget of 20 million CFA. Mems. Cameroon, 
Dahomey, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Nigeria and 
Upper Volta. 

Administrative Sec: Desirjs Vieyra. 


In addition to these co-operative organizations, the 
following are promoting limited economic co-operation in 
Africa: 

The Common Sugar Market of the Organisation Com- 
mune Africaine et Malgache (OCAM), African Groundnuts 
Council, the Committee for Production and Distribution 
of Meat of the Conseil de 1 ’Entente, Inter-African Coffee 
Organization, Afro-Malagasy Coffee Organization 
(OAMCAF), Cocoa Producers’ Alliance, Air Afrique, 
Agence Transequatoriale des Communications (ATF.C). 


20 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Specialized Agencies) 

SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 


INTERNATIONAL BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND 
DEVELOPMENT— IBRD (WORLD BANK) 

1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20433 

Telephone: Executive 3-6360. 


Aims to assist the economic development of member nations by making loans, in cases where private capital is 
not available on reasonable terms, to finance productive investments. Loans are made either direct to governments, 
or to private enterprise with the guarantee of their governments. Members: 107. 


ORGANIZATION 


President and Chairman of Executive Directors: George D. 
Woods (to be succeeded by Robert McNamara 
during 1968). 

Board of Governors 

All powers of the Bank are vested in a Board of Gover- 
nors, consisting of one Governor appointed by each 
member nation. This Board normally meets once a year. 


Executive Directors 

The Board of Governors has delegated most of its powers 
to twenty Executive Directors, who meet as frequently as 
required and approve all loans made by the Bank. 


Livingston T. Merchant 
E. W. Maude 
Otto Donner 
Georges Plescoff 

K. S. SUNDARA RAJAN 
JOAQUfN GUTEERREZ CANO 

Hideo Suzuki 

L. Denis Hudon 
J. O. Stone 
Muhammad Ayub 


Reignson C. Chen 
Andre van Campenhout 
Pieter Lieftinck 
Karl Skjerdal 
S. Othello Coleman 
Luis Machado 
Jorge MejIa-Palacio 
Abderrahman Tazi 
Mohamed Nassim Koch- 
man 

Luis Escobar 


Principal Officers 

Vice-Presidents: J. Burke Knapp, S. Aldewereld, 
Mohamed Shoaib. 

General Counsel: A. Broches. 

Director, Development Services Department: Richard H. 
Demuth. 

Economic Adviser: Irving S. Friedman. 

Director, Europe Department: S. R. Cope. 

Director, Western Hemisphere Department: Gerald 
Alter. 


Director of Special Economic Studies: Dragoslav Avka- 

MOVIC. 

Director, Asia Department: I. P. M. Cargill. 

Treasurer: Robert W. Cavanaugh. 

Director, Projects Department: Bernard Chadenet. 
Special Representative for UN Organizations: Federico 

CONSOLO. 

Director, Africa Department: Abdel G. el Emary. 
Director of Information: Harold N. Graves, Jr. 

Associate Director, Development Services Department: 

Michael L. Hoffman. 

Director, New York Office: Howard C. Johnson. 

Director, Economics Department: Andrew M. Kamarck. 
Director, Economic Development Institute: K. S. Krishna- 

SWAMY. 

Director, Middle East and North Africa Department: 

Michael L. Lejeune. 

Secretary: M. M. Mendels. 

Special Representative in Europe: John D. Miller. 
Director of Administration: Hugh B. Ripman. 

Special Advisers to the President: Leonard B. Rist, 
Orvis A. Schmidt. 

Director of Program Evaluation and Control: J. H. 

Williams. 


REGIONAL OFFICES 

New York Office: 20 Exchange Place, New York, N.Y. 

10005, U.S.A. (Telephone: WHitehall 3-5400). 
European Office: 4 ave. d’Hna, Paris i6e, France ( Tele- 
phone: KLEber 25-10). 

London Office: New Zealand House, Haymarket, London, 
S.W.i, England ( Telephone : WHitehall 3886). 


FINANCIAL 

The Bank’s capital is derived from members’ subscrip- 
tions to capital shares, and the amount of each subscrip- 
tion is based on relative economic resources. On June 
30th, 1967, the total subscribed capital of the Bank was 
$22,850 million. Of this amount, however, only the sum of 
about $2,285 million had been paid in, partly in gold or 
dollars and partly in local currencies. The remainder is 


STRUCTURE 

subject to call if required to meet the Bank’s obligations. 
Most of the Bank’s lendable funds come from its borrowing 
in world capital markets. As of June 30th, 1967, the 
Bank’s outstanding debt was $3,075 million. The Bank also 
replenishes its funds through the sale of portions of its 
loans. These sales, the most part without the Bank 
guarantee, totalled $2,035 million by June 30th, 1967. 


THE UNITED NATIONS— (Specialized Agencies) 


May 1947 

Aug. 1947 

Jan. 1949 
Aug. 1950 
June 1956 
June 1956 

Oct. 1956 
Jan. 1957 
Feb. 1958 
Sept. 1958 
Sept, i960 
May 1961 
Jan. 1962 
Jan. 1962 
June 1962 
Sept. 1963 
Sept. 1963 
July 1964 
May 1965 
June 1965 
Dec. 1965 
July 1966 
Oct. 1966 


WORLD BANK STATISTICS 

IMPORTANT LOANS* 

(5 million — 1947-June 1967) 


Country 

Purpose 

Original 

Principal 

Amount 

France 

Post-war Reconstruction 

250 

Netherlands 

Post-war Reconstruction 

191 

Brazil 

Power, Communications 

75 

Australia 

Equipment for Development 

IOO 

India 

Steel Industry 

75 

The 

Rhodesias 

Power 

80 

Italy 

Power, Agriculture and Industry 

75 

Iran 

Equipment for Development 

75 

Italy 

Power, Agriculture and Industry 

75 

India 

Railways 

85 

Pakistan 

Indus Basin Development Project 

90 

Japan 

Express Railway 

80 

Argentina 

Power 

95 

Australia 

Power 

IOO 

Mexico 

Power 

130 

Venezuela 

Power 

85 

Japan 

Highways 

75 

Nigeria 

Kainji Dam Project 

82 

Japan 

Roads 

75 

Italy 

Industry 

IOO 

Mexico 

Electric Power 

no 

Japan 

Tokyo-Kobe Expressway 

IOO 

IFC Development Finance 

IOO 


* Loans exceeding $75 million. 


TOTAL LOANS 
(5 million — 1947-67) 


Purpose 

Amount 

Post-war Reconstruction 

496. S 

Electric Power ..... 

3.588.9 

Transportation ..... 

3 . 445-9 

Telecommunications .... 

128.2 

Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing 

802.4 

Industry ...... 

1,596.7 

Development ..... 

205.0 

Water Supply ..... 

52-2 

Education Projects .... 

24-3 

Engineering .... 

i -7 

International Finance Corporation 

100.0 

Total .... 

10,442 . 1 


TOTAL LOANS BY AREA 


(? million — 1947-67) 


Area 

Number 
of Loans 

Amount 

Africa .... 

74 

1 . 403-5 

Asia .... 

152 

3,458.9 

Australasia 

II 

519.8 

Europe .... 

89 

2,117.2 

Western Hemisphere . 

l8l 

2,842.7 

International Finance Cor- 



poration 

I 

100.0 

Total 

508 

10,442.1 




THE UNITED NATIONS— (Specialized Agencies) 


WORLD BANK LOANS 1966-67 
($ million — July- June) 


Country 

Purpose 

Amount 

Brazil ..... 

Electric Power 

100.6 

Cameroon .... 

Agriculture 

7.0 

Chile 

Electric Power 

60.0 

China (Taiwan) 

Fishing Vessels 

14.4 

Colombia .... 

Telecommunications and Irrigation 

25.0 

Congo (Brazzaville) 

Potash 

30.0 

Cyprus .... 

Electric Power 

2.S 

Ecuador .... 

Livestock Development 

4.0 

Guatemala .... 

Electric Power 

15.0 

Honduras .... 

Port and Roads 

13-4 

Iceland .... 

Electric Power 

18.0 

India ..... 

Iron and Steel 

30.0 

International Finance Corpora- 



tion ..... 

Development Finance 

100.0 

Iran ..... 

Development Finance Company 

25.0 

Iraq ..... 

Roads 

23.0 

Jamaica .... 

Education and Telecommunications 

20.7 

Japan .... 

Roads 

100.0 

Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda 

Telecommunications 

13-0 

Malaysia .... 

Electric Power and Irrigation 

47.0 

Nicaragua .... 

Electric Power 

5-0 

Pakistan .... 

Electric Power and Railways 

35 -o 

Peru ..... 

Electric Power 

IO. O 

Philippines ; 

Development Finance Company, Power 

37 -o 

Senegal .... 

Port 

4.0 

Singapore .... 

Electric Power 

25.0 

South Africa 

Electric Power 

20.0 

Swaziland .... 

Electric Power 

2-75 

Thailand .... 

Electric Power 

II. O 

Trinidad and Tobago 

Roads and Land Development 

13.6 

Tunisia .... 

Co-operative Farming 

12.0 

Turkey .... 

Development Finance Company 

10. 0 

Venezuela .... 

Electric Power 

15-0 

Yugoslavia .... 

Roads 

IO. O 

Zambia .... 

Roads 

1 7-5 

Total 


876.75 


INCOME AND EXPENDITURE 
(S — July 1966-June 1967) 


Revenue 


Income from Investments 
Interest on Loans . 
Commitment Charges 
Commissions on Loans 
Service Charges 

Other Income . 



7 L 955.494 

247 U 95.497 

7,688,716 

684,528 

102,002 

4.302,548 

Deductions 

. 

. 

331,928,785 

684,528 

Total . 

• 

• 

331,244,257 


Expenditure 


Administration .... 

Services to Members 

Interest on Borrowings . 

Bond Issuance and other Expenses . 
Discount on Sale of Loans 

24,272,131 

6,511,926 

128,701,615 

2,092,885 

69,473 

Total .... 

161,648,030 


23 


THE UNITED NATIONS— (Specialized Agencies) 


INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATION— IDA 

1818 H Street, N.V/., Washington, D.C. 20433 

Telephone: Executive 3-6360. 

The International Development Association began operations in November i960. Affiliated to the World Bank, 
IDA advances capital on more flexible terms to underdeveloped countries. Members: 98. 


ORGANIZATION 

President and Chairman of Executive Directors: Chairman 
of the World Bank ( ex-officio ) . 

Officers and staff of the World Bank serve concurrently 
as officers and staff of IDA. 


FINANCE 


IDA’s initial resources were derived from members’ 
subscriptions: the richer nations pay in gold or freely 
convertible currencies; the less-developed nations pay 
10 per cent in the above form and 90 per cent in their 
own currencies. By June 30th, 1967, IDA initial subscrip- 
tions totalled $999,955,000; its supplementary resources 


amounted to $972.9 million, including $767.9 million 
additional contributions from richer member countries, 
and $200 million transfers from the World Bank. Usable 
funds available to IDA from the start of its operations to 
the end of June 1967 amounted to $1,781 million. 


ACTIVITIES 

Like the World Bank, IDA finances projects of high 
development priority. By June 30th, 1967, IDA had 
extended 109 development credits aggregating $1,694 
million to 38 countries. 

DEVELOPMENT CREDITS 
($'ooo) 

(1960-June 1967) 


Country 

Purpose 

Amount 

Afghanistan . 

Education 

3 - 5 oo 

Bolivia . 

Electric Power, Roads 

17,000 

Botswana 

Roads 

3,600 

Burundi 

Water Supply 

1,100 

Cameroon 

Agriculture 

11,000 

Chile . 

Roads 

19,000 

China (Taiwan) 

Harbours, Water Develop- 


ment. Industry 

13,084 

Colombia 

Roads 

19,500 

Costa Rica 

Roads 

4.650 

Ecuador 

Highways 

8,000 

El Salvador . 

Highways 

8,000 

Ethiopia 

Roads, Education 

20,700 

Haiti 

Highways 

35 ° 

Honduras 

Highways 

12,100 

India 

Highways, Irrigation, Flood 
Control, Electric Power, 
Ports, Telecommunica- 
tions, Railways, Indus- 



trial Imports 

889,144 

Jordan . 

Water Supply, Agriculture 

10,015 

Kenya . 

Roads, Tea, Education, 

Agricultural Credit 

26,200 

Korea . 

Railways 

r 3,993 

Lesotho 

Roads 

4,100 

Madagascar . 

Roads 

10,000 

Malawi . 

Education, Project Prepara- 



tion 

I 6.790 


Country 

Purpose 

Amount 

Mali 

Railways 

9,100 

Mauritania 

Roads 

6,700 

Morocco 

Education 

11,000 

Nicaragua 

Water Supply 

2,995 

Niger 

Roads 

1.500 

Nigeria . 

Roads, Education 

35.500 

Pakistan 

Irrigation, Ports, Industry, 
Flood Control, Highways, 
Railways, Inland Water 
Transport, Water Supply, 
Agriculture, Foodgrain 

Paraguay 

Storage, Education 

330.076 

Highways, Livestock 

17,100 

Senegal . 

Railways 

9,000 

Somalia 

Roads 


Sudan . 

Irrigation 

13,000 

2,800 

Swaziland 

Highways 

Syria 

Highways 

8,500 

Tanzania 

Highways, Education, 

Tunisia . 

Agriculture 

23,600 

Education, Co-operative 

Turkey . 

Farming 

23,862 

Power, Industry 

80,554 

10,000 

Uganda 

Education 

Total 


1,694,213 


24 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Specialized Agencies) 

Development Credits — continued] 


(July 1966-June 1967) 


Country 

Purpose 

Amount 

Bolivia . 

Livestock 

2,000 

Cameroon 

Agriculture 

11,000 

India 

Industrial Imports 

215,000 

Jordan . 

Agricultural Credit 

3,000 

Kenya . 

Education, Roads, Agricul- 



tural Credit 

15,900 

Madagascar . 

Roads 

10,000 

Malawi . 

Education 

6,790 

Mali 

Railways 

9,100 

Pakistan 

Industrial Imports, Water 
Supply, Project Prepara- 



tion 

27.750 

Senegal . 

Railways 

9,000 

Tunisia . 

Education, Co-operative 



Farming 

19,000 

Turkey . 

Industry 

15,000 

Uganda 

Education 

10,000 

Total 


353.54° 


INTERNATIONAL FINANCE CORPORATION— IFC 

1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20433 

Telephone: Executive 3-6360. 

Founded in 1956 as an affiliate of the World Bank to encourage the growth of productive private enterprise in its 
member countries, particularly in the less-developed areas. Members: 85. 


ORGANIZATION 

IFC is a separate legal entity from the World Bank. 
IFC’s share capital, subscribed by member countries, 
amounted to $99.9 million at June 30th, 1967. An initial 
loan of §100 million to IFC was approved by the World 
Bank in October 1966. 

Executive Directors of the World Bank representing at 
least one country which is also a member of IFC serve as 
Directors of IFC. 

Principae Officers 
President: George D. Woods. 

Executive Vice-President: Martin M. Rosen. 
Vice-President: James S. Raj. 

FUNCTIONS 

1. Invests without government guarantee in productive 
private enterprises of economic priority. 

2. Stimulates the international flow of private capital 
to developing countries. 


3. Encourages the development of local capital markets. 

4. Provides financial and technical assistance to privately 
controlled development finance companies. 

5. Acts for the World Bank Group in the appraisal and 
supervision of industrial, mining and development finance 
company projects. 

FINANCIAL RECORD 

IFC’s funds available at June 30th, 1967, totalled 
8310.4 million. 

INVESTMENTS 
(up to June 30th, 1967) 


Number of 

Number 


Investment 

OF j 

Amount 

Commitments 

Countries 

i 


13S 

36 

§221,000,000 


25 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Specialized Agencies) 


INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND— IMF 

19th and H Streets, M.W., Washington, D.C. 20431 

Telephone: Executive 3-6360. 

Aims to facilitate the expansion and balanced growth of international trade, to promote exchange stability, to 
maintain orderly exchange arrangements among members, to avoid competitive exchange depreciation, and to 
give confidence to members by making the Fund’s resources available to them under adequate safeguards. 

Members: 107. 


ORGANIZATION 


Chairman: Pierre-Paul Schweitzer (France). 

Board of Governors: The highest authority of the Fund 
is exercised by a Board of Governors, one Governor and 
an alternate representing each member. The Board of 
Governors normally meets once a year; it delegates man}' 
of its powers to a twenty-member Board of Executive 
Directors. 


Board of Executive Directors 


Andre van Campenhout 
William B. Dale 
Adolfo C. Diz 
Paul L. Faber 
Torben Friis 
S. J. Handfield- Jones 
Ernst Vom Hofe 
Alexandre Kafka 
Pieter Lieftinck 
B. K. Madan 
E. W. Maude 


Amon Nikoi 
Georges Plescoff 
Ahmed Zaki Saad 
Sergio Siglienti 
J. O. Stone 
Hideo Suzuki 
Beue Tann 
Jorge Gonzalez Del 
Valle 

Antoine W. Yameogo 


Quotas: Each of the 107 members is assigned a quota 
which approximately determines its voting power and the 
amount of foreign exchange it may purchase from the 
Fund. Its subscription is equal to its quota and is payable 


partly in gold and partly in its own currency. On September 
30th, 1967, the Fund’s assets included § 3.757 million in 
gold, §811 million in subscriptions receivable and §17,722 
million in various national currencies. 

The original quotas varied from §500,000 to §2,750 
million but in 1958 a general review of the adequacy of 
members’ quotas resulted in general and selective increases 
amounting to about §5,500 million over the next two 
years. A further 25 per cent general increase of quotas, 
together with larger increases for 16 countries, was pro- 
posed in 1965. This increase has brought an expansion of 
total quotas from § 16,000 million to approximately 
§21,000 million. 

General Arrangements to Borrow: The IMF is also 
authorized to supplement its resources by borrowing. An 
agreement was approved by the Fund in 1962 and extended 
in 1965 until 1970 whereby ten industrial members under- 
took to lend the Fund up to §6,000 million in their own 
currencies, if this should be needed to forestall or cope 
with an impairment of the international monetary system. 
These arrangements were used to help finance the drawings 
made by the United Kingdomin 1964 and 1965. The amount 
still available under the arrangements at September 30th, 
1967, was §5,475 million. 


FUTURE ACTIVITIES 


Creation of Reserves 

Studies by the Fund over recent years indicated that in 
future certain countries would take less of their reserve 
increases in the form of reserve currencies and that the 
U.S.A., whose reserves had fallen substantially over the 
post-war period, would seek to increase its reserve assets. 
After various considerations were examined, the Fund 
suggested that the rate of growth in reserves should be 
related to the long-term trend in payments imbalances 
taking into account the results of any improvements in the 
adjustment process. Studies made in the IMF show that 
the upward trend in payments imbalances over the recent 
past has been of the same order of magnitude as that in 
international trade. Although the same relationship may 
not prevail in the future, it is clear that, if gold accruals to 
official reserves do not increase, and there is a continuing 
reluctance to add to holdings over reserve currencies, 
deliberate reserve creation would at an appropriate time 
l>e necessary in order to maintain an adequate rate of 
reserve growth. 

The creation of reserves should be determined by global 
need, rather than by way of providing credit to countries in 
balance of payments difficulties, or by development aid. 
Discussions on the form of any newly-created reserves 


have centred on the choice between additional drawing 
facilities in the IMF and the creation of a reserve unit 
through an expansion of claims between a reserve-creating 
institution and the countries to which newly-created 
reserves were initially distributed. 

Special Drawing Rights 

The 1966 Annual Meeting of the IMF Board of Governors 
supported a procedure under which there would be dis- 
cussions on international liquidity in a series of meetings 
between the Executive Directors of the Fund and Deputies 
of the Ten participating in the General Arrangement to 
Borrow. As a result of these meetings, a scheme was 
evolved for deliberate reserve creation in the form of 
drawing rights which would be operated within the Fund. 
An Outline Plan for a facility based on Special Drawing 
Rights in the IMF was approved by the Fund’s Governors 
at the Annual Meeting in Rio de Janeiro in September, 
1967. The Executive Directors were requested to proceed 
with w ork relating to the establishment in the Fund of the 
new' facility. They were also requested to work on improve- 
ments to the present rules and practices of the IMF in the 
light of the experience and developments of the last 
tw'enty years. 



rHE UNITED NATIONS — (Specialized Agencies) 
FUNCTIONS 

1. Makes its foreign exchange resources available, under 
proper safeguards, to its members to meet short-term 
or medium-term payments difficulties. 

2. Furnishes, on request, expert technicians to advise 
and assist members in their financial and monetary 
problems. 

3. Affords continuous and full consultation on monetary 
and exchange matters. 


STATISTICS 


TOTAL ASSETS 
(million U.S. dollars) 


30th April, 1957 
30th April, 1958 
30th April, 1959 
30th April, i960 
30th April, 1961 
30th April, 1962 
30th April, 1963 
30th April, rgd4 
30th April, 1965 
30th April, 1966 
30th April, 1967 


8,927.2 

9,099.6 

9,268.0 

I4-39I-7 

15,007.6 

15,247.8 

15,467.0 

15.902.2 

16.692.3 
20,734.5 
22 , 643-9 


TOTAL EXCHANGE TRANSACTIONS 
(Year ending April 30th, 1967) 
(million U.S. dollars) 


Currency 

Drawings 

Repurchases 

Gold .... 

— 

I 4-3 

Australian pounds . 

21.3 

— 

Austrian schillings . 

20.0 

0.2 

Belgian francs 

10. 0 

2.7 

Brazilian new cruzeiros . 

15.0 

— 

Canadian dollars 

253.3 

228.5 

El Salvadoran colones 


— 

French francs 

46.2 

13 -i 

Deutsche mark 

S2 .0 

38.1 

Italian lire 

309.2 

6.9 

Japanese yen. 

— 

30.9 

Malayan dollars 

5.0 

— 

Mexican pesos 

14.0 

— 

Netherlands guilders 

IO. O 

2.3 

Norwegian kroner . 

5.0 

— 

Swedish kroner 

— 

2.5 

Pounds sterling 

120.4 

0.2 

U.S. dollars . 

139.5 

0.5 

Venezuelan bolivares 

IO. O 

— 

Total . 

1,061.3 

340.1 


INCOME AND EXPENDITURE 
(1967) 


(million 


Income 


Operational Charges .... 

Charges on Balance in excess of quotas 

; 



U.S. dollars) 


Expenditure 


Board of Governors .... 

0.51 

Office of Executive Directors . 

1.84 

Staff ....... 

12.24 

Special Services ..... 

1.24 

Other Administration .... 

2 .26 

Other Expenditure .... 

2r . 10 

Total .... 

39-19 


Total 


• I 


S9.6 




THE UNITED NATIONS— (Specialized Agencies) 

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION— FAO 

Viale deile Terme di Caracalla, Rome, Italy 

Telephone: 5797. 

FAO was established in 1945 at a conference in Quebec. It exists to help nations raise their standard of living by 
improving the efficiency of farming, forestry and fisheries. Members: 1 16 full, 3 associate. 


ORGANIZATION 


CONFERENCE 

The Conference, the governing body of FAO, normally 
meets once every two years to approve the budget 
and determine policy. Each member nation has one 
delegation and one vote. The Conference draws up the 
programme of work, based on an assessment of the 
economic or technical needs of countries or regions. New 
members are elected by the Conference. The last Conference 
was held in Rome in November/December 1965. 

COUNCIL 

Acts as the governing body between Conference Sessions. 
The Council normally meets every spring and autumn, and 
briefly after every Conference Session. It is composed of 
representatives of 34 member nations, elected by the 
Conference for three-year terms. The most important 
standing Committees of the Council are: the Finance and 
Programme Committees, and the Committee on Com- 
modity Problems, which reviews world trade in agri- 
cultural commodities. 

SECRETARIAT 

Director-General (1968-72): A. H. Boerma (Netherlands). 
Deputy Director-General: Oris V. Wells. 

The Director-General is elected by the Conference. He 
appoints and controls a staff of about 1,000 international 
civil servants and about 1,700 technical experts, who rvork 
in the field in developing countries. 


REGIONAL OFFICES 

Africa: P.O Box 1628, Accra, Ghana; Regional Rep. Chief 
Akin Deko. 

Asia and the Far East: Maliwan Mansion, Phra Atit Road, 
Bangkok, Thailand; Rep. Ahsan-ud-din. 

Asia and the Far East (Western Zone): 1 Ring Road, 
Kilokri, New Delhi 14, India; Deputy Regional Rep. 
Cedric Day. 

Europe: Palais des Nations, Geneva, Switzerland; Regional 
Rep. Paul Lamartine Yates. 

Latin America: Cano y Aponte 995. (Providencia) (Casilla 
10095), Santiago, Chile; Deputy Regional Rep. P- 
Cochin 

Latin America (Northern Zone): Hamburgo 63, 4 piso 
(Apartado Postal 10778), Mexico 6, D.F., Mexico; 
Deputy Regional Rep. A. Alarc6n. 

Latin America (Eastern Zone): Rua Jardim Botanico 1008, 
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Dep. Regional Rep. Pompeii 
Accioly Borges. 

Near East: no Sharia ICasr El Aini, Garden City (P.O.B. 

2223), Cairo; Regional Rep. Dr. A. R. Sidky. 

North America: 1325 C. Street Southwest, Washington 
D.C. 20437, U.S.A.; Regional Rep. H. A. Vogel. 


ACTIVITIES 


FAO has two main functions: to serve its member 
governments as an international agricultural information 
clearing house, and to give technical advice in the fields of 
agriculture, fisheries, forestry, nutrition and home econo- 
mics. One of the world’s best libraries on these subjects is 
housed in Rome, and FAO publishes many documents in 
English, French and Spanish on problems in these fields. 
FAO's administrative work is manifold, and includes pro- 
jects and research work in many countries and territories. 
Technicians and experts from many countries attend 
specialized meetings to discuss problems, to plan investiga- 
tions and assess their results, and to agree on necessary 
action. There is thus an international pooling of knowledge 


and experience, that helps the member nations keep more 
closely in step with the advances of agricultural knowledge. 

FAO has working relations with about 40 inter-govern- 
mental organizations, and formal consultative relations 
with a number of non-governmental organizations. 

FAO also co-ordinates a Freedom from Hunger Cam- 
P a ign, intended to widen the consciousness of individuals 
and governments of the world food problem and the 
measures needed to solve it. With the UN, FAO administers 
the World Food Programme which uses food stocks con- 
tributed by many countries to meet emergency situations 
and help finance programmes of economic and social 
development (see chapter, below). 


28 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Specialized Agencies) 

FAO BUDGET 

For two years (1968-69). In U.S. dollars. 


Conference and Council 

557> 8 °° 

Office of Director-General 

5,039,100 

Public Relations and Legal Affairs 

8,885,900 

Administration and Finance 

3,162,500 

Common Services 

6,815,500 

Technical and Economic Divisions 

29,430.550 

Regional Offices .... 

4 , 233.550 

Miscellaneous .... 

435,ioo 

Contingencies .... 

350,000 

Reserve ..... 

951,000 

Total .... 

59,861,000 


PUBLICATIONS 


The State of Food and Agriculture (annual). 
Production Yearbook. 

Trade Yearbook. 

Yearbook of Fishery Statistics. 

Animal Health Yearbook. 

Review of Fertilisers (Production and Consumption). 


Yearbook of Forest Products Statistics. 

World Fisheries A bslracts. 

Bulletin of Agricultural Economics and Statistics 
(monthly) . 

Unasylva (a forestry periodical). 


GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS AND TRADE— GATT 

Villa le Bocage, Palais des Nations, Geneva 

Telephone: 34 60 xi, 33 40 00, 33 20 00, 33 xo 00. 

GATT came into force in January 1948. It is an international agreement aiming to raise standards of living, to 
ensure full employment, to develop the world's resources, to expand production and exchange of goods, and to 
promote economic development. Members: 74 full members (contracting parties), 12 other forms of membership. 

ORGANIZATION 


TARIFF CONFERENCES 

Held so that members may negotiate to reduce and 
stabilize tariff levels. There have been six Conferences: 
Geneva 1947 Geneva 1956 

Annecy 1949 Geneva 1960-61 

Torquay 1951 Geneva 1964-67 

The Kennedy Round of Trade Negotiations (May 1964- 
June 1967) was concerned with the reduction of tariffs and 
other barriers to trade. Some fifty countries accounting for 
eighty per cent of world trade participated. In the industrial 
field, across-the-board tariff cuts were agreed over a wide 
area of trade. The estimated trade in the products on which 
concessions were agreed amounted to some $40,000 million. 
In many areas reductions of fifty per cent were agreed. In 
the agricultural sector, the basic elements for a world 
grains arrangement were agreed, including the provision for 
food aid to developing countries to an amount of 4.5 million 
tons of grain annually (these elements were subsequently 
transformed into an international grains arrangement). In 
the field of non-tariff barriers a code for the administration 
of national anti-dumping laws and regulations was agreed. 


SESSIONS 

The sessions of the Contracting Parties (full members) 
are held usually once a year, in Geneva. 

Chairman (1967): K. B. Lall (India). 

Vice-Chairmen (1967): R. M. Akwei (Ghana), M. Aoki 
(Japan), A. Weitnauer (Switzerland). 

COUNCIL OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Set up in September i960 to deal with urgent work 
arising between the annual Sessions, and to supervise the 
work of committees and working groups. 

SECRETARIAT 

Director-General: Olivier Long. 

Deputy Director-General: (Vacant) 

The Secretariat consists of a number of specialists in 
trade policy and trade intelligence, and a small administra- 
tive staff. It prepares and runs the Sessions, and services 
the work of the Council and the committees and worldng 
groups. It is also responsible for organizing the trade 
negotiating conferences. 


29 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Specialized Agencies) 


INTERNATIONAL TRADE CENTRE 
Villa Le Bocage, Palais des Nations, Geneva 


Established in May 1964 to provide trade information 
and trade promotion advisory services for developing 
countries, the primary objective being to assist these 
countries to expand their export trade. These services, 
which are available to both Members and non-members 
of GATT, include a market information sendee to answer 


enquiries from developing countries, a series of publications 
directed to their export interest and the provision of 
training courses in export promotion. The joint operation 
of the Trade Centre by the GATT and by the UNCTAD 
was initiated in January 1968. 

Director: H. L. Jacobson. 


ORIGIN OF GATT 


During the second world war the United States, the 
United Kingdom and other important trading countries dis- 
cussed the establishment of international organizations to 
tackle the post-war problems of currency, investment and 
trade. The International Monetary Fund and the Inter- 
national Bank for Reconstruction and Development were 
established before the end of the war, but the Charter for 
the International Trade Organization ( 1 TO) was not com- 
pleted until March 1948. The first tariff negotiating confer- 
ence was held at Geneva in 1947, an d the resulting conces- 
sions were safeguarded under the terms of a multilateral 


agreement called the General Agreement on Tariffs and 
Trade. It was signed on October 30th, 1947, a t Geneva and 
came into force on January 1st, 1948. Originally the GATT 
was accepted by twenty-three countries. 

The GATT was intended as a stop-gap arrangement, 
pending the entry into force of the ITO (Havana) Charter 
and the creation of the International Trade Organization. 
But, as events have worked out, GATT has stood alone 
since 1948 as the generally accepted international instru- 
ment which lays down rules of conduct for trade on a 
world-wide basis. 


AIMS AND ACTIVITIES 


GATT is a legal treaty embodying reciprocal rights and 
obligations designed to achieve the objectives set out in 
the preamble to the Agreement where the Contracting 
Parties recognize that '*. . . their relations in the field of 
trade and economic endeavour should be conducted with a 
view to raising standards of living, ensuring full employ- 
ment and a large and steadily-growing volume of real 
income and eSective demand, developing the full use of 
the resources of the world and expanding the production 
and exchange of goods, and promoting the progressive 
development of the economies of all the contracting 
parties." 

The detailed undertakings set out in the GATT, together 
with a body of case law built up by the Contracting Parties, 
constitute a general code of conduct covering virtually the 
whole field of the commercial relations of member states. 

The Contracting Parties (i.e. the member governments 
acting jointly) deal with questions arising from the 
implementation of the Agreement — among other things 
acting as a negotiating forum, and as a forum where any 
difference between member countries can be dealt with — 
and take such action as is necessary in the light of develop- 
ments in international trade to further the objectives of 
the Agreement. 

A major objective of GATT is, through the operation of 
the provisions of the Agreement and through trade 
negotiations, to bring about a lowering of barriers to trade. 


Over the past decade particular attention has been paid 
to the trade and economic development problems of the 
developing countries, and practical steps have been taken 
to remove or reduce impediments to the expansion of their 
export trade. The Programme for Trade Expansion was 
inaugurated in 1958, the Action Programme launched in 
1963, and a new Part IV of the Agreement, containing 
provisions which deal specifically with problems of trade 
and development, entered into force in June 1966. 

Long-Term Arrangement for Cotton Textiles 

In 1961 a short-term arrangement regarding inter- 
national trade in cotton textiles was drawn up. This was 
designed to deal with immediate problems and applied to 
the twelve-month period starting October 1961. The 
Cotton Textiles Committee was created to undertake work 
preparatory to a long-term solution. This work was com- 
pleted in 1962 with the completion of a Long-Term 
Arrangement for Cotton Textiles, which entered into force 
in October 1962 for a period of five years. In 1967 the 
Arrangement was extended for a further three years. 

The purpose of the Arrangement is to ensure the orderly 
development of trade in cotton textile products, in order 
progressively to increase export possibilities, particularly 
for less-developed countries, while at the same time 
avoiding disruption of markets in importing countries. 
Each year the Cotton Textiles Committee reviews the 
operation of the Arrangement. 


30 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Specialized Agencies) 

SUMMARY OF THE GENERAL AGREEMENT 


Part I. Most-Favoured-Nation Treatment 

Article I. Most-Favoured-Nation obligation. Based on 
the League of Nations clause. 

Part II. Schedules of Concessions 

Article II. The basic tariff article incorporating the 
concessions (i.e. mainly reductions or bindings of import 
duties) set forth in the schedules annexed to the Agree- 
ment. 

Article III. Internal taxation and concessions; based 
on the principle that internal taxes shall not be applied so 
as to protect domestic industry. 

Articles IV-X. The technical articles, providing 
general rules and principles relating to transit trade, to 
anti-dumping duties, to customs valuation, customs 
formalities, and marks of origin. 

Article XI. Contains the general prohibition of quanti- 
tative restrictions. 

Article XII. Lays down the conditions under which 
such restrictions can be used to safeguard the balance of 
payments. 

Articles XIII, XIV. Provision that quantitative re- 
strictions must be applied without discrimination, with 
certain exceptions. 

Article XV. Deals with relations between the Con- 
tracting Parties and the International Monetary Fund. 

Article XVI. Subsidies. 

Article XVII. Non-discriminatory treatment by state 
trading enterprises. 

Article XVIII. Recognizes that the less-developed 
countries need to maintain a degree of flexibility in their 
tariff structure in order to grant the tariff protection 
required for the establishment of particular industries and 
may need to apply quantitative restrictions in a manner 
which takes full account of the continued high level of 
demand for imports likely to be generated by their pro- 
grammes of economic development. 

Article XIX. Emergency action about imports of 
particular products. 


Articles XX, XXI. General and security exceptions. 

Articles XXII, XXIII. Provisions for action by Con- 
tracting Parties to settle differences arising out of the 
application of the GATT. 

Part III. Administrative Details 

Article XXIV. Territorial application; frontier traffic; 
the rules relating to the establishment of customs unions 
and free-trade areas. 

Article XXV. Provides for joint action by the Con- 
tracting Parties. Each Party to have one vote. Decisions 
by majority. This article is the legal basis for the very 
broad role the Contracting Parties have come to play in 
working towards the expansion of international trade and 
in providing a forum for discussion of international trade 
problems. 

Article XXVI. Acceptance; entry into force; registra- 
tion. 

Article XXVII. Withholding or withdrawal of con- 
cessions. 

Article XXVIII. Deals with the general principle of 
tariff negotiation and with the arrangements under which 
Contracting Parties can, by negotiation, modify existing 
tariff concessions. 

Article XXIX. Relationship to the Havana Charter. 

Articles XXX-XXXIV. Definitions and amendments, 
etc. 

Article XXXV. Non-application between particular 
parties. 

Part IV. Trade and Development 

Article XXXVI. Principles and Objectives. 

Article XXXVII. Commitments. 

Article XXXVIII. Joint Action. 

Adopted in February 1965, Part IV provides a con- 
tractual and legal basis for commitments by contracting 
parties aimed at ensuring that less-developed countries 
can raise standards of living and promote rapid economic 
development through raising their export earnings. 


BUDGET 

Payments arc based on each member’s share of the total trade between members. Contributions for 1967 totalled $3,000,500. 


PUBLICATIONS 


(available in English, French and Spanish editions). 


International Trade. Annual report on the main develop- 
ments in International Trade. 


Basic Instruments and Selected Documents series. These 
record the formal decisions of the Members, important 
committee papers, etc. One volume a year. 


31 


THE UNITED NATIONS— (Specialized Agencies) 


INTER-GOVERNMENTAL MARITIME CONSULTATIVE 
ORGANIZATION— IMCO 

22 Berners Street, London, W.1, England 

Telephone: 01-580 6141. 

IMCO was set up in 1959 to facilitate co-operation among governments and to achieve safety and efficient 
navigation. It seeks to remove restrictions on the movement of international shipping. Members: 63. 


ORGANIZATION 


THE ASSEMBLY 

President, 1967-: Y. K. Quartey (Ghana) 

The Assembly consists of delegates from all member 
countries, who each have one vote. Associate members 
and observers from other governments, the United Nations 
and UN agencies are also present. Sessions are held 
regularly every two years. The first three took place in 
London in January 1959, April 1961 and October 1963, 
and the fourth in Paris in September 1965. The Assembly 
is responsible for the election of members to the Council 
and to the Maritime Safety Committee. It considers 
reports from all subsidiary bodies and decides the action 
to be taken on them. The Assembly votes the agency’s 
budget and determines the financial policy. An important 
part of its work is to recommend to members measures 
designed to promote maritime safety. 


THE COUNCIL 


Chairman: I. Averin (U.S.S.R.). 


Australia 

Brazil 

Canada 

Prance 

German Federal 
Republic 


Members 


Greece 

India 

Italy 

Japan 

Madagascar 

Netherlands 


Norway 

Poland 

Sweden 

United Arab Republic 
United Kingdom 
U.S.A. 

U.S.S.R. 


The Council is the governing body of the Organization 
between the biennial sessions of the Assembly. The Council 
appoints the Secretary-General; transmits reports by the 
Maritime Safety Committee to the Assembly and reports 
on the work of the Organization generally; submits budget 
estimates and financial statements with comments and 
recommendations to the Assembly. The Council meets as 
often as necessary, normally twice a year. 


Legal Committee 

Established by the Council in June 1967 to deal initially 
with problems connected with the loss of the tanker 
Torrey Canyon, and subsequently with any legal problems 
laid before IMCO. Membership open to all IMCO Member 
States. 


THE MARITIME SAFETY COMMITTEE 


Chairman: K. J. Neuberth Wie (Norway). 


Argentina 

Canada 

France 

German Federal 
Republic 


Members 

Greece 

Italy 

Japan 

Liberia 

Netherlands 


Norwa.y 
Pakistan 
United Kingdom 
U.S.A. 

U.S.S.R. 


The Maritime Safety Committee consists of fourteen 
members elected by the Assembly for a term of four years. 
The Committee meets at least once a year and submits 
proposals to the Assembly on matters such as aids to 
navigation, construction and equipment of vessels, manning 
from a safety standpoint, rules for the prevention of 
collisions, transport of dangerous cargoes, maritime safety 
procedures and requirements, hydrographic information, 
log-books and navigational records, marine casualty in- 
vestigation, search and rescue, and any other matters 
directly affecting maritime safety. 


Sub-Committees 


Bulk Cargoes. 

Carriage of Dangerous Goods. 
Fire Protection. 

Life-Saving Appliances. 

Oil Pollution. 
Radiocommunications. 


Safety of Navigation. 

Ship Design and Equip 
ment 

Subdivision and Stability. 
Tonnage Measurement. 


SECRETARIAT 

Secretary-General: E. C. V. Goad (United Kingdom). 

The Secretariat consists of the Secretary-General, the 
Deputy Secretary-General who is also Secretary of the 
Maritime Safety Committee, and a staS appointed by the 
Secretary-General. The Secretariat keeps members in- 
formed of the activities of the Organization, submits 
financial statements and budget estimates to the Council 
and carries out any work assigned to it by the Assembly, 
the Council, the Maritime Safety Committee and other 
subsidiary bodies of IMCO. 


32 


THE UNITED NATIONS — (Specialized Agencies) 

ACTIVITIES 


International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1948, 
and Collision Regulations, 1948. IMCO has taken over 
administration from the United Kingdom. 

International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, i960, 
and Collision Regulations, i960. A Conference held in i960 
revised the 1948 Safety Convention and prepared a new 
one. The i960 Safety Convention, administered by IMCO, 
came into force on May 26th, 1965 and the i960 Collision 
Regulations became effective on September 1st, 1965. 

International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution 
of the Sea by Oil, 1954. IMCO has taken over administration 
from the United Kingdom and an international conference 
in 1962 adopted certain amendments to the 1954 Conven- 
tion. The amendments came into force in May 1967. 

Convention on Facilitation of International Maritime 
Traffic, 1969. Drawn up at a conference called by IMCO 
in 1965. The object of the convention is to reduce and 
simplify governmental procedures and documentation for 
ships. Came into force in March 1967. 

International Convention on Load Lines, 1966. Drawn up 
at a conference called by IMCO in 1966. It will eventually 
replace the current Load Line Convention of 1930. The 
Convention is to come into force in July 1968. 

Sub-Committee on Bulk Cargoes. Has drawn up the Code 
of Safe Practice for Bulk Cargoes, which will be kept up to 
date. Strength of grain fittings under review. 

Sub-Committee on the Carriage of Dangerous Goods.- Has 
drawn up International Maritime Goods Code, which will 
be kept up to date. 

Sub-Committee on Fire Protection. Deals with fire pro- 
tection measures for ships, including tankers. 

Sub-Committee on Life-Saving Appliances. Deals with 
questions pertaining to life-saving equipment. 

Sub-Committee on Oil Pollution. Keeps the problem of 
pollution and its prevention under constant review. 


Sub-Committee on Radiocommunications. Deals with ques- 
tions pertaining to radiocommunications from the view- 
point of safety at sea. Responsible for periodic revision of 
the International Code of Signals. 

Sub-Committee on Safety of Navigation. Deals with 
questions pertaining to safety of navigation, including 
those relevant to new types of craft. 

Sub-Committee on Ship Design and Equipment. Considers 
primarily the construction and equipment of ships carrying 
bulk cargoes of dangerous chemical substances other than 
petroleum and similar inflammable products normally 
carried in tankers; aims to recommend suitable design 
criteria, constructional standards and other safety 
measures. 

Sub-Committee on Subdivision and Stability. Examines 
watertight subdivision of passenger ships, intact stability 
of passenger and cargo ships, subdivision and damage 
stability of cargo ships. Has set up a Working Group on 
Stability of Fishing Vessels. 

Sub-Committee on Tonnage Measurement. Aims to pro- 
duce a universal system of tonnage measurement for ships. 

BUDGET 

The establishment of IMCO was financed by a loan from 
the United Nations. Arrangements were made by the first 
Assembly to place the Organization on a sound financial 
basis with contributions assessed from member states. The 
budget for operations during 1966/67 was established at 
$ 1 , 744 , 492 . 

PUBLICATIONS 

IMCO — What it is, What it does (English, French, 
Spanish). 

Annual Report (English, French, Russian, Spanish). 

Bulletin (English, French). 

Numerous specialized publications, including inter- 
national conventions of which IMCO is depositary 


CONVENTIONS 


Part I— PURPOSES 

Article i. (a) to provide machinery for co-operation 
among governments in the field of governmental regu- 
lation and practices relating to technical matters of all 
kinds affecting shipping engaged in international trade, 
and to encourage the general adoption of the highest 
practicable standards in matters concerning maritime 
safety and efficiency of navigation; 

(b) to encourage the removal of discriminatory action 
and unnecessary restrictions by governments affecting 
shipping engaged in international trade so as to promote 
the availability of shipping services to the commerce of the 
world without discrimination; assistance and encourage- 
ment given by a government for the development of its 
national shipping and for purposes of security does not in 
itself constitute discrimination, provided that such assist- 
ance and encouragement is not based on measures designed 
to restrict the freedom of shipping of all flags to take part 
in international trade; 


(c) to provide for the consideration by the Organization 
of matters concerning unfair restrictive practices by ship- 
ping concerns in accordance with Part II; 

(d) to provide for the consideration by the Organization 
of any matters concerning shipping that may be referred 
to it by any organ or Specialized Agency of the United 
Nations; 

(e) to provide for the exchange of information among 
governments on matters under consideration by the 
Organization. 

Part II— FUNCTIONS 

Article 2. The functions of the Organization shall be 
consultative and advisory. 

Articles 3 and 4. Description of functions. 

Part III— MEMBERSHIP 

Article 5. Membership in the Organization shall be 
open to all states. 

Articles 6-1 i. Conditions of membership. 


33 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Specialized Agencies) 


Part IV— ORGANS 

Article 12. The Organization shall consist of an 
Assembly, a Council, a Maritime Safety Committee, and 
such subsidiary organs as the Organization may at any 
time consider necessary; and a Secretariat. 

Part V— ASSEMBLY 

Article 13. The Assembly shall consist of all the 
members. 

Articles 14-16. Powers and duties of the Assembly. 
Part VI— COUNCIL 

Article 17. The Council shall be composed of eighteen 
members elected by the Assembly. 

Article 18. In electing the members of the Council, the 
Assembly shall observe the following principles: 

(a) six shall be governments of States with the largest 
interest in providing international shipping services; 

(b) six shall be governments of other States with the 
largest interest in international seaborne trade; 

(c) six shall be governments of States not elected under 
(a) or (b) above, which have special interests in 
maritime transport or navigation and whose election 
to the Council will ensure the representation of all 
major geographic areas of the world. 

Articles 19-27. Pow’ers and duties of the Council. 

Part VII— MARITIME SAFETY COMMITTEE 
Article 28. The Maritime Safety Committee shall con- 
sist of fourteen members elected by the Assembly from the 
members, governments of those nations having an im- 
portant interest in maritime safety, of which not less than 


eight shall he the largest ship-owning nations, and the 
remainder shall be elected so as to ensure adequate 
representation of members, governments of other nations 
with an important interest in maritime safety, such as 
nations interested in the supply of large numbers of crews 
or in the carriage of large numbers of berthed and un- 
berthed passengers, and of major geographical areas. 

Article 29. The Maritime Safety Committee shall have 
the duty of considering any matter within the scope of the 
Organization and concerned with aids to navigation, con- 
struction and equipment of vessels, manning from a safety 
standpoint, rules for the prevention of collisions, handling 
of dangerous cargoes, maritime safety procedures and 
requirements, hydrographic information, log-books and 
navigational records, marine casualty investigation, sal- 
vage and rescue, and any other matters directly affecting 
maritime safety. 

Articles 30-32. Powers and duties of the Maritime 
Safety Committee. 

Part YIII— SECRETARIAT 

Article 33. The Secretariat shall comprise the Secret- 
ary-General, a Secretary of the Maritime Safety Committee 
and such staff as the Organization may require. 

Articles 34-38. Powers and duties of the Secretariat. 


Parts IX-XVII 


Budget and Finance 
Voting 

Headquarters 
•Relations with other 
Bodies 


Legal Capacity 
Amendments 
Interpretation 
Miscellaneous Provisions 
Entry into Force 


INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY— IAEA 

Kaerntnerring 11, 1 010 Vienna 

Telephone: 52 45 25. 

Founded in 1957 to enlarge and accelerate the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity 

throughout the world. World membership: 98. 


ORGANIZATION 


GENERAL CONFERENCE 

Consists of representatives of all Member States, and 
meets once a year to decide questions of the programme, 
budget, membership and policy. It elects twelve members 
of the Board, and considers and approves reports for 
submission to the UN and agreements with the UN and 
other organizations. It appoints the Director-General, 
president (1967): Jan Neumann (Czechoslovakia). 

BOARD OF GOVERNORS 

Meets approximately every third month to supervise the 
work of the Secretariat. Consists of twenty -five members 
representing member countries. 

Chairman: (1967-68): Oscar Armando Quihillalt 
(Argentina). 


DIRECTOR-GENERAL 

Responsible for the execution of policy through five 
departments: Technical Assistance; Technical Operations; 
Research and Isotopes; Safeguards and Inspection; 
Administration. 

Director-General: Dr. Sigvard Eklund (Sweden). 

SCIENTIFIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE 

The Committee was set up in 1958 to advise the Board of 
Governors and the Director-General. 

Lord Penney (U.K.), Prof. V. I. Spitsyn (U.S.S.R ) 
Prof. B. Goldschmidt (France), Prof. Luis Cintra do 
Prado (Brazil), Dr. W. B. Lewus (Canada), Prof. I. I. 
Rabi (U.S.A.), Dr. M. A’M. El-Gebeilv (U.A.R.), Prof. I. 
Malek (Czechoslovakia), Prof. S. Mitsui (Japan) Dr! 
H. N. Sethna (India). 


34 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Specialized Agencies) 


ACTIVITIES 


Reactors and Nuclear Power. The Agency has sent mis- 
sions to study possibilities of nuclear power in Turkey and 
the Republic of Korea; it has completed a pre-investment 
study on power, including nuclear power, in the Philippines. 
In the Philippines, Tunisia and Korea, Agency experts 
advised on reactor safety and siting. Others took part in 
several water desalination and power missions to Member 
States. 

Safeguards. The Agency has adopted a revised and ex- 
tended system of safeguards against the diversion to mili- 
tary purposes of materials and equipment supplied. Some 
38 Agency safeguards agreements now cover 65 reactors 
in Member States. The Agency has designated 18 of its 
officials as inspectors, and the}' are assisted by other 
experts as necessary. 

Health and Safety and Radiation Protection. A special 
advisory service has been set up at Agency headquarters to 
give information and advice on radiation protection and 
the management of radioactive wastes. Special training 
courses have been organized in radiation protection and 
Agency experts have visited Member States. 

Exchange of Information. The Agency library contains 
some 112,500 scientific and technical volumes, and there is 
a collection of about 600 films dealing with atomic energy. 
Numerous panels and study groups are held, and an aver- 
age of twelve major scientific meetings are convened 
annually. A Nuclear Data Unit has been set up to exchange 
data on neutron physics through computer centres through- 
out the world. 

Regulatory Activities. IAEA has prepared drafts and 
model regulations as a basis for international rules and 
uniform practices for transport of radioactive materials, 
disposal of radioactive wastes, and safety of research 
reactors and critical assemblies. 

Materials and Services. IAEA makes available the 
services of experts and visiting professors, provides 
equipment and training courses and sponsors research 
fellowships. It also has two mobile radioisotope laboratories. 
Resident regional advisers have been appointed for the 
Middle East and Far East. In the Agency Budget for 1968, 
$1,876,000 was provided for technical assistance. 

Research and Laboratories. The Agency has laboratories 
at Seibersdorf, Austria (physics, chemistry, agriculture) 
and Vienna (medical physics, hydrology). They are 
intended for such activities as standardization of radio- 
active sources, the establishment and study of international 
standards for measurement techniques, the calibration of 
equipment and its adaptation for use in various countries, 
and measurements and analyses in connection with the 
Agency's safeguards programme. Standardized samples of 


radionuclides for calibration purposes have been despatched 
to laboratories in member states in increasing variety and 
numbers. A marine biological research project is being 
carried out in collaboration with the Principality and the 
Oceanographic Institute of Monaco. 

Training. During 1967, the IAEA has provided some 280 
fellowships and 21 visiting professors. It organized eleven 
international and regional training courses. 

Theoretical Physics Centre. At Trieste, the IAEA Inter- 
national Centre for Theoretical Physics completed its 
third year of operation. The Centre has been established 
under an agreement with the Government of Italy to 
foster, through training and research, the advancement of 
theoretical physics with special regard to the needs of 
developing countries. 

Agriculture. Co-ordinated international programmes are 
being carried out on the fertilizer uptake by plants, 
particularly rice and maize; elimination of insect pests 
through the sterile male techniques; plant breeding and 
mutations induced by radioisotopes; disease control; 
irradiation of food products. 

Medicine. Work on nuclear medicine is mostly in colla- 
boration with WHO and deals with the diagnostic and 
research applications of radionuclides, toxicology of 
radionuclides and physics of radiotherapy. More than 200 
hospitals in 40 countries have taken part in an Agency 
programme for bringing greater uniformity into the 
measurement of radioiodine uptake by the thyroid gland. 

Hydrology. IAEA has established an advisory and 
experimental service for the use of radioisotopes in 
connection with the developments of -water resources. The 
Agency has participated in hydrological investigations in 
Cambodia, Kenya, Rhodesia, Tunisia and Chile, and under 
sub-contract for the UN Special Fund, in Jordan and 
Turkey. 

BUDGET 

The total budget estimate for 1968 amounts to 
$12,477,000 of -which $2,000,000 is to be provided by 
voluntary contributions. 

PUBLICATIONS 

Proceedings of Conferences, Symposia and Seminars. 

IAEA Bulletin. 

A tomic Energy Review. 

Nuclear Fusion: Journal of Plasma Physics and Thermo- 
nuclear Fusion. 

Technical Directories. 

Safety Series. 

Bibliographical Series. 

Technical Reports Series. 


35 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Specialized Agencies) 

SUMMARY OF THE STATUTE 

(Adopted October 23rd, 1956) 


The Agency is authorized: 

1. To encourage and assist research on, and development 
and practical application of, atomic energy for peaceful 
uses throughout the world; and, if requested to do so, to 
act as an intermediary for the purposes of securing the 
performance of services or the supplying of materials, 
equipment, or facilities by one member of the Agency for 
another; and to perform any operation or service useful in 
research on, or development or practical application of, 
atomic energy for peaceful purposes. 

2. To make provision, in accordance with this Statute 
for materials, sendees, equipment, and facilities to meet 
the needs of research on, and development and practical 
application of, atomic energy for peaceful purposes, in- 
cluding the production of electric power, with due con- 
sideration for the needs of the under-developed areas of 
the world. 

3. To foster the exchange of scientific and technical 
information on peaceful uses of atomic energy. 

4. To encourage the exchange and training of scientists 
and experts in the field of peaceful uses of atomic energy. 

5. To establish and administer safeguards designed to 
ensure that special fissionable and other materials, services, 
equipment, facilities, and information made available by 
the Agency or at its request or under its supervision or 
control are not used in such a way as to further any 
military purpose; and to apply safeguards, at the request 
of the parties, to any bilateral or multilateral arrangement 
or, at the request of a State, to any of that State's activ- 
ities in the field of atomic energy. 

6. To establish or adopt, in consultation and, where 
appropriate, in collaboration with the competent organs 
of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies 
concerned, standards of safety for protection of health and 
minimization of danger to life and property (including such 
standards for labour conditions), and to provide for the 
application of these standards to its own operations as 
well as to the operations making use of materials, services, 
equipment, facilities, and information made available by 
the Agency or at its request or under its control or super- 
vision; and to provide for the application of these stan- 
dards, at the request of the parties; to operations under 
any bilateral or multilateral arrangement, or, at the 
request of a state, to any of that state's activities in the 
field of atomic energy. 

7. To acquire or establish any facilities, plant and equip- 
ment useful in carrying out its authorised functions, when- 
ever the facilities, plant, and equipment otherwise available 
to it in the area concerned are inadequate or available 
only on terms it deems unsatisfactory. 

ORGANIZATION 

General Conference. A General Conference consisting of 
representatives of all members shall meet in regular annual 
session and in such special sessions as shall be convened. 
The Conference may discuss any matters within the scope 
of this statute or relating to the powers and functions of 
any organs provided for in this Statute, and may make 
recommendations. 


The General Conference shall: 

x. Elect members of the Board of Governors. 

2. Approve states for membership. 

3. Consider the annual report of the Board. 

4. Approve reports to be submitted to the United 
Nations. 

5. Approve any agreement or agreements between the 
Agency and the United Nations and other organizations. 

6. Approve rules and limitations regarding the exercise 
of borrowing powers. 

7. Approve amendments to the Statute. 

8. Approve the appointment of the Director-General. 

Board Of Governors. The Board of Governors is chosen 
by rules laid down in Article VI of the Statute. 

The Board shall have authority to carry out the func- 
tions of the Agency in accordance with the Statute, subject 
to its responsibilities to the General Conference. It shall 
meet at such times as it may determine and may establish 
such committees as it deems advisable. 

The Board shall prepare an annual report and any other 
reports the Agency is required to make- These shall be 
submitted to the General Conference. 

Staff. The staff of the Agency shall be headed by a 
Director-General. The Director-General shall be appointed 
by the Board of Governors with the aproval of the General 
Conference for a term of four years. The Director-General 
shall be responsible for the appointment, organization, and 
functioning of the staff. The staff shall include such 
qualified scientific and technical and other personnel as 
may be required to fulfil the objectives and functions of 
the Agency. The Agency shall be guided by the principle 
that its permanent stall shall be kept to a minimum. 

Information and materials. Each member should make 
available such information as would, in the judgment of the 
member, be helpful to the Agency. 

Members may make available to the Agency such quan- 
tities of special fissionable materials as they deem advisable 
and on such terms as shall be agreed with the Agency. On 
request of the Agency a member shall deliver to another 
member or group of members such quantities of such 
materials as the Agency may specify. The Agency shall be 
responsible for storing and protecting materials in its 
possession. It shall ensure that these materials shall be 
safeguarded against hazards of the weather, unauthorised 
removal or diversion, damage or destruction, including 
sabotage, and forcible seizure. In storing special fissionable 
materials in its possession, the Agency shall ensure the 
geographical distribution of these materials in such a way 
as not to allow concentration of large amounts of such 
materials in any one country or region of the world. 

Projects and Safeguards. Any member or group of 
members of the Agency desiring to set up any research 
project for peaceful purposes may request the assistance 
of the Agency in securing special fissionable and other 
materials. For the purpose of considering the request, the 
Agency may send into the territory of the member or 
group persons qualified to examine the project. 


3G 



THE UNITED NATIONS— 


With respect to any Agency project the Agency shall 
have the following rights and responsibilities: 

1. To examine the design of specialised equipment and 
facilities, including nuclear reactors, and to approve it 
only from the viewpoint of assuring that it will not further 
any military purpose, that it complies with applicable 
health and safety standards. 

2. To require the maintenance and production of 
operating records and progress reports. 

3. To approve the means to be used for the chemical 
processing of irradiated materials solely to ensure that this 
chemical processing will not lend itself to diversion of 
materials for military purposes and will comply with 
applicable health and safety standards. 

4. To send into the territory inspectors who shall have 
access at all times to all places and data and relevant 
persons. 

Finance. The Board of Governors shall submit to the 


(Specialized Agencies) 

General Conference the annual budget estimates for the 
expenses of the Agency. 

Expenditure shall be classified as: 

1. Administrative expenses (including costs of staff and 
meetings and costs of implementing safeguards). 

2. Expenses in connection with any materials, facilities, 
plant, and equipment acquired or established by the 
Agency. 

The Board shall have the authority to exercise borrowing 
powers on behalf of the Agency. 

Privileges and Immunities. The Agency shall enjoy in the 
territory of each member such legal capacity and such 
privileges and immunities as are necessary for the exercise 
of its functions. 

Disputes. Any question or dispute concerning the inter- 
pretation or application of this Statute which is not settled 
by negotiation shall be referred to the International Court 
of Justice unless the parties concerned agree on another 
mode of settlement. 


INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION— ICAO 

International Aviation Building, Montreal, Canada 

Founded in 1947 to foster the development of international civil aviation for peaceful purposes. Members: 115. 


ORGANIZATION 


ASSEMBLY 

Composed of representatives of the member nations, and 
is the organization’s legislative body; meets every three 
years. 

COUNCIL 

Comprises representatives of twenty-seven nations 
elected by the Assembly. It is the executive body, and 
establishes and supervises subsidiary technical commit- 
tees and makes recommendations to member governments; 
meets in virtually continuous session; elects the President, 
appoints the Secretary-General, and administers the 
finances of the organization. 

President of the Council: Walter Binaghi (Argentina). 
Secretary-General: B. T. Twigt (Netherlands). 

COUNCIL ACTIVITIES 

1. Adopts international standards and recommended 
practices and incorporates them as annexes to the 
Convention on International Civil Aviation. 

2. Acts as arbiter between member states on matters 
concerning aviation and implementation of the 
Convention. 

3. Investigates any situation which prevents avoidable 
obstacles to development of international air naviga- 
tion. 

4. lakes whatever steps arc necessary to maintain 
safety and regularity of operation of international 
air transport. 


REGIONAL OFFICES 

Europe: 3 bis, Villa Emile Bergerat, Neuilly-sur-Seine, 
France. 

Far East and Pacific: P.O. Box 614, Bangkok, Thailand. 

Middle East and Eastern African: 16 Hassan Sabri Zam- 
alek, Cairo, U.A.R. 

North American and Caribbean: 540 Ave. Chapultepec, 
Mexico, D.F. 

South America: Apartado 4127, Lima, Peru. 

Africa: P.O. Box 2356, Dakar, Senegal. 


ICAO BUDGET 

($— W6S) 


Meetings ...... 

218,150 

Secretariat ..... 

5,932,016 

General Sendees .... 

8iS,8 3 i 

Equipment ..... 

7*b95° 

Others ...... 

5-1. 3 70 

Total .... 

7.o9<5,3i7 

Miscellaneous Income .... 

1,581.317 

Net Total 

5,515,000 


37 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Specialized Agencies) 


INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION — ILO 

154 Rue de Lausanne, CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland 


Founded in 1919 to deal with social and labour problems. In 1946 ILO became UN’s first Specialized Agency. 

Members: 118. 


ORGANIZATION 


INTERNATIONAL LABOUR CONFERENCE 

President (1967): Getahoun Tesemma (Ethiopia). 
Vice-Presidents (1967): Leon-Eli Troclet (Belgium), 
A. P. Ostberg (Norway), Abid Ali (India). 

The supreme deliberative body ol ILO. Normally meets 
annually at Geneva. Attended by more than x,ooo 
delegates, advisers and observers. National delegations are 
composed of two government delegates, one employers' 
delegate and one workers’ delegate. Non-governmental 
delegates can speak and vote independently of the views of 
their government. Conference elects the Governing Body 
and adopts the Budget and International Labour Con- 
ventions and Recommendations. 

The President and Vice-Presidents hold office for the 
term of the Conference only. 

INTERNATIONAL LABOUR OFFICE 
Director-General : David A. Morse (U.S.A.). 

Principal Deputy Director-General: C. W. Jenks (United 
Kingdom). 

Deputy Director-General: A. M. Ammar (U.A.R.). 

Assistant Directors-General: W. Yalden -Thompson (Can- 
ada), F. Blanchard (France), H. A. Majid (Pakistan). 
Treasurer-Comptroller: E. J. Riches (New Zealand). 

The International Labour Office is the Organisation’s 
Secretariat and publishing house. Employs over 2,000 
officials of more than 100 nationalities. 

GOVERNING BODY 

Chairman (1967-68): Roberto Ago (Italy). 

Employers’ Vice-Chairman (1967-68): Pierre Waline 
(F rance). 

Workers’ Vice-Chairman (1967-68): Jean Mori (Switzer- 
land). 


ILO’s executive council. Normally meets three or four 
times a year at Geneva to decide policy and programmes. 
Composed of 24 government members, 12 employers' 
members and 12 workers’ members. Ten of the govern- 
ment members represent "states of chief industrial 
importance” — Canada, Republic of China (Taiwan), 
France, German Federal Republic, India, Italy, Japan, 
U.S.S.R., United Kingdom, United States. The remaining 
14 are elected from other countries every three years. 
Employers’ and workers' members are elected as indivi- 
duals, not as national candidates. 

INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR 
LABOUR STUDIES 

Established by ILO in March 1960. The Institute is an 
advanced educational and research institution in social 
and labour policy, and brings together international 
experts representing employers, management, workers and 
government interests. Activities include international and 
regional study courses, and are financiced by grants and an 
Endowment Fund to which governments and other bodies 
contribute. 

Director: R. W. Cox. 

INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR ADVANCED 
TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL TRAINING 

Established by ILO in Turin, Italy, the Centre became 
operational in October 1965. It provides advanced technical 
and vocational training, in a modern industrial setting, to 
persons who are considered suitable for more advanced 
training than they can obtain in their own countries or 
regions. The ultimate annual intake of trainees will be 
2,000. The ILO Director-General is Chairman of the 
Board. The Centre is financed by voluntary contributions, 
from governments, inter-governmental and non-govern- 
mental organizations, and other bodies. 

Director: Philippe Blamont. 


38 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Specialized Agencies) 


ACTIVITIES 


INTERNATIONAL LABOUR STANDARDS 

One of ILO's primary functions is to build a code of 
international law and practice. International Labour 
Standards are set by the International Labour Con- 
ference in the form of Conventions and Recommen- 
dations. 128 Conventions and 131 Recommendations 
have been adopted. These form the International Labour 
Code. By October 1967, the total of ratifications was over 
3.300. 

Countries are not bound to ratify Conventions but they 
are obliged to bring Conventions to the notice of their 
legislative authorities. A country ratifying a Convention 
has to report periodically to ILO on its implementation. 
Countries must also report with respect to unratified 
Conventions and Recommendations. 

Of Conventions dealing with basic human rights, three 
are designed to ensure freedom of association, two are 
directed against forced labour, and two are intended to 
eliminate discrimination. 


TECHNICAL CO-OPERATION 

ILO technical co-operation has expanded greatly in 
recent years and now covers the following main fields: 
manpower organization, productivity and management 
development, co-operation, small-scale industries and 
handicrafts, social security, labour conditions and admini- 
stration. 

Technical co-operation is given under two main pro- 
grammes: the United Nations Development Programme 
(Technical Assistance and Special Fund sectors) and the 
ILO regular budget. By the end of 1967, 92 Special Fund 
projects had been assigned to the ILO, of which field work 
had been completed on 16 and 65 were in operation. 

Distribution of expenditure for all operational pro- 
grammes (1966): Africa, 39.0 per cent; Asia, 20.8 per cent; 
Latin America, 18.8 per cent; Near and Middle East, 11.5 
per cent; Europe, 5.1 per cent; Inter-regional projects, 
4.8 per cent. 

Technical assistance programmes by source of financing 
(1966): regular budget, $1,900,000; UNDP Technical 
Assistance Sector, $6,300,000; UNDP Special Fund 
Sector, $6,500,000; funds-in-trust, $2,100,000 


INTERNATIONAL LABOUR CONFERENCE 


The 51st Session of the International Labour Conference 
was held in June 1967 and was attended by more than 
1,200 delegates, technical advisers and observers from 109 
countries, including 40 ministers of labour. 

During the Conference, six new international instru- 
ments were adopted. They include a Recommendation on 
the examination of grievances within the undertaking with 
a view to their solution and a Recommendation on com- 
munications between management and workers within the 
undertaking, a Convention and a Recommendation on the 
maximum permissible weight to be carried by one worker, 


and a Convention and a Recommendation concerning 
old-age, invalidity and survivors’ pensions. In addition, the 
Conference adopted a series of conclusions on the improve- 
ment of conditions of work of tenants, share-croppers and 
similar categories of agricultural workers, which will serve 
as the basis of a draft recommendation to be submitted to 
the 52nd Session of the Conference. 

The Conference debated a report submitted by the 
Director-General on the theme of the contribution that 
non-manual workers make to social and economic advance 
in both developed and developing countries. 


REGULAR BUDGET, 1968 


Income 

U.S. $ 

Contributions from Member States . 

24.816.oq1 

Receipts from UNDP/Technical Assistance 
Special Account .... 

845,389 

Total ..... 

25,681,480 


Expenditure 

U.S. $ 

Ordinary Budget ..... 

24,861,413 

Unforeseen Expenditure 

130,000 

Working Capital Fund . 

600,067 

Total ..... 

25,681,480 


PUBLICATIONS 

International Labour Review (monthly). 

Legislative Series (every two months). 

Year Book of Labour Statistics. 

Labour and Automation (irregular). 

Workers’ Education Manuals (irregular). 

Bulletin of Labour Statistics (quarterly). 

Studies and Reports on economic and social subjects. 
ILO Information (quarterly bulletin). 


39 





THE UNITED NATIONS— (Specialized Agencies) 

INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION — ITU 

Place des Nations, Geneva, Switzerland 

ITU succeeded, in 1934, the International Telegraph Union (founded 1865). It has three main purposes: to en- 
courage world co-operation in the use of tele-communication, to promote the development of technical facilities 
and their efficient operation, and to harmonize the actions of nations in the attainment of these common ends. 

Members: 133. 


ORGANIZATION 


PLENIPOTENTIARY CONFERENCE 

The supreme organ of ITU; meets about every five years. 
Each member has one vote at the Conference, whose main 
tasks are to approve budget policy and accounts, to 
negotiate with other international organizations, and 
generally direct policy. Last Conference: Montreux, 
September 1965. Next Conference, Geneva 1971. 

WORLD ADMINISTRATIVE CONFERENCES 
Tho Administrative Telegraph and Telephone Conference: 

revises telegraph and telephone regulations. 

World Administrative Radio Conference: revises radio 
regulations, elects the members of the International 
Frequency Board, and reviews its activities. 

World Administrative Conferences meet at irregular 
intervals according to technical needs, and there may also 
be regional Administrative Conferences held ad lioo. 

ADMINISTRATIVE COUNCIL 

The Administrative Council meets annually in Geneva; 
the 22nd session was held in May 1967. The Council is 
composed of 29 members elected by the Plenipotentiary 
Conference. 

The Councilhelps the implementation of the Convention’s 
provisions, and executes the decisions of the Plenipoten- 
tiary Conference and. where appropriate, the decisions of 
the conferences and meetings of the Union. It conducts 
relations with other international organizations, and 
approves the annual budget. 

GENERAL SECRETARIAT 
Secretary-General: Mohamed Mili (Tunisia) (a.i.). 

Deputy Secretary-General: (vacant). 

Director of External Affairs: Clifford Stead (United 
Kingdom) (a.i.). 

Chief, Department of Common Services: Russell Cook 

(U.S.A.). 

The Secretary-General is elected by the Plenipotentiary 
Conference, and is responsible to it for the General Secre- 
tariat's work, and for the Union’s administrative and 
financial services. The General Secretariat’s stag totals 190; 
the working languages are French, English and Spanish. 


INTERNATIONAL FREQUENCY REGISTRATION 
BOARD (IFRB) 

Chairman: Fioravanti Dellamula (Argentina); 5 mems.; 
number of stag 128; Budget (1967) Swiss francs 
4,045,400 

IFRB records assignments of radio frequencies and 
provides technical advice to enable members of the Union 
to operate as many radio channels as possible in over- 
crowded parts of the radio spectrum. It also investigates 
cases of harmful interference and makes recommendations 
for their solution. 

INTERNATIONAL TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE 
CONSULTATIVE COMMITTEE (CCITT) 

Director: Jean Rouviere (France); number of staff 29; 
Budget (1 967) Swiss francs i,r63,6oo. 

CCITT is currently organizing sixteen study groups and 
two special study groups covering transmission problems, 
operation and tariffs, radio relay links, maintenance, 
electromagnetic dangers, protection of equipment, defini- 
tions, vocabulary and symbols, apparatus, local connecting 
lines, facsimile- and photo-telegraphy, quality of trans- 
mission, specifications, telegraph and telex switching, 
telephone signalling and switching and planning the 
development of an international network. It has its own 
telephony laboratory. 

INTERNATIONAL RADIO CONSULTATIVE 
COMMITTEE (CCIR) 

Director: Jack W. Hekbstreit (U.S.A.); number of 
staff 23; Budget (1967) Swiss francs 912,100. 

CCIR is currently organizing fourteen study groups 
covering transmitters, receivers, fixed service systems, 
ground-wave propagation, tropospheric propagation, iono- 
spheric propagation, standard frequencies and time signals, 
international monitoring, radio relay systems, broad- 
casting, television, tropical broadcasting, mobile services, 
vocabulary, and space communications, on which a con- 
ference was held in 1963- The television study group is 
working on the following matters: television recording, 
television standards for both black and white and colour 
transmission, ratio of the wanted to unwanted signal in 
television, reduction of band width, conversion of a 
television signal from one standard to another, estimates of 
the quality of television pictures, etc. 


THE UNITED NATIONS — (Specialized Agencies) 

HISTORY OF ITU 


The General Assembly of the United Nations acknow- 
ledged ITU as the specialized agency in the field of 
telecommunication on November 15th, 1947. ITU is the 
oldest of the specialized agencies. Its origin dates back to 
May 1865, when the International Telegraph Union was 
founded in Paris by the signing of the International 
Telegraph Convention. The Paris Convention was revised 
in Vienna in 1868, in Rome in 1872 and in St. Petersburg 
in 1875. At Vienna it was decided to create a permanent 
international bureau, which became the forerunner of the 
present General Secretariat of ITU. From 1868 to 1948 its 
headquarters were in Berne. 

In 1932 two plenipotentiary conferences were held in 
Madrid: a Telegraph and Telephone Conference and a 
Radio-telegraph Conference. The two existing Conventions 
were amalgamated in a single International Telecom- 
munication Convention, and the countries which signed or 
acceded to it formed the International Telecommunication 
Union, replacing the Telegraph Union. Four sets of 
regulations were annexed to the Convention: Telegraph, 
Telephone, Radio and the Additional Radio Regulations. 

A Plenipotentiary Conference met in Atlantic City in 
1947 to revise the Madrid Convention. It introduced radical 
changes in the organization of the Union: new organs were 
created; it became a UN specialized agency; and in 1948 its 
headquarters were transferred from Berne to Geneva. 

The Radio Conference, which met in 1947 at the same 
time as the Plenipotentiary Conference, prepared a new 
frequency allocation table for the various radio services. 


The new procedure provided for an engineering study to 
be made of each frequency notified to the International 
Frequency Registration Board. At the Radio Conference 
held in Geneva in 1959, the radio frequency spectrum was 
re-apportioned. (Within this, various bands are allocated 
to the Fixed, Broadcasting, Aeronautical Mobile, Land 
Mobile, Maritime Mobile, Radionavigation, Radiolocation, 
Space, Earth-Space, Radio Astronomy, Meteorological 
Aids, Amateur, Standard Frequency and Time Signal 
Services). Advances in knowledge, techniques and usage 
required allocations to be made beyond the previous limit 
of 10,500 Mc/s; allocations were therefore made up to 
40,000 Mc/s. Although the future radio requirements for 
the new services of space and earth-space and for radio 
astronomy could not be foreseen, care was taken to ensure 
that the research in this field would not be hampered by 
lack of frequency allocation. 

A Plenipotentiary Conference was held in Buenos Aires 
in 1952, in Geneva during 1959 and in Montreux in 1965. 
Telegraph and Telephone Conferences and Radio Con- 
ferences are normally held every five years. The last 
Telegraph and Telephone Conferences were held in Cairo 
in 1938, in Paris in 1949 and in Geneva in 1958; Radio 
Conferences were held in Cairo in 1938, in Atlantic City 
in 1947, and in Geneva in 1959. In October and November 
1963, ITU held a world Space Radiocommunications Con- 
ference in Geneva at which over 6,000 megacycles (about 
15 per cent of the entire radio frequency spectrum) were 
allocated for outer space purposes. 


BUDGET 

1967-Swiss Francs 


Income 


Contributions to Expenses 

20,998,100 

Other Income ..... 

1 , 357.300 

Total 

22 , 355 , 4 °° 


Expenditure 


Administrative Council . 



446,500 

General Secretariat 



5,361,600 

IFRB 



4,045,400 

CCITT 



1,163,600 

CCIR 



912,100 

General Services . 



7,140,200 

ITU Conferences . 



3,091,000 

Other Expenditure 



195,000 

Total . 

• 

• 

22,355,400 


41 


THE UNITED NATIONS— (Specialized Agencies) 


CONVENTION AND REGULATIONS 


MONTREUX CONVENTION 
The International Telecommunications Convention 
(Montreux, 1965), which replaced the 1959 Geneva Conven- 
tion and lays down the organization and structure of ITU, 
came into force on January 1st, 1967. It contains the 
fundamental provisions which bind the Member and 
Associate Member Governments of the Union with the 
object of facilitating relations and co-operation between the 
peoples by means of efficient telecommunication services. 
These provisions deal with the composition, functions 
and structure of the Union, the application of the Con- 
vention and Regulations, relations with the United 
Nations and with International Organizations, and with 
special rules for radio. 

TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE REGULATIONS 
The Telegraph and Telephone Regulations were adopted 
during the 1958 Geneva Telegraph and Telephone Con- 
ference and are still in force. They deal with problems of 
telegraph and telephone rates and tariffs among ITU 
Member countries. These two Regulations lay down the 
rules to be observed in the international telephone service. 
Their provisions are applied to both wire and wireless 
telegraph and telephone communications so far as the 
Radio Regulations and the Additional Radio Regulations 
do not provide otherwise. 


RADIO REGULATIONS 

The Regulations are attached to the Geneva Convention, 
and bind all Members and Associate Members. They 
include general rules for the assignment and use of fre- 
quencies and — the most important part of the Regula- 
tions — a Table of Frequency Allocations between 10 kc/s. 
and 40 kc/s. to the various radio services: broadcasting, 
television, radio astronomy, navigation aid, point-to-point 
service, maritime mobile, amateur, etc. Chapter III deals 
with the duties of the International Frequency Registra- 
tion Board. The Regulations governing measures against 
interference follow. Subsequently, there are the adminis- 
strative provisions for stations (secrecy, licences, identifi- 
cation, service documents, inspection of mobile stations). 

Chapter VI and VII are concerned with personnel and 
working conditions in the mobile services, and Chapter 
VIII with radio assistance in life saving. The last two 
chapters deal with radiotelegrams and radiotelephone 
calls and miscellaneous stations and services. Partial 
revision of the Radio Regulations, Geneva 1959, entered 
into force on January 1st, 1965 for space service and on 
July 1st, 1967 for the Aeronautical Mobile Services. 


UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL 

ORGANIZATION— UNESCO 

7 & 9 place de Fontenoy, Paris 7e, France 

Telephone: SUFfren 98-70, SUFfren 86-00, SOLferino 99-48. 

UNESCO was established in 1945. The purpose of the Organization is to contribute to peace and security by 
promoting collaboration among the nations through education, science, and culture in order to further universal 
respect tor justice, for the rule of law, and for the human rights and fundamental freedoms which are affiimed for 
the peoples of the world, without distinction of race, sex, language, or religion, by the Charter of the United Nations. 

Members: 122. 


ORGANIZATION 


GENERAL CONFERENCE 

Meets in ordinary session once in two years and is 
composed of representatives of the member states. 
Fourteenth Session: Oct.-Nov. 1966, Paris. 

President: Bedrettin Tuncel (Turkey). 


EXECUTIVE BOARD 

Consists of 30 members elected for a four-year term. 
Prepares the programme to be submitted to the Conference 
and supervises its execution. Meets twice or sometimes 
three times a year. 

Chairman: Atilio Dell’Oro Maini (Argentina). 


42 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Specialized Agencies) 


SECRETARIAT 

Director-General: Rene Maheu (France). 

Deputy Director-General: Dr. Malcolm S. Adiseshiah 
(India). 

Assistant Directors-General: John E. Fobes (U.S.A.), 
Prof. Alexey N. Matveyev (U.S.S.R), Tor Gjesdal 
(Norway), Mahdi Elmandjra (Morocco), Carlos 
Octavio Flexa Ribeiro (Brazil), Hanna Saba 
(U.A.R.). 

The Director-General has an international staff of 3,110 
civil servants. 

CO-OPERATING BODIES 

National Commissions and Co-operating Bodies have 
been set up in most member states. These help to integrate 
work within the member states and the work of UNESCO. 


REGIONAL OFFICES 

New York Office: Room 2201, UN Budding, 42nd St. at 
First Ave., New York, N.Y. 10017, U.S.A. 


Regional Office for Latin America: Centro Regional de la 
UNESCO en el Hemisferio Occidental, Calzada 551, 
Apartado 4158, Havana, Cuba. 

UNESCO Science and Research Offices 

Regional Centre for Science and Technology for Latin 
America: 1320 Bulevar Artigas, Apartado de Correos 
S59, Montevideo, Uruguay. 

Regional Centre for Science and Technology for the Arab 
States. \8 Sh. el Salamlik, Garden City, Cairo, U.A.R. 

Regional Centre for Science and Technology for South Asia: 
No. 1 Ring Rd., N.D.S. Ext. 1, New Delhi 3, India. 

Regional Centre for Science and Technology for South-East 
Asia: Djl. Imam Bondjol 30, Tromol Pos 273/DKT, 
Djakarta, Indonesia. 

Regional Centre for Science and Technology for Africa: 
P.O.B. 30592, Nairobi, Kenya. 

UNESCO Education Offices 

Regional Office for Education: Avenida Providencia 871, 
Casilla 179-D, Santiago, Chile. 

Regional Office for Education in Asia: P.O.B. 1425, Sanain 
Sua Pa, Bangkok, Thailand. 


INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR EDUCATIONAL PLANNING— IIEP 

7 rue EugSne Delacroix, Paris 16e 


Established by UNESCO in 1963 to serve as a world 
centre for advanced training and research in educational 
planning. Its purpose is to help all member states of 
UNESCO in their social and economic development 
efforts, by enlarging the fund of knowledge about educa- 
tional planning and the supply of competent experts in 
this field. 

Legally and administratively a part of UNESCO, the 


Institute enjoys intellectual autonomy, and its policies 
and programme are controlled by its own Governing 
Board, under special statutes voted by the General 
Conference of UNESCO. 

Chairman of Governing Board: Sir Sydney Caine. 
Director: Philip H. Coombs. 

Publications include Progress Report 1963-1967 and 
over 50 titles in English, French and Spanish. 


PRIMARY TASKS 


1. To eliminate illiteracy and encourage universal free 
and compulsory education. 

2. To obtain for each person an education conforming to 
his aptitudes and to the needs of society, including tech- 
nological training and higher education. 

3. To promote, through education, respect for Human 
Rights throughout all nations. 

4. To overcome the obstacles to the free flow of persons, 
ideas, and knowledge between the countries of the world. 

5. To promote the progress and utilisation of science for 
the benefit of all mankind. 

6. To focus the social sciences on the study of particular 
social questions for the benefit both of the general public 
and of governments. 


7. To assure the preservation of the world’s inheritance 
of books, works of art and monuments of history' and 
science, to make this cultural heritage known and available 
to all, and to promote mutual appreciation of differing 
cultural values. 

S. To advance through the media of mass communica- 
tion the causes of truth, freedom, and peace. 

9. To bring about better understanding among the 
peoples of the world and to convince them of the necessity 
of co-operating loyally with one another in the framework 
of the United Nations. 

10. To provide clearing-house and exchange service in 
all its fields of action, together with technical aid to nations 
and peoples in emergencies. 



43 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Specialized Agencies) 


REGULAR PROGRAMME 


Development of International Co-operation. Promotion 
of co-operation in natural science, social sciences, education 
and mass communication. Organisation of seminars, 
discussions and conferences. 

Improving Documentation. Collection, analysis and 
diffusion of information, including statistics. Promotion of 
national Documentation Centres. 

School Education. Extension of free and compulsory 
education, improvement of school curricula, education for 
international understanding, vocational and technical 
education, higher education, and educational planning. 

Education Outside School. Fundamental education 
(community development), adult education and youth 
work. 

Aid to Scientific Research and Development. Creation of 
international bodies and promotion of research in a wide 
variety of natural sciences, with particular reference to 
their application to development. 


Applied Social Sciences. Use of social sciences to study 
and solve great contemporary social problems such as 
human rights, racial prejudice and social questions in the 
developing countries. 

Preservation of the Cultural Heritage of Mankind. 

Conservation and protection of books, works of art and 
historical and scientific monuments. 

Mutual Appreciation of Cultural Values. Encouragement 
of a better knowledge of the cultures of different peoples 
to further real understanding. 

Free Flow of Information. Sponsorship of international 
agreements, reduction of postal, transport and other 
obstacles, expansion and improvements of communications. 

International Training of Specialists. Awards for fellow- 
ships abroad, organisation of special courses, improvement 
of planning and administration of international training 
programmes. 

Human Rights. Application of the UN Declaration of 
Human Rights. 


OTHER PROGRAMMES 


United Nations Development Programme— UNDP 

Technical Assistance: aid to the developing countries 
by sending experts, equipment and supplies and by 
granting fellowships. 

Special Fund: teacher training, training of technicians 
and applied scientific research. 


Participation Programme. Development assistance in 
fields not covered by EPTA, such as social sciences, 
cultural activities. 

Other International Accounts. Co-operation with other 
international aid and educational programmes, notably 
with IDA. 


REGULAR BUDGET 

(estimate 1967-68 — U.S. 8) 


Programmes: 


Education ..... 

14,034,984 

Natural Sciences .... 

9,051,281 

Social Sciences .... 


Human Sciences .... 


Culture ...... 

j- 8 . 307.597 

Communication .... 

9,449,364 

International Norms, Relations and 


Programmes .... 

1,691,915 

General Conference .... 

1,217,399 

Executive Board .... 

986,660 

Administration ..... 

7,766,932 

Common Services .... 

4,948,747 

Capital Expenditure .... 

4,051,261 

Total .... 

61,506,140 


Assistance from UNDP: $57,014,165. 
Grand Total: $118,520,305. 


44 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Specialized Agencies) 


CONSTITUTION 

London, November 16 th, 1945 


The Governments of the States parties to this Constitu- 
tion on behalf of their peoples declare: 

That since wars begin in the minds of men, it is in the 
minds of men that the defences of peace must be con- 
structed; 

That ignorance of each other’s ways and lives has been 
a common cause, throughout the history of mankind, of 
that suspicion and mistrust between the peoples of the 
world through which their differences have all too often 
broken into war; 

That the great and terrible war which has now ended 
was a war made possible by the denial of the demo- 
cratic principles of the dignity, equality, and mutual 
respect of men, and by the propagation, in their place, 
through ignorance and prejudice, of the doctrine of the 
inequality of men and races; 

That the wide diffusion of culture, and the education of 
humanity for justice and liberty and peace are indis- 
pensable to the dignity of man and constitute a sacred 
duty which all the nations must fulfil in a spirit of 
mutual assistance and concern; 

That a peace based exclusively upon the political and 
economic arrangements of governments would not be a 
peace which could secure the unanimous, lasting, and 
sincere support of the peoples of the world, and that the 
peace must therefore be founded, if it is not to fail, upon 
the intellectual and moral solidarity of mankind. 

For these reasons, the States parties to this Constitution, 
believing in full and equal opportunities for education for 
all, in the unrestricted pursuit of objective truth, and in 


the free exchange of ideas and knowledge, are agreed and 
determined to develop and to increase the means of com- 
munication between their peoples and to employ these 
means for the purposes of mutual understanding and a 
truer and more perfect knowledge of each other’s lives. 

In consequence whereof they do hereby create the United 
Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization 
for the purpose of advancing, through the educational and 
scientific and cultural relations of the peoples of the world, 
the objectives of international peace and of the common 
welfare of mankind for which the United Nations Organiza- 
tion was established and which its Charter proclaims. 

Article I. Purposes and functions. 

Article II. Membership. 

Articles III- VI. General Conference, Executive Board, 
and Secretariat. 

Article VII. National co-operating bodies. 

Article VIII. Reports by member states. 

Article IX. Budget. 

Article X. Relations with the United Nations Organiza» 
tion. 

Article XI. Relations with other specialized inter- 
national organizations and agencies. 

Articles XII-XV. Legal status, Amendments, Inter- 
pretation, and Entry into force. 


periodicals 


UNESCO Courier: monthly illustrated journal devoted to 
the general activities of UNESCO; English, French, 
German, Spanish, Russian, Arabic and Japanese. 

UNESCO Chronicle: monthly, giving official information, 
records of meetings, reports, and articles on UNESCO's 
programme, etc. ; English. French, Arabic and Spanish. 

Bulletin for Libraries: monthly, containing information of 
use to libraries, scientific research institutes, etc.; chap- 
ters offering publications on exchange and for free 
distribution as well as lists of publications wanted by 
libraries; English, French, Spanish and Russian. 

Copyright Bulletin: half-yearly review of special studies 
and documentation on the legislation in different 
countries, and on UNESCO's work on behalf of the 


harmonization of the various copyright laws; trilingual 
(English-French-Spanish). 

Museum: quarterly international review of museograpb- 
ical techniques intended for museum specialists; bi- 
lingual (English-French). 

Impact of Science on Society: quarterly review of original 
studies of current events and trends; English and 
French. 

International Social Science Journal: quarterly acquainting 
social scientists in various countries with work that has 
been conducted by national and international organiza- 
tions, as well as individuals, concerned with an ob- 
jective and scientific approach to the study of inter- 
national relations in the widest sense; English ami 
French. 


45 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Specialized Agencies) 


UNIVERSAL POSTAL UNION— UPU 

Borne, Switzerland 

Telephone: (031) 44 06 21. 

Bv the Treaty of Berne 1874, the General Postal Union was founded, beginning operations in July 1875. Three 
vears later its name was changed to the Universal Postal Union. In 1948 UPU became a Specialized Agency 

of UN. Members: 128. 


ORGANIZATION 


CONGRESS 

The Supreme body of the Union is Congress which meets 
every five years. Its duties are legislative and consist 
mainly of revision of the Acts. Fifteen Congresses have 
been held : 


Berne 

1874 

London 

1929 

Paris 

1878 

Cairo 

1934 

Lisbon . 

1885 

Buenos Aires 

1939 

Vienna . 

1891 

Paris 

1947 

Washington 

1897 

Brussels . 

1952 

Rome 

1906 

Ottawa 

1957 

Madrid . 

1920 

Vienna 

1964 

Stockholm 

1924 




The sixteenth Congress is to be held in Tokyo in 1969. 


EXEGUTIVE COUNCIL 

Between Congresses, an Executive Council, created by 
the Paris Congress 1947, meets annually at Berne. It is 
composed of 27 member countries of the Union elected by 
Congress on the basis of an equitable geographical distri- 
bution Its role is to ensure continuity of the Union’s work 


in the interval between Congresses, namely to study the 
problems submitted to it by Congress. 

CONSULTATIVE COMMITTEE ON POSTAL STUDIES 

At the Ottawa Congress 1 95 7 the Consultative Committee 
for Postal Studies was established, the aim of which is to 
make recommendations on technical, operational, and 
economical questions related to the postal service. All the 
member countries of the Union are members of this Com- 
mittee, the work of which is conducted and co-ordinated 
by a Management Council of 26 members meeting annually. 


INTERNATIONAL BUREAU 

The day-to-day work of UPU is executed through a 
permanent organ called the International Bureau stationed 
at Berne. It serves as an instrument of liaison, information 
and consultation for the postal administration of the 
member countries. 

Director-General 0? the International Bureau: Dr. Michel 
Rahi (U.A.R.). 


SPECIAL AGREEMENTS 


The activities of the international postal service, other 
than letter mail, are governed by Special Agreements. 
These are binding only for the countries which have 
acceded to them. There are eight such Agreements: 

1. Agreement concerning Insured Letters and Boxes. 

2. Agreement concerning Postal Parcels. 

3. Agreement concerning Postal Money Orders and 
postal Travellers’ Cheques. 


4. Agreement concerning Transfers to and from Postal 
Cheque Accounts. 

5. Agreement concerning Cash on Delivery items. 

6. Agreement concerning the Collection of Bills. 

7. Agreement concerning the International Savings Bank 
Service. 

8. Agreement concerning Subscriptions to Newspapers 
and Periodicals. 


BUDGET 

The Vienna Congress, 1964, fixed 5,300,000 Swiss francs as the figure lor annual expenditure. This sum. and anv 
extraordinary expenses, are borne by members. Members are listed in seven classes setting out the proportion they should 
pay. 


PUBLICATIONS 

Union Postale (monthly): published in French, German, 
English, Arabic, Chinese, Spanish and Russian. Manuals, 
Reports, Official documents of meetings (in French 
only). 


40 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Specialized Agencies) 
CONSTITUTION AND CONVENTIONS 


CONSTITUTION 

Drawn up at the Vienna Congress of 1964, the Consti- 
tution of the Universal Postal Union came into force on 
January 1st, 1966. It is the legal basis of the Union, and 
implementation of its provisions is obligatoiy for all 
members. It is a diplomatic instrument which acquires 
legal force in member countries after ratification. 


UNIVERSAL POSTAL CONVENTION 

Contains the rules relating to the letter post. Binding on 
all member countries. 


BERNE CONVENTION (1874) 

The essential principles of the Union, introduced by the 
Berne Convention and still appearing in the Constitution 
and the present Convention are the following: 

1. Formation of one single postal territory. 

2. Unification of postal charges. 

3. Abolition of the sharing of charges between the 
sender country and the country of destination. 

4. Guarantee of freedom of transit. 

5. Settlement of disputes by arbitration. 

6. Establishment of a central office (secretariat) under 
the name of the International Bureau paid for by all 
members. 

7. Periodical meeting of Congresses. 


WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION— WHO 

Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland 

Telephone: 34.60.61. 

Established in 1948. The purpose of WHO is the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health. 

Members: 126 full, 3 associate. 

ORGANIZATION 


WORLD HEALTH ASSEMBLY 
President (1967-68): Dr. V. T. Herat Gunaratne 
(Ceylon). 

Delegates from member countries meet in Assembly 
every year. A programme for world health is carried and a 
budget approved. The Assembly is the supreme body of 
WHO; it appoints the Director-General, admits new 
members and decides the scale of members’ contributions 
to the budget. 

EXECUTIVE BOARD 
Chairman: Dr. K. N. Rao (India). 

Vice-Chairmen: Prof. Pavel Macuch (Czechoslovakia), 
Dr. Pedro Daniel Martinez (Mexico) . 

The Board is composed of twenty-four health experts 
designated by, but not representing, their governments. 
It meets at least twice a year to review the Director- 
General’s programme, which it submits to the Assembly. 
It also advises the Assembly on any questions referred to it 
by that body. 


SECRETARIAT 

Headquarters: Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland. 
Director-General: Dr. M. G. Candau (Brazil). 

Deputy Director-General: Dr. P. Dorolle. 

Assistant Directors-Generai: Dr. N. F. Izmerov, Dr. J. 
Karefa-Smart, M. P. Siegel, Dr. L. Bernard, Dr. 
A. M.-M. Payne. 

REGIONS 

Africa: Dr. A. Quenum, P.O.B. 6, Brazzaville, Congo. 
Americas: Dr. Abraham Horwitz, Pan-American Sani- 
tary Bureau, 525 23rd St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 
20037, U.S.A. 

Eastern Mediterranean: Dr. A. H. Taba, P.O.B. 1517, 
Alexandria, United Arab Republic. 

Europe: Dr. Leo Kaprio, S Schcrfigsvej, Copenhagen 0 > 
Denmark. 

South-East Asia: Dr. C. Mani, Indraprastha Estate, Ring 
Rd., New Delhi 1, India. 

Western Pacific: Dr. Francisco J. Dy, P.O.B. 2932, 
Manila, Philippines. 


M 


THE UNITED NATIONS— (Specialized Agencies) 


ACTIVITIES IN 1967 


WORLD HEALTH DAY 

April 7th. The theme of World Health Day in 1967 was 
‘‘Partners in Health”, the partners being the members of 
the health team — doctors, nurses, sanitary engineers and 
sanitarians and many other categories of health workers. 
The scarcity of trained manpower for health services is an 
urgent problem everywhere, especially in the developing 
countries, and the 1967 theme was chosen to draw attention 
to world-wide needs. 

WORLD HEALTH ASSEMBLY 

The World Health Assembly met in Geneva in May 
1967 and adopted a budget of §56,123,000 to finance the 
work of WHO in 196S. This amount represents an increase 
of 7.77 per cent over the revised figure for 1967. The WHO 
programme of assistance to governments and its technical 
services are financed also with the help of voluntary 
contributions and the United Nations Development Pro- 
gramme. Many projects are run jointly with the United 
Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) . 

Malaria and smallpox. The Assembly called for intensi- 
fied drives towards the eradication of malaria and smallpox. 
The progress in malaria eradication that has been achieved 
is considered to be a major advance in public health, 
although there have been delays and difficulties in a 
number of countries, many of them in Africa. At the end 
of 1966 malaria eradication had been achieved in areas 
inhabited by 633 million people. The Assembly voted 
§6,846,037 for malaria eradication in 1968. 

Smallpox is still a world problem, the Assembly noted. 
It called for technical, financial and other aid — particularly 
freeze-dried vaccine, transport and equipment — to bolster 
smallpox eradication programmes in countries where the 
disease is endemic. The Assembly set aside $2,820,439 to 
continue and intensify the smallpox eradication programme. 

Abuse of drugs. The Assembly urged member states to 
restrict the use of LSD and related hallucogenic substances 
to scientific and special medical purposes in an effort to 
check their increasing abuse. It also noted with great 
concern the growing use of certain sedatives and stimulants 
not yet under international control and urged member 
states to place those that are dependence-producing on 
prescription and take other steps to supervise their use. 

Health aspects of population dynamics. The Assembly 
considered that the development of basic health sendees 


was of fundamental importance in any health programme 
aimed at solving population problems. It empowered the 
Director-General to assist national programmes, particu- 
larly research projects and the training of the necessary 
staff. Studies and laboratory research are being carried out 
on the biological, medical and public health aspects of 
human reproduction. Consultative services are available 
to governments on fertility, sterility and fertility regula- 
tion. 

Health problems of seafarers. WHO is engaged in the 
establishment of an international scheme to provide 
medical advice to ships at sea. The possibility of establish- 
ing pilot health centres for seafarers was discussed at the 
Assembly, several countries expressed interest in having 
such centres on their territories. 

T wenticth anniversary of WHO. General proposals for the 
celebration of WHO’s twentieth anniversary in 1968 were 
approved by the Assembly, which considered that the 
occasion should be used to make the objectives and work 
of the Organization better known. 

INTERNATIONAL AGENCY FOR 
RESEARCH ON CANCER 

Lyons, France 

Members: Australia, France, Federal Republic of Germany, 
Israel, Italy, U.S.S.R., United Kingdom, U.S.A. 
Director: Prof. H. Higginson. 

Established by WHO in 1965 to serve as a means 
through which participating states can co-operate in 
stimulating and supporting all phases of cancer research. 
The Agency is concentrating on the relationship of 
environment to human cancer in order to lay the founda- 
tions for preventive action. Budget (1967): $1,200,0 00. 

FEDERATION OF WORLD HEALTH 
FOUNDATIONS 

The first General Assembly of the Federation of World 
Health Associations was held in Geneva in April 1967. The 
major function of the Federation, which represents World 
Health Foundations in the United States of America, the 
United Kingdom, Canada and Switzerland, is to encourage 
voluntary support for the improvement of world health, 
from sources such as business, industry, foundations and 
the public. 


BUDGET, 1968 

(estimates in U.S. dollars) 


World Health Assembly . . . 4*3,390 

Executive Board and its Committees . 194,745 

Regional Committees .... 96,600 

Programme Activities .... 45,808,453 

Regional Offices ..... 5,076,904 

Expert Committees .... 262,000 

Administrative Services . . . 3,670,908 

Other Purposes ..... 600,000 


Total .... 56,123,000 


48 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Specialized Agencies) 


PUBLICATIONS 


World Health (monthly): WHO illustrated magazine for 
the general public. 

WHO Chronicle (monthly): gives accounts of conferences, 
meetings of committees and field activities. 

Technical Report Series: reports of committees, study 
groups. 

Public Health Papers: contributions to the study of 
branches of public health. 

Monograph Series: about fifty' monographs have been 
published. 


Bulletin: WHO scientific papers. 

Official Records: give full accounts of the World Health 
Assembly; meetings of the Executive Board, Annual 
Report of the Director-General, programme and budget. 

Weekly Epidemiological Record: contains notifications of 
pestilential diseases and other information of interest 
to quarantine authorities. 

Epidemiological and Vital Statistics Report (monthly). 

International Digest of Health Legislation. 

Regional reports. r , — 

-7 £>«?-£ 


CONSTITUTION 


Chapter I 

The objective of the World Health Organization shall 
be the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible 
level of health. 


Chapter II 

In order to achieve its objective, the functions of the 
Organization shall be: 

(a) to act as the directing and co-ordinating authority 
on international health work; 

(b) to establish and maintain eSective collaboration with 
the United Nations, specialized agencies, govern- 
mental health administrations, professional groups 
and such other organisations as may be deemed 
appropriate; 

(c) to assist governments, upon request, in strengthening 
health services; 

(d) to furnish appropriate technical assistance and, in 
emergencies, necessary aid upon the request or 
acceptance of governments; 

(e) to provide or assist in providing, upon the request of 
the United Nations, health services and facilities to 
special groups, such as the peoples of trust terri- 
tories; 

(f) to establish and maintain such administrative and 
technical services as may be required, including 
epidemiological and statistical services; 

(g) to stimulate and advance work to eradicate epi- 
demic, endemic and other diseases; 

(h) to promote, in co-operation with other specialized 
agencies where necessary, the prevention of acci- 
dental injuries; 

(i) to promote, in co-operation with other specialized 
agencies where necessary 7 , the improvement of 
nutrition, housing, sanitation, recreation, economic 
or working conditions and other aspects of environ- 
mental hygiene; 

(j) to promote co-operation among scientific and pro- 
fessional groups which contribute to the advance- 
ment of health; 

(k) to propose conventions, agreements and regulations, 
and make recommendations with respect to inter- 
national health matters and to perform such duties 
as may be assigned thereby 7 to the Organization and 
are consistent with its objective; 


(l) to promote maternal and child health and welfare 
and to foster the ability to live harmoniously in a 
changing total environment; 

(m) to foster activities in the field of mental health, 
especially those affecting the harmony of human 
relations; 

(n) to promote and conduct research in the field of 
health; 

(o) to promote improved standards of teaching and 
training in the health, medical and related pro- 
fessions; 

(p) to study and report on, in co-operation with other 
specialized agencies where necessary, administrative 
and social techniques affecting public health and 
medical care from preventive and curative points of 
view, including hospital services and social security; 

(q) to provide information, counsel and assistance in the 
field of health; 

(r) to assist in developing an informed public opinion 
among all peoples on matters of health; 

(s) to establish and revise as necessary international 
nomenclatures of diseases, of causes of death and of 
public health practices; 

(t) to standardize diagnostic procedures as necessary; 

(u) to develop, establish and promote international 
standards with respect to food, biological, pharma- 
ceutical and similar products; 

(v) generally to take all necessary 7 action to attain the 
objective of the Organization. 


Chapter III 


Membership in the Organization shall be open to all 
states. 


Chapter IV 


The work of the Organization shall be carried out by: 
The World Health Assembly 
The Executive Board 
The Secretariat 


Chapter V 

THE WORLD HEALTH ASSEMBLY 
The functions of the Health Assembly shall be: 

(a) to determine the policies of the Organization; 

(b) to name the Members entitled to designate a person 
to serve on the Board; 


49 



THE UNITED NATIONS— 


(c) to appoint the Director-General; 

(d) to review and approve reports and activities of the 
Board and of the Director-General and to instruct 
the Board in regard to matters upon which action, 
study, investigation or report may be considered 
desirable; 

(e) to establish such committees as may be considered 
necessary for the work of the Organization; 

(f) to supervize the financial policies of the Organization 
and to review and approve the budget; 

(g) to instruct the Board and the Director-General to 
bring to the attention of Members and of inter- 
national organizations, governmental or non- 
governmental, any matter with regard to health 
which the Health Assembly may consider appro- 
priate; 

(h) to invite any organization, international or national, 
governmental or non-governmental, which has 
responsibilities related to those of the Organization, 
to appoint representatives to participate, without 
right oi vote, in its meetings ot in those oi the 
committees and conferences convened under its 
authority, on conditions prescribed by the Health 
Assembly; but in the case of national organizations, 
invitations shall be issued only with the consent of 
the government concerned; 

(i) to consider recommendations bearing on health made 
by the General Assembly, the Economic and Social 
Council, the Security Council or Trusteeship Council 
of the United Nations, and to report to them on the 
steps taken by the Organization to give effect to such 
recommend ations; 

(]) to report to the Economic and Social Council in 
accordance with any agreement between the 
Organization and the United Nations; 

(k) to promote and conduct research in the field of 
health by the personnel of the Organization, by the 
establishment of its own institutions or by co- 
operation with official or non-official institutions of 
any Member with the consent of its government; 

(l) to establish such other institutions as it may consider 
desirable; 

(m) to take any other appropriate action to further the 
objective of the Organization. 

The World Health Assembly shall have authority to 
adopt regulations concerning: 

(a) sanitary and quarantine requirements and other 
procedures designed to prevent the international 
spread of disease; 

(b) nomenclatures with respect to diseases, causes of 
death and public health practices; 

(c) standards with respect to diagnostic procedures for 
international use; 


-(Specialized Agencies) 

(d) standards with respect to the safety, purity, and 
potency of biological, pharmaceutical and similar 
products moving in international commerce; 

(e) advertising and labelling of biological, pharma- 
ceutical and similar products moving in international 
commerce. 

Chapter VI 

THE EXECUTIVE BOARD 

The Board shall consist of twenty-four persons designated 
by as many Members. 

The Board shall meet at least twice a year and shall 
determine the place of each meeting. 

The Board shall elect its chairman from among its 
members and shall adopt its own rules of procedure. 

The functions of the Board shall be: 

(a) to give effect to the decisions and policies of the 
Health Assembly; 

(b) to act as the executive organ of the Health Assembly 

(c) to perform any other functions entrusted to it by the 
Health Assembly; 

(d) to advise the Health Assembly on questions referred 
to it by that body and on matters assigned to the 
Organization by conventions, agreements and regu- 
lations; 

(e) to submit advice or proposals to the Health Assembly 
on its own initiative; 

(f) to prepare the agenda of meetings of the Health 
Assembly; 

(g) to submit to the Health Assembly for consideration 
and approval a general programme of work covering 
a specific period; 

(h) to study all questions within its competence; 

(i) to take emergency measures within the functions 
and financial resources of the Organization to deal 
with events requiring immediate action. In par- 
ticular it may authorize the Director-General to take 
the necessary steps to combat epidemics, to par- 
ticipate in the organization of health relief to victims 
of a calamity and to undertake studies and research 
the urgency of which has been drawn to the attention 
of the Board by any Member or by the Director- 
General. 

Chapter VII 
THE SECRETARIAT 
Chapters VIII-XI 

Committees, Conferences, Headquarters, Regional Ar- 
rangements. 

Chapters XII-XIX 

Budget, Expenses, Voting, Reports, Legal Capacity, 

Privileges and Immunities, Relations with other Organiza- 
tions, Amendments, Interpretation and Entry into Force. 


50 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Specialized Agencies) 


WORLD METEOROLOGICAL ORGANIZATION— WMO 

41 ave. Giuseppe lyiotta, Geneva, Switzerland 

Telephone: 34 64 00. 

WMO began its activities in 1951. It aims to standardise, co-ordinate and improve the services rendered by 
meteorology throughout the world. Members: 119 States, 12 Territories. 

AIMS AND HISTORY 


AIMS 

1. To facilitate international co-operation in the estab- 
lishment of networks of stations and centres to provide 
meteorological services and observations. 

2. To promote the establishment and maintenance of 
systems for the rapid exchange of weather information. 

3. To promote standardization of meteorological observa- 
tions and ensure the uniform publication of observations 
and statistics. 

4. To further the application of meteorology to aviation, 
shipping, water problems, agriculture and other human 
activities. 

5. To encourage research and training in meteorology. 


HISTORY 

In 1878, the International Meteorological Organization, 
composed of directors of national meteorological services, 
was created at a conference at Utrecht. In 1947, at Wash- 
ington, it was decided to establish a new organization 
founded on an agreement between governments. The Con- 
vention of the new World Meteorological Organization was 
ratified by a large number of countries, and began activities 
in 1951. It was recognized as a Specialized Agency when the 
General Assembly, in December 1951, approved an agree- 
ment between WMO and the United Nations. Membership 
is open to any country with a meteorological service which 
ratifies the Convention, or to whom the Convention is 
applied. 


ORGANIZATION 


WORLD METEOROLOGICAL CONGRESS 

Supreme organ of WMO; convened every four years; all 
members are represented on it; adopts regulations, 
approves policy, programme and budget. Next meeting: 
Geneva, 1971. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

Composed of twenty-four members, including the 
President, three Vice-Presidents and the Presidents of the 
six Regional Associations; meets at least yearly to prepare 
studies and recommendations for the Congress; supervises 
the implementation of Congress resolutions and regula- 
tions; informs members on technical matters and offers 
advice. 


President: Dr. A. Nyberg (Sweden). 

Vice-Presidents: W. J. Gibbs (Australia), E. K. Fedorov 
(U.S.S.R.), N. A. Akingbehin (Nigeria). 

SECRETARIAT 

Secretary-General: D. A. Davies (United Kingdom). 
Deputy Secretary General: J. R. Rivet (France). 

The Secretariat serves as the administrative, document- 
ary and information centre of the Organization; undertakes 
special technical studies; prepares and distributes the ap- 
proved publications; organizes meetings of WMO constitu- 
ent bodies; generally acts as a link between the meteoro- 
logical services of the world, and provides information for 
the general public. 


REGIONAL ASSOCIATIONS 


Members are grouped in six regional associations, whose 
task is to co-ordinate meteorological activity within their 
regions and to examine, from a regional point of view, 
questions referred to them by the Executive Committee. 
Sessions arc held at least once every four years. 

Africa . . President: M. Seck (acting) (Senegal). 

Asia . . . President: M. H. Ganji (Iran). 


South America A. Garcia (Ecuador). 

North and Cen- 
tral America President: J. R. H. Noble (Canada). 


South-West 

Pacific . . President: K. Rajendram (acting) (Singa- 

pore) . 

Europe . . President: M. PEROVid (Yugoslavia). 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Specialized Agencies) 

WMO ACTIVITIES 

TECHNICAL COMMISSIONS 


Agricultural Meteorology. President: L. P. Smith (United 
Kingdom). Is responsible for promoting meteorological 
development relating to agricultural meteorology and for 
providing advice on such questions as the combating of the 
effects of unfavourable weather and climate, pests and 
diseases on agriculture, the protection of agricultural pro- 
duce in storage or in transit and the use of weather forecasts 
and warnings for agricultural purposes. 

Maritime Meteorology. President: K. T. McLeod 
(Canada). Is responsible for organizing meteorological net- 
works of observations from ships at sea; elaborating a 
system of radio weather bulletins for the needs of shipping 
and fishermen; studying the meteorological aspects of 
ocean waves and sea ice; promoting research in maritime 
meteorology. 

Aeronautical Meteorology. President: N. A. Lieurance 
(U.S.A.). Works in close collaboration with ICAO on 
developing and standardizing procedures and techniques 
for mailing observations from aircraft in flight and for 
issuing special weather forecasts for aircraft. 

Hydrometeorology. President: M. Kohler (U.S.A.). Is 
responsible for keeping abreast of and promoting develop- 
ments in hydrology related to meteorology, and also for 
development, improvement, promotion and international 
standardization of methods, procedures, techniques and 
terminology for (i) studies of the water balance and of the 


global hydrologic cycle and (ii) hydrometeorological aspects 
of design of systems for water management and control. 

Synoptic Meteorology. President: S. N. Sen (India). 
Formulates criteria for world-wide distribution of meteoro- 
logical stations; determines types and times of observations 
from these stations; organizes proper dissemination and 
exchange of weather data, forecasts and warnings; studies 
methods and techniques on weather analysis and fore- 
casting, including forecasting for extended periods. 

Atmospheric Sciences. President: J. F. Gabites (New 
Zealand). Deals with questions relating to research in the 
physics and dynamics of the atmosphere; is studying 
problems of artificial precipitation, forecasting by numeri- 
cal methods, long-range methods, long-range weather 
forecasting, and other problems. 

Climatology. President: C. C. Boughner (Canada). Deals 
with methods of recording, computing and disseminating 
climatological data and the application of these data to 
weather forecasting and to the comfort and activities of 
man. 

Instruments and Methods of Observation. President: 
V. D. Rockney (acting) (U.S.A.). Is responsible for all 
questions relating to meteorological instruments and their 
performance; promotes international comparison and 
standardization of such instruments; makes recommenda- 
tions relating to standard international methods of 
observation. 


OTHER ACTIVITIES 


International Exchange of Weather Reports, (a) Networks 
of meteorological stations: WMO is responsible for co- 
ordinating the development of networks of stations, with 
specified observational programmes, to permit members 
to fulfil their responsibilities in the application of meteor- 
ology. At regular intervals observers at weather stations 
throughout the world make meteorological observations at 
exactly the same time. The methods and practices followed 
are based on internationally agreed decisions and are 
practically uniform everywhere. Every day about 8,000 
land stations, 3,000 transport and reconnaissance aircraft 
and 4,000 ships make 100,000 observations for the surface 
of the earth and 10,000 observations relating to the 
upper-air. These figures are increasing from year to year as 
new stations are brought into service. WMO has adopted 
the international rules governing this work. Lists of 
weather stations, code manuals and transmission schedules 
are issued by WMO and kept up to date by a regular and 
frequent sendee of supplements. They are used by 
meteorological services, airlines, ships, fishing vessels and 
whalers. ( b ) Meteorological telecommunications : The arrange- 
ments for the collection and transmission of the weather 
reports referred to above are also subject to international 
regulations laid down by WMO. These regulations control 
the contents of the broadcasts and the hours and mode of 
transmission. 

Investigation of the Atmosphere by Artificial Satellites. 

The successful launching of artificial satellites has opened 


new possibilities of obtaining information on the structure 
and processes of the atmosphere. WMO has prepared five 
reports on the advancement of atmospheric sciences and 
their application in the light of developments in outer 
space. Technical Notes on "Reduction and use of data 
obtained by TIROS Meteorological Satellites’’ and "The 
use of satellite pictures in weather analysis and forecasting” 
have been issued. 

World Weather Watch and Voluntary Assistance Pro- 
gramme. I he Fifth World Meteorological Congress 
(Geneva, April 1967) approved plans drawn up by the 
Secretary-General of the Organization for the implementa- 
tion of a World Weather Watch based on meteorological 
satellites and a system of world and regional centres. This 
includes plans for filling the main gaps in the existing 
world network of meteorological observation stations. The 
first four-year phase of the World Weather Watch calls 
for approximately 40 new stations for upper-air observa- 
tions and the implementation of a full observing pro- 
gramme at 95 existing stations; average spacing will be 
global data and telecommunications systems, co-ordinated 
by three world centres, Melbourne, Moscow and Washing- 
ton, and research, education and training programmes. 
1 he World Weather Watch plan will be implemented 
through the application of the basic principle that each 
country will provide facilities and services which fall 
within its territory. However, those developing countries 
which are unable to do this will be assisted, as far as 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Specialized Agencies) 


possible, through the United Nations Development Pro- 
gramme and through bilateral agreements. A third means 
of assistance will be the Voluntary Assistance Programme 
which will be made up of contributions in financial form 
or in the form of equipment or sendees offered by members 
of WMO. In the case of regions outside the territories of 
individual countries (i.e. outer space, ocean areas and 
Antarctica) implementation will be based on the principle 
of voluntary participation of countries by providing 
facilities and services from their national resources. The 
Voluntary Assistance Programme will to some extent 
replace the WMO New Development Fund of Si. 5 million 
which was established by the Fourth World Meteorological 
Congress in 1963 to enable significant and prompt assistance 
to be rendered to members during the period 1965 to 1967. 

Technical Co-operation Programmes. In view of the 
important contributions of meteorological services to 
economic development and planning (in the fields of water 
resources, agriculture, aviation, shipping, fishing, etc.) 
many countries have asked the Organization to assist 
them in the establishment or development of national 
meteorological services. WMO participates in the United 
Nations Development Programme and acts as Executing 
Agency for projects in a number of countries, financed by 
the Special Fund component of this programme. Networks 
of hydrometeorological observing stations are set up, 
specialized personnel are trained through expert missions, 
fellowships, training seminars, etc. WMO’s allocation from 
the UNDP for the year 1967 amounted to U.S. $1,647,000. 
Total authorized cost of Special Fund Projects for which 
WMO is the Executing Agency during 1967 amounts to 
U.S. $3.8 million. These funds for technical co-operation 
programmes are not included in the regular budget of the 
Organization given below. 

Water Resources Development and International Hydro- 
logical Decade. WMO is continuing its close collaboration 
with the United Nations and other interested UN organiza- 


tions in the field of water resources development and, in 
particular, is participating in the Priority Programme in 
Water Resources within the UN Development Decade. 
Particular activities are: Fostering establishment of net- 
works, standardization of instruments and methods of 
observation, and training of manpower. WMO recognizes 
the potential importance of the International Hydrological 
Decade as a large-scale programme for the development 
and promotion of the science of hydrology. The Organiza- 
tion will play a major role in this programme of international 
co-operation. 

Arid Zone Research. WMO collaborates with FAO and 
UNESCO on agroclimatological studies in arid and semi- 
arid zones by organizing technical conferences and pro- 
viding financial assistance to enable participants to attend 
these conferences. General reports on investigations in 
certain countries in the Near East and in Africa South of 
the Sahara were published by WMO. 

Oceanography. WMO takes an active part in inter- 
national oceanography research projects, in the establish- 
ment of oceanographic fixed stations on the high seas and 
in the transmission and exchange of oceanographic and 
meteorological data. A working group has been established 
on ocean-atmosphere interaction and a booklet on the 
meteorological aspects of the International Indian Ocean 
Expedition has been published. 

Atmospheric Research. WMO is planning in collaboration 
with the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) 
an intensive programme of atmospheric research known as 
the Global Atmospheric Research Programme (GARP) 
which may include a twelve-month international obser- 
vational study and analysis of the global circulation in 
the troposphere and lower stratosphere. GARP is expected 
to be carried out in the middle ’seventies and a number of 
sub-programmes, including a tropical experiment, will be 
associated with the overall programme. 


BUDGET 

1968-71 


Revenue 

U.S. $ 

Contributions 

Miscellaneous Income . 


11,807,000 

10,000 

Total 

• 

11,817,000 


Expenditure 

U.S. $ 

Policy-making Organs 

537.489 

Executive Management 

7 r 3.2i9 

Programme of Technical Activities 

7o°4>7^9 

Regional Activities .... 

643,000 

Administrative and Common Services . 

2,238,523 

Other Budgetary Provisions 

180,000 

Total .... 

11,817,000 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Specialized Agencies) 


PUBLICATIONS 


WMO Bulletin: quarterly; f. 1952; reports international 
meetings and activities in meteorology; contains articles 
on the various branches of meteorology and on the 
applications of meteorology. 

Basic Documents: published in the four official languages 
(English, French, Russian and Spanish), contain 
information on the WMO Convention, General and 
Technical Regulations. 

Final Reports of Meetings of WMO: published in English 
and French. 


Technical Publications: include Technical Notes, Guides 
and Nomenclatures. 

WMO Technical Notes are published in one language only, 
but contain a summary in all four official languages. 

WMO Guides and Nomenclatures are published in English 
and French. 

World Weather Watch Planning Reports are published on 
the results of surveys and studies carried out on vari- 
ous aspects of World Weather Watch. 


CONVENTION 


Article i. Establishment of WMO. 

Article 2. The purposes of WMO are to facilitate world- 
ivide co-operation in establishing a network oi stations 
for making meteorological observations and to promote 
the establishment and maintenance of meteorological 
centres charged with the provision of meteorological 
services; to promote the establishment of systems for the 
rapid exchange of weather information; to promote 
standardization of meteorological observations and pub- 
lications; to further the application of meteorology to 
aviation and other human activities; to encourage research 
and training in meteorology. 

Article 3. Membership. Any state belonging to the 
International Meteorological Organization in 1947, may 
become a member by ratifying WMO's Convention; any 
UN member possessing a meteorological service; any other 
country on territory possessing a meteorological service, 
which is approved by two-thirds of existing members. 

Articles 4-5. Organization of WMO . The World 
Meteorological Congress; Executive Committee; Regional 
Associations; Technical Commissions; Secretariat. 


Article 6. Election of officers. 

Articles 7—12. Congress: composition and functions; 
executive oi decisions; sessions, voting; quorum. 

Articles 13-17. Executive Committee: composition and 
functions; sessions; voting; quorum. 

Article 18. Regional Associations: composition and 
functions; meetings. 

Article 19. Technical Commissions: organization and 
election of officers. 

Article 20-22. Secretariat: officers and functions. 

Articles 23-24. Finances. 

Articles 25-26. Relations with UN and other organiza- 
tions. 

Article 27. Legal status, privileges and immunities. 

Articles 28-29. Amendments, interpretations and 
disputes. 

Articles 30-31. Withdrawal and suspension. 

Articles 32-34. Ratification and accession. 

Article 35. Entry into force. 


54 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Other Bodies) 


OTHER BODIES 


UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND— UNICEF 

New York City 

Established in 1946 to continue the work carried out by UNRRA in assisting mothers and children in war- 
devastated countries. Since 1950 UNICEF has mainlj- directed its activities to help children and young people in 
the developing countries in fields of health, nutrition, social welfare, and preparing for later responsibilities. 


ORGANIZATION 


EXECUTIVE BOARD 

The governing body of UNICEF meets once a year to 
determine polic\' and consider applications for aid. 
Countries receiving aid match UNICEF expenditure on 
all projects and are responsible for their implementation. 
Members: Representatives of 30 Countries. 

SECRETARIAT 

UNICEF is an integral part of the United Nations and 
personnel are members of the UN Secretariat. 

Executive Director: Henry R. Labouisse (U.S.A.). 


REGIONAL OFFICES 

Europe and North Africa: 20 rue Pauline Borghese, 
Neuilly-sur-Seine, France. 

Africa South of the Sahara: 26-2S Marina, 2nd Floor, 
Lagos, Nigeria. 

South Central Asia: 11 Jorhagh, New Delhi, India. 
Eastern Mediterranean: Dr. Raji Nasr Building, Beirut, 
Lebanon. 

The Americas: Avenida Providencia 329, Santiago, Chile. 
East Asia: r9 Phra Atit Rd., Bangkok, Thailand. 


ACTIVITIES 


In September 1967, 364 projects in 117 countries were being assisted as follows: 



Africa 

1 

Asia 

1 

Eastern 

Mediterranean 

Europe 

The 

Americas 

Total 

Countries Aided . . . ! 

40 

25 

13 

5 

i 

34 

117 

Aid Programmes: 







Health Services . 

38 

23 

12 

1 

, 33 

107 

Nutrition . 

35 

17 

II 

5 

25 

93 

Welfare .... 

24 

II 

8 

— 

! 8 ! 

51 

Education and Vocational 
Training 

27 

15 

9 

I 

j 

18 

70 

Emergency Aid . 

— 

I 

I 


I 

3 

Total . 

124 

77 ! 

41 

7 

S5 



FINANCE 


UNICEF is financed by voluntary contributions from 
governments and individuals. In 1967 the Executive Board 
approved allocations totalling over $50 million for assisting, 
in co-operation with the appropriate specialized agencies, 
in developing and implementing projects undertaken by 
1 *9 governments. These projects comprise the creation and 
development of maternal and child health services; the 
prevention and treatment of specified diseases (T.B., 
malaria, yaws, trachoma, etc.); improvement of nutrition 


amongst under-nourished children and increase in food 
supplies (such as milk and other protein foods); extension 
of primary and secondary education and teaching training; 
development of welfare services; provision of vocational 
training for employment opportunities. UNICEF's con- 
tribution consists largely of the provision of supplies, 
equipment transport, etc. Nearly or.e-third of UNICEF 
aid is devoted to training personnel for implementation of 
the assisted projects. 


55 
























THE UNITED NATIONS— (Other Bodies) 


UNITED NATIONS RELIEF AND WORKS AGENCY FOR PALESTINE 
REFUGEES IN THE NEAR EAST— UNRWA 

UNESCO Building, Beirut, Lebanon 

Founded in 1950 to provide relief services for Arab' refugees living in Palestine before the conflict of 1948, and to assist them 

to become self-supporting. 


REGIONAL OFFICES 

Gaza: Gaza, U.A.R. 

Iraq: 27/39 Arasa No. 100, Alwiyah, Baghdad. 

Jordan: P.O. Box 484, Amman. 

Lebanon: Lebanon Field Office, Beirut. 

United Arab Republic {Egypt): 8 Dar el Shifa, Garden City, Cairo. 

Syrian Arab Republic: 19 Salah Eddin el Ayonoi Street, Aban Rumaneh (Sharkasich), Damascus. 


THE REFUGEES 

For UNRWA’s purposes a bona fide Palestine refugee 
is one whose normal residence was in Palestine for a 
minimum period of two years preceding the outbreak of 
the conflict in 1948, and who, as a result of the conflict, has 
lost his home and means of livelihood. To be eligible for 
assistance, a refugee must reside in one of the four host 
countries in which UNRWA operates, and be in need. 


DISTRIBUTION OF REFUGEES, MAY 1967 
(registered with UNRWA) 



In 

Camps 

Not in 
Camps 

Gaza Strip 

201,828 

114,948 

Jordan .... 

232,686 

490,001 

Lebanon .... 

75.316 

85,407 

Syria .... 

23,160 

121,230 

Total 

532,990 

811,586 


ORGANIZATION 

Commissioner-General: Laurence V. Michelmore (U.S.). 

UNRWA is a temporary, non-political organ of the 
General Assembly, founded in May 1950, with a mandate 
currently extending to June 30th, 1969. It employs more 
than 1 x,ooo persons, mainly refugees. There are field offices 
in the four host countries and liaison offices in New York, 
Geneva and Baghdad. The Commissioner-General is aided 
by an Advisory Commission consisting of representatives 
of the governments of: 

Belgium Lebanon U.A.R. 

France Syrian Arab Republic United Kingdom 

Jordan Turkey U.S.A. 

Chairman of Advisory Commission: §ahap Gurler. 


ACTIVITIES 


Distributes a basic food ration to 860,955 refugees; 
provides shelter for 530,220 refugees in 54 camps; under 
the technical guidance of WHO operates or subsidizes 122 
health centres, 10 mobile clinics and maintains 1,806 
hospital beds; 250,086 children are taught in schools 
operated under the guidance of UNESCO. The Agency is 
expanding its vocational training programme with a target 
of up to 3,500 graduates a year; it operates, or has under 


construction, 15 vocational or teacher training centres. The 
Agency plans to increase the number of university scholar- 
ships by 50 each year, to improve primary and secondary 
education, to continue a modest loan/grant programme 
for helping refugees become self-supporting and to main- 
tain relief services at present per capita levels. The Agency 
also runs a welfare programme. 


06 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Other Bodies) 


THE NEW REFUGEES 


As a result of the hostilities which occurred in June 1967 
between the Arab countries and Israel, it is estimated 
that up to 200,000 new refugees arrived in East Jordan. Of 
this number, it is estimated that 100,000 had previously 
been registered with UNRWA. In Syria there are over 
115,000 newly-displaced persons, including between 16,000 
and 17,000 newly-displaced UNRWA refugees. UNRWA 
is providing all the refugees, whether registered with 
UNRWA or not, with medical aid and supplementary food 
rations, and has organized the construction of six tented 


camps, costing about $370,000 each, to house them in East 
Jordan. The Jordanian Government has built a further 
three such camps. By mid-August, 73,200 persons were 
housed in the new camps, 40,200 in those operated by 
UNRWA. 

An agreement between Israel and Jordan through the 
mediation of the International Red Cross for the re- 
patriation of new refugees began to be implemented in 
August 1967. 


FUTURE AIMS 


1. The employment of greater flexibility in the provision 
of relief, with a view to adjusting the assistance 
provided more closely to the ascertained current 
needs of individual refugees and refugee families. 

2. The continuation and, if resources permit, appropri- 
ate increase of relief provided for refugees in need. 

3. The progressive achievement of a substantial 
revision of the ration rolls with the aim of ensuring 
that the relief dispensed by the agency is given to 
those refugees who are in need and withdrawn 
from those no longer in need or otherwise ineligible 
for it. 

4. The maintenance of the existing level of health 
service. 

5. The exploration with the refugees themselves and, 
as necessary, with the host Governments concerned, 
of the possibility of refugee participation in the ad- 


ministration of certain of the communal affairs of 
the camps. 

6. The maintenance of existing communal welfare 
services to the extent that funds permit and with 
increased participation by voluntary agencies, the 
refugees themselves and others concerned. 

7. The maintenance of the existing pattern of UNRWA 
services in the field of education and training, in 
close co-ordination with the education authorities 
in the host countries. 

8. The continued advancement of capable and ex- 
perienced Palestinian members of the Agency’s 
staff to positions of greater responsibility in the 
UNRWA service. 

9. A continuation of efforts to raise increased contribu- 
tions from both governmental and non-governmental 
sources. 


REFUGEES BY AGE AND COUNTRY, MAY 1967 


0-1 Year 

1-15 Years 

J 

Over 15 Years j 

Total 

} Number oe Families 

Gaza 

. ; 8,984 

120,941 

iS 6 ,S 5 i 

316,776 

55.617 

Jordan . 

• ! n.993 

255.985 

454 > 7°9 

722, 6S7 

1 128,273 

Lebanon . 

• | 3.481 

64.432 

1 92,810 

160,723 

36,99s 

Syria 

• ; 3.794 

59,620 

So, 976 ; 

144.390 

33.359 

Total . 

• j 28.252 

500,97s 

815.346 

L 344.576 

254,247 

1 


THE UNITED NATIONS— (Other Bodies) 


FINANCE 

UNRWA’s financial needs for 1968 are estimated at 
$40,150,000; the Agency is dependent upon voluntary con- 
tributions from governments and private sources. In recent 
years about 90 per cent of the total income has been 
contributed by the United States, the United Kingdom, 
Canada and France, the remainder being provided by some 
40 other governments and from private sources. 

Following the 1967 hostilities, a further $5,680,000 is 
needed to finance an expanded programme. 


EXPENDITURE 
(1968 estimates — ’000 U.S. dollars) 



Normal 

Programme 

Expanded 

Programme 

Total 

Budget 

Relief Services: 

Basic Subsistence ...... 

O 

CO 

-$* 

1,100 

13,580 

Supplementary Feeding ..... 

1.340 

220 

1,560 

Medical Care ....... 

3.290 

IOO 

3 , 39 o 

Sanitation ....... 

1.030 

no 

1,140 

Shelter ........ 

410 

1,380 

r.790 

Special Hardship Assistance .... 

480 

1,000 

1,480 

Transport, Supply and Storage 

3,070 

200 

3.270 

Internal Services ...... 

1,980 

4 ° 

2,020 

Administration ...... 

1,150 


1,150 

Total ...... 

25.230 

4.150 

29,380 

Education, Training and Individual Assistance: 




Primary and Secondary Education . 

11,220 

47 ° 

11,690 

Vocational Training and University Education . 

3.200 

60 

3.260 

Total ...... 

14,420 

530 

14,950 

Allocated Reserves ...... 

500 

1,000 

1,500 

Grand Total ..... 

40.150 

5 , 6 So 

45.830 


UNRWA-UNESCO SCHOOLS, 1967 
Primary and Secondary 



Schools 

Teachers* 

Pupils 

Gaza ....... 

Jordan ...... 

Lebanon ...... 

Syria ....... 

Total ...... 

ioi 

194 

59 

86 

i ,458 

1,765 

7 i 5 

710 

58,072 

78,687 

24 T 95 

26,013 

440 

4,648 

186,967 


*1964 figures; (1967 total: 5,112). 


08 


THE UNITED NATIONS — (Other Bodies) 

UNITED NATIONS MILITARY OBSERVER GROUP 
FOR INDIA AND PAKISTAN— UNMOGIP 

Kashmir 

Established 1949 to investigate border violations and incidents along the Kashmir cease-fire line. 


ORGANIZATION 


As of October 1966, the Group consisted of 52 Military 
Observers (44 observers and 8 air-crew) from the following 
countries: Australia, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Denmark, 
Finland, Italy, New Zealand, Nonvay, Sweden, Uruguay. 
The Observers are stationed on both sides of the cease-fire 
line. Also attached to the Group are civilian specialists, 
including signals officers, radio technicians, vehicle 
mechanics, etc. 


Chief Military Observer: Maj.-Gen. Luis Tassara Gon- 
zalez. 

UN Representative for India and Pakistan: Dr. Frank P. 

Graham. 

Budget 

1967: U.S. §702,300. 


UNITED NATIONS TRUCE SUPERVISION ORGANIZATION— UNTSO 

Government House, Jerusalem 

Set up to maintain the 1949 Armistice Agreements between Egypt, Lebanon, Jordan and Syria on the one hand, 
and Israel on the other. In July 1967 shortly after the Israeli- Arab war UN observers were positioned on both 
sides of the Suez Canal, constituting the cease-fire line between Israel and the U.A.R. The organization was 

further strengthened in October 1967. 

Chief of Staff: Lt.-Gen. Odd Bull (Norway). 

Deputy Chief of Staff: Col. F. M. Johnson, Jr. (U.S.A.). 

The Chief of Staff is ex officio Chairman of the four 
Mixed Armistice Commissions. Claims or complaints are 
referred to the Commissions. 

JORDAN -ISRAEL MIXED ARMISTICE 
COMMISSION 

Jerusalem 

Chairman and Chief of Staff’s Representative for Mount 
Scopus: Lt.-Col. M. C. Stanaway (New Zealand). 

35 Military Observers. 

1 SRAELI-SYRIAN MIXED ARMISTICE 
COMMISSION 
Damascus; Quneitra; Tiberias 
Chairman: Lt.-Col. R. H. W. Bunworth (Ireland). 

68 Military Observers. 


ISRAELI-LEBANESE MIXED ARMISTICE 
COMMISSION 

Beirut; Naqoura 

Chairman: Lt.-Col. J. Arnault (France). 

6 Military Observers. 

EGYPTIAN-ISRAELI MIXED ARMISTICE 
COMMISSION 

Gaza, U.A.R. 

Chairman: Col. \V. A. Van IIeuven (Netherlands). 

1 7 Military Observers. 


UNTSO Liaison Officer in Cairo: Lt.-Col. C. Di Stefano (Italy). 


SUEZ CANAL SECTOR 


hollowing the cease-fire agreement between Israel and 1 
U.A.R. of July 1967, UN Observers were stationed on each | 
side of the Suez Canal, with headquarters at el Qantara 
and Ismailia. In October 1967, the number of observers was I 


increased from 43 to 90, and the number of observation 
posts on each side of the Canal was increased from 9 to 18. 
The operation was also strengthened by the acquisition of 
small patrol craft and helicopters. 


59 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Other Bodies) 


UNITED NATIONS COMMISSION FOR THE UNIFICATION 
AND REHABILITATION OF KOREA— UNCURK 

Seoul, Republic oS Korea 

Established 1950 to bring about by peaceful means a unified, independent and democratic Korea. 


Australia 

Chile 

Netherlands 


MEMBERS 

Pakistan 

Philippines 


Thailand 

Turkey 


ORGANIZATION 


COMMISSION 

Composed ol delegates of the member nations. Meets 
usually about lour times a year, but can be convened more 
frequently if necessary. Reports to the General Assembly 
annually or more often when the circumstances warrant. 

Principal Secretary: Au Nekunam. 


COMMITTEE 

Consists of the representatives of Australia, the Philip- 
pines, Thailand and Turkey. Meets normally once a week, 
acting on behalf of the Commission between its sessions. 

BUDGET 

1968 Estimate: U.S. $ 245 /°°° 


UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES— 

UNHCR 


Palais des Nations, Genova 

Telephone: 34 60 11, 33 10 00, 33 20 00, 33 40 00. 

The Office of the High Commissioner was set up in 1950 to provide international protection for refugees and to 
seek permanent solutions to their problems. In 1962 the mandate of UNHCR was extended until the end of 1968. 

ORGANIZATION 

HIGH COMMISSIONER 

High Commissioner (1966-68): Prince Sadruddin Aga 
Khan. 

Deputy High Commissioner: Albert F. Bender, Jr. 

The High Commissioner is elected by the United Nations 
General Assembly on the nomination of the Secretary- 
General, and is responsible to the General Assembly and to 
ECOSOC. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

The Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's 
Programme, established by ECOSOC, gives the High 


Commissioner policy directives, and advice at his request 
in the field of international protection. It meets usually at 
Geneva twice a year, and special sessions may be called to 
consider urgent problems. Members: representatives of 
thirty states. 

ADMINISTRATION 

Headquarters includes Chef de Cabinet, Secretariat and 
the following divisions: Legal, Africa and Asia, Americas 
and Europe, Public Affairs, Administration and Finance. 
There are 27 Branch Offices, and 12 Correspondents or 
Special Representatives in some 60 countries throughout 
the world. 


ACTIVITIES 


The Office of the High Commissioner concerns itself 
with those refugees who have been determined on an 
individual basis to come within its mandate under the 
Statute, and with those refugees whom it is called upon to 
assist under the terms of the good offices resolutions 
adopted by the General Assembly of the UN. Refugees 


meeting these conditions are entitled to the protection of 
the Office of the High Commissioner irrespective of their 
geographical location. Refugees who are assisted by other 
United Nations agencies, or who have the same rights or 
obligations as nationals of their country of residence, are 
outside the mandate of UNHCR. 


GO 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Other Bodies) 


The main functions of the Office are to provide inter- 
national protection, to seek permanent solutions to the 
problems of refugees, including voluntary repatriation, 
resettlement in other countries and integration into the 
country of present residence, as well as to provide sup- 
plementary aid and emergency relief to refugees as may 
be necessary. All activities are carried out on a humani- 
tarian and non-political basis. 

INTERNATIONAL PROTECTION 

The main objective of international protection, which is 
the primary function of UNHCR, is to help refugees to 
cease being refugees and in the meantime to safeguard 
their rights and interests and improve their status. 
UNHCR pursues these objectives through seeking to 
facilitate naturalization of refugees, promoting the con- 
clusion of inter-governmental legal instruments in favour 
of refugees and encouraging governments to adopt legal 
provisions for their benefit. 

The main legal instrument concerning refugees is the 
1951 Convention relating to their status, the application 
of which is supervised by UNHCR. As at December 1966, 
51 governments were parties to it. A protocol intended to 
extend the provisions of the 1951 Convention to new 
groups of refugees came into force in October, 1967. 

Other legal instruments directly or indirectly affecting 
the refugees include the Convention on the status of state- 
less persons; the Convention on the reduction of stateless- 
ness; the Agreement relating to refugee seamen and the 
European agreement on the abolition of visas for refugees. 

Among legal problems, the Office is called upon to devote 
special attention to the question of the right of asylum, 
which is of crucial importance for refugees. 

Voluntary Repatriation 

The Office assists refugees wherever possible to overcome 
difficulties in the way of their repatriation. In cases where 
no funds are available for their transportation to their 
homeland, arrangements for payment of the cost involved 
may be made by UNHCR under its material assistance 
programmes. 

Resettlement 

From its inception UNHCR has been actively engaged 
in the promotion of resettlement through emigration, in 
close co-operation -with interested governments, the Inter- 
governmental Committee for European Migration (ICEM), 
the United States Refugee Program and voluntary agencies 
concerned with the resettlement of refugees. The task of 
UNHCR in this field is to negotiate with governments in an 
endeavour to obtain suitable resettlement opportunities 
for those refugees both able-bodied and handicapped who 
opt for this solution, to encourage governments to liberalize 
their criteria for the admission of refugees and to draw 
up special immigration schemes for them wherever 
possible. 

INTEGRATION OF REFUGEES IN THEIR 
COUNTRY OF RESIDENCE 

1 he object of local integration is to assist refugees to 
become self-supporting in their country of residence. This 
is done cither by granting refugees loans for establishment 
in agriculture, or by assisting them through vocational 
training or in other ways to learn a skill, or to establish 


themselves in gainful occupations. One major form of 
assistance to help refugees leave camps is to provide them 
with housing. 

In addition there are projects for the settlement in 
institutions of the aged and the sick, rehabilitation projects 
lor handicapped refugees, and counselling projects which 
are essential for the guidance of refugees in the choice of a 
solution to their problems. 

The new groups of refugees in Africa and some of the 
refugees in Asia are mainly assisted through local settle- 
ment in agriculture. In Africa consolidation of the settle- 
ment of refugees is effected through close co-operation 
between UNHCR and other UN bodies which provide 
development assistance to the areas concerned. 

Emergency relief is provided in the case of new refugee 
situations when food supplies and medical aid are required 
on a large scale at short notice. In recent years this has 
been the case several times in Africa where the World 
Food Program has provided considerable food supplies for 
the refugees’ subsistence pending their first harvest. 

Supplementary aid is provided for the neediest refugees 
and may take the form of supplementary feeding, medical 
aid, or clothing. 

FINANCE 

The UNHCR material assistance programmes arc financed 
from voluntary' contributions made by governments and 
also from private sources. The financial targets of the 
UNHCR Current Programmes for 1965, 1966 and 1967 
amount respectively- to approximately' $3.5 million, $4.2 
million and §4.8 million. The target of the 1968 Pro- 
gramme was set at a little over $4.6 million. 

In addition to the programmes there are special projects 
which are financed from Special Trust Funds donated to 
UNHCR for that purpose, and there is a $500,000 Enter 
gency Fund on which UNHCR can draw to meet emergency 
situations. 

DEVELOPMENTS, 1965-67 

The main development over the past three years has 
been the increasing number of new groups of refugees, 
particularly in Africa where there are at present over 
750,000 refugees, over 200,000 of whom are still receiving 
UNHCR assistance. Financial implications of this develop- 
ment are reflected in the increase in the financial target of 
the UNHCR Current Programme. In view of the growing 
scope of the new problems of refugees, a special fund- 
raising campaign was organized by the voluntary' agencies 
in October 1966 for the benefit of refugees in Africa and 
Asia, the proceeds of which have been earmarked by r the 
donors mainly for projects outside the UNHCR pro- 
grammes. 

Further progress has been made in the solution of the 
problems of “old" European refugees through the im- 
plementation of the Major Aid Programmes, which should 
be completed in the near future. The problems of new 
European refugees are being settled as and when they' 
arise, largely through the resettlement of these refugees in 
co-operation with ICEM. 

The main development in the field of international 
protection is the drawing up of a special protocol which is 
at present under consideration by the General Assembly 
of the UN, to remove the 1951 dateline from the Con- 
vention, thus widening its scope. 


ill 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Other Bodies) 

STATUTE 


Chapter I 

GENERAL PROVISIONS 

1. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 
acting under the authority of the General Assembly, shall 
assume the function of providing international protection, 
under the -auspices of the United Nations, to refugees who 
fall within the scope of the present Statute and of seeking 
permanent solutions for the problem of refugees by assist- 
ing governments and, subject to the approval of the govern- 
ments concerned, private organisations to facilitate the 
voluntary repatriation of such refugees, or their assimilation 
within new national communities. 

2. The work of the High Commissioner shall be of an 
entirely non-political character; it shall be humanitarian 
and social and shall relate, as a rule, to groups and 
categories of refugees. 

3. The High Commissioner shall follow policy directives 
given him by the General Assembly or the Economic and 
Social Council. 

4. Provisions for the establishment of an Executive 
Committee. 

5. Provisions for the continuation of the Office. 

Chapter II 

EUNCTIONS OF THE HIGH COMMISSIONER 

6. The competence of the High Commissioner shall 
extend to any person who, owing to well-founded fear of 
being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality 
or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality 
and is unable or, owing to such fear or for reasons other 
than personal convenience, is unwilling to avail himself of 
the protection of that country; or who, not having a 
nationality and being outside the country of his former 


habitual residence, is unable or, owing to such fear or for 
reasons other than personal convenience, is unwilling to 
return to it. 

Any other person who is outside the country of his 
nationality or, if he has no nationality, the country of his 
former habitual residence, because he has had well- 
founded fear of persecution by reason of his race, religion, 
nationality or political opinion and is unable or, because of 
such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of 
the government of the country of his nationality, or, if he 
has no nationality, to return to the country of his former 
habitual residence. 

7. Refugees to whom the High Commissioner’s compe- 
tence shall not extend. 

8. Means of providing protection for refugees. 

9. The High Commissioner shall engage in such additional 
activities, including repatriation and resettlement, as the 
General Assembly may determine, within the limits of the 
resources placed at his disposal. 

10. The High Commissioner shall administer any funds, 
public or private, which he receives for assistance to 
refugees, and shall distribute them among the private and, 
as appropriate, public agencies which he deems best 
qualified to administer such assistance. 

xi. Presentation of report to the Economic and Social 
Committee and to the General Assembly. 

12. Co-operation with the various specialized agencies. 

Chapter III 

ORGANIZATION AND FINANCE 

13. Election of the High Commissioner. 

14. Appointment of Deputy High Commissioner and 
other stag. 

15-22. Organization and Finance. 


WORLD FOOD PROGRAM— WFP 

Via delle Terme di Caracalla, Rome, Italy 

Established 1963 for a three-year experimental period, and extended 1965, the WFP is a joint UN-FAO effort 
to provide emergency relief and to stimulate economic and social development through aid in the form of food. 


ORGANIZATION 

Inter-Governmental Committee: 24 members, 12 elected 
by ECOSOC and 12 by FAO. 

Joint UN-FAO Administrative Unit: carries out the day- 
to-day activities of the WFP. 

Executive Director: A. H. Boerma (a.i.). 

ACTIVITIES 

Member governments of the United Nations and FAO 
make voluntary contributions of commodities, cash, and 
services (particularly shipping) to WFP, which uses the 
food for emergency relief for victims of natural and man- 
made disasters, and for support for economic and social 
development projects in the developing countries. The food 
is supplied, for example, as an incentive in development 
self-help schemes, as part wages in labour-intensive pro- 
jects of many kinds, particularly in the rural economy, but 
also in the industrial field, and in school feeding schemes 
where the emphasis is mainly on enabling the beneficiaries 
to have a balanced diet. In some cases it is feed for live- 
stock that is supplied, the introduction of modem feeding 


practices leading to increased production and thus to an 
improvement of the people’s nutrition. Recipient govern- 
ments are encouraged to take steps to replace the WFP 
aid as soon as each project, which may be for anything up 
to five years, comes to an end. 

As at mid-September 1967, 245 development projects 
had been approved at a food and feed cost of $161.8 
million: 62 in Africa, 56 in Asia, 38 in Latin America and 
the Caribbean and 89 in the Near East, North Africa and 
Europe. Of these, 27 were completed and 176 operational. 
Some S44 million had been committed for emergency 
operations. 

FINANCE 

As at mid-September 1967, the voluntary contributions 
made available by governments amounted to almost §26 2 
million — about $93 million for the experimental period and 
S169 million for the period 1966-68. The target set by the 
United Nations and FAO for 1966-68 was $275 million, 
with not less than 33-J per cent in the form of cash and 
services. 


G 2 


THE UNITED NATIONS — (Other Bodies) 


UNITED NATIONS PEACE-KEEPING FORCE IN CYPRUS— UNFICYP 

P.O. Box 1642, Nicosia 


Established in March 1964 for a three-month period, subsequently extended until March 1968, The purpose of 
the Force is "in the interests of preserving international peace, to use its best efforts to prevent a recurrence of 
fighting and, as necessary, to contribute to the maintenance and restoration of law and order and a return to 

normal conditions". 


Commander: Lt.-Gen. A. E. Martola (Finland). 

Mediator: (Vacant). 

Special Representative of the Secretary-General: Bibiano 
F. Osorio-Tafall (Mexico). 


FINANCE 

Estimate (first thirty-nine months, March ig64-J une 
1967): $69,105,000. 

Estimate (forty-five months, March 1964-December 1967): 
$79,905,000. 


COMPOSITION OF FORCE 

(October 5th, 1967) 



Military 

Police 

Australia .... 



5° 

Austria .... 

53 

45 

Canada .... 

ssi 


Denmark .... 

641 

40 

Finland .... 

608 

— 

Ireland .... 

5 2 5 

— 

New Zealand 

— 

— 

Sweden .... 

601 

38 

United Kingdom 

1,127 


Total 

4,436 

1 73 


There are 51 civilians attached to UNFICYP. Grand 
total: 4,660 


UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT— 

UNCTAD 


Palais des Nations, Geneva 

Telephone: 34 60 11, 33 40 00, 33 20 00, 33 10 00. 

Set up as an organ of the United Nations General Assembly by a resolution of December 1964 on the recom- 
mendation of the UN Conference on Trade and Development, held March-June 1964. Aims to promote 
international trade with a view to accelerating economic development. 


ORGANIZATION 


CONFERENCE 

Convened at intervals of about three years. The next 
session is to be held in New Delhi, February-March 1968. 
Members: 131. 

Secretary-General: Dr. Raul Prebisch (Argentina). 


TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT BOARD 

Carries out the functions falling within the competence 
of the Conference when the latter is not in session. Meets 
normally twice a year. Members: 55 states elected by the 
Conference having regard to geographical distribution and 
continuing representation for the principal trading states; 
31 members of the Board arc developing countries. 
Prcsidcnl ho(iy): Paul R. Jolles (Switzerland). 


COMMITTEES 

The work of the Board is implemented by four main 
committees, which meet at least once a year. 

Committee on Commodities: 55 members. Chairman (1967): 
Aleksander Wolynski (Poland). 

Permanent Group of Synthetics and Substitutes: 17 
members. Chairman (1967): R. C. S. Koelmeyer 
(Ceylon). 

Committee on Manufacturers: 45 members. Chairman 
(1967): Michael Sakellaropoulo (Canada). 
Permanent Group on Preferences: 34 members. Chair- 
man (1967}: Akhtar Mahmood (Pakistan). 
Committee on Invisibles and Financing Related to Trado: 
45 members. Chairman (1967): Mirko Mermolja 
(Yugoslavia). 

Committee on Shipping: 45 members. Chairman (1967): 

Carlos Yei.anzuki.a (Chile). 


G3 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Other Bodies) 


AIMS 


The principal functions of UNCTAD are: to promote 
international trade, in order to accelerate economic 
development, particularly trade between countries at 
different stages of development, between developing 
countries and between countries with different systems of 
economic and social organization; to formulate principles 
and policies on international trade and related problems 


of economic development; to make proposals for putting 
these principles and policies into effect; to review and 
facilitate the co-ordination of activities of other UN bodies 
dealing with related problems; to initiate action for the 
negotiation and adoption of multilateral legal instruments 
in the field of trade; to harmonize trade and related policies 
of governments and regional economic groupings. 


ACTIVITIES 


The 1968 New Delhi Conference has as its objectives: a 
fresh evaluation of the economic situation and its effect on 
the implementation of the recommendations of the 1964 
Conference, negotiations on certain questions, and a 
debate on longer-term questions and how to approach 
them constructively. 

The provisional agenda of the Conference provides for 
consideration of: 

x. Trends and problems in world trade and development, 
including problems of East- West Trade, the impact 
of regional economic groupings of developed countries, 
the world food problem, and the question of transfer 
of technology. 

2. Commodity problems and policies, including com- 
modity agreements, operation and financing of buffer 
stocks, diversification programmes, guidelines for 
pricing policy, liberalization of trade and problems 
arising from the competition of synthetics. 

3. Expansion and diversification of exports of manu- 
factures and semi-manufactures of developing 
countries, including the question of preferential or 
free entry of such exports to the developed countries. 


4. Growth, development finance and aid, including 
terms and conditions of aid, alleviation of external 
indebtedness, mobilization of internal resources, and 
supplementary financial measures. 

5. Shipping matters such as expansion of merchant 
marines od developing countries, establishment of 
shipping consultation machinery, study of conference 
practices and structure and level of freight rates. 

6. Trade expansion and economic integration among 
developing countries, including action programmes 
contemplated by developing countries and the inter- 
national support required for their execution. 

7. Special measures in favour of the least developed 
countries. 

8. A general review of the work of UNCTAD. 

During 1967, the Trade and Development Board, on the 
basis of reports from its committees and secretariat 
studies, established the Conference’s provisional agenda 
and prepared the items to be considered. Progress was also 
made in consultations and negotiations towards con- 
clusion of international agreements on cocoa and sugar. 


BUDGET 

1967: U.S. $7,407,000. 

1968 Estimate; U.S. $9,743,000, including §2,019,000 for 
second Conference. 

PUBLICATIONS 

Proceedings of the 1364 Conference (8 vols.). 

Resolutions and Decisions of the Board, and reports of 
Committees. 

Review of the Implementation of the Recommendations of the 
Conference — Review of International Trade and Develop- 
ment, 1966. 

Commodity Survey, 1966. 

Trade Expansion and Economic Integration among Develop- 
ing Countries. 

Payments Arrangements among Developing Countries for 
Trade Expansion. 

Shipping and the World Economy. 


64 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Other Bodies) 


UNITED NATIONS INSTITUTE FOR TRAINING AND RESEARCH— 

UNITAR 

801 United Nations Plaza, New York 


Established 1965 as an autonomous body within the framework of the United Nations. Provides training to 
personnel, particularly from developing countries, for national and international service, and studies means of 
improving the effectiveness of the UN and its specialized agencies. 


ORGANIZATION 


BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Composed of seventeen members appointed by the UN 
Secretary-General to serve for two years. The UN Secretary- 
General and the Presidents of the General Assembly and 
ECOSOC, and the Executive Director of the Institute are 
ex-officio members. Specialized agencies are represented 
appropriately at meetings. The Board meets usually twice 
a year and is responsible for determining basic policies of 
the Institute and for reviewing and adopting the annual 
budget. 

Subsidiary Committee: Administrative and Financial. 


EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR 

The Executive Director is appointed by the Secretary- 
General, after consultation with the Board, and is respon- 
sible for the overall organization, direction and administra- 
tion of the Institute. 

Executive Director: Chief S. O. Adebo, c.m.g. (Nigeria). 


FUNCTIONS 


The purpose of the Institute is to enhance, by training 
and research, “the effectiveness of the United Nations in 
achieving the major objectives of the Organization, in 
particular the maintenance of peace and security and the 
promotion of economic and social development”. Training 
at various levels is provided to persons, particularly from 
the developing countries, for assignments with the UN or 
the specialized agencies and for assignments in their 
national services which are connected with the work of the 
UN. The Institute also conducts research and study into 
problems which may concern the UN. 

The Institute will collaborate in, and extend, existing 
programmes for training and research and during its second 
year of operations, 1966-67, will carry out the following 
programmes: 

Training: 

1. Training of personnel from developing countries. 

2. Advanced trainingforintemationalstaff. Programmes: 
training of development agents; development financ- 
ing; techniques and procedures of technical assistance; 
•Deputy Resident Representatives; Seminar on Major 
Problems of Technical Assistance. 

3. Fellowships: UNITAR Adlai Stevenson programme. 


Research : 

1. Criteria and methods of evaluation of United Nations 
assistance to the developing countries. 

2. The transfer of technology and skills to developing 
countries. 

3. Problems of newly independent states or territories 
in process of decolonization which may require 
special international arrangements. 

4. The development of international law through the 
United Nations. 

5. Instrumentalities and procedures for peaceful settle- 
ment and peace-keeping. 

6. United Nations methods and techniques for the 
promotion and protection of human rights. 

7. Problems of organizational relationships and co- 
ordination in the United Nations system. 

S. Problems of international administration. 

9. Research concerning training programmes. 

10. Problems relating to public information and docu- 
mentation of the United Nations. 


FINANCE 

Expenses arc met from voluntary contributions made by 
governments, inter-governmental organizations, and from 
foundations and other non-governmental sources. 

Estimated Budget (first five-six years): U.S. St 0,000,000. 
Estimated Budget (106S): $1,275,000. 

G5 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Other Bodies; 


UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME — UNDP* 

New York City 


Established in 1965 to aid the developing countries in increasing the wealth-producing capabilities of their natural 
and human resources by supporting economic and social projects, with pre-investment, help and technical 

assistance. 


EXECUTING AGENCIES 


FAO 

ILO 

UPU 

IMCO 

ITU 

WHO 

IAEA 

UN 

WMO 

IBRD 

UNESCO 


ICAO 

UNIDO 



ORGANIZATION 


The UNDP 

functions under the authority of 


and of the General Assembly. 


Governing Council: 37 mems., representing both developed 
and developing countries; the policy-making body of 
the UNDP. 

Administrator: Paul G. Hoffman (U.S.A.). 
Co-Administrator: David Owen (United Kingdom). 
Inter-Agency Consultative Board: composed of the UN 
Secretary-General and the Executive Heads of the 
Specialized Agencies and other bodies; provides 
guidance and advice. 

ACTIVITIES 

The United Nations Development Programme is carry- 
ing out some 3,500 pre-investment and technical assistance 
projects in support of national and regional development 


efforts, including: development planning, industrial pro- 
ductivity, agricultural productivity, public utilities, educa- 
tion, public health, major public and social services. It 
provides the developing countries with the services of some 
5,500 international experts each year, with several 
thousand fellowships awarded for study abroad, and with 
supporting equipment. The projects, which range in cost 
from a few thousand dollars to several million dollars each 
and from a few weeks to several years in duration, fall 
within these categories: 

Surveys and feasibility studies: of natural resources and 
their economic potential. 

Centres for advanced education and training: in the effective 
use of domestic or regional resources. 

Applied Research Institutes: for bringing modern technology 
to bear on development needs. 

Advisory and consultative services for assistance in a broad 
spectrum of fields: also, in special cases, provision of 
experts to fill executive or operational posts. 
Fellowships : to provide advanced education, training and 
work experience abroad for nationals of developing 
countries. 

Exchange of ideas, information and plans: convening of 
seminars of experts from many areas. 


GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF PROJECTS 


(’000 U.S. dollars) 


Region 

Special Fund 
(1959-67) 

Technical Assistance 
(1967-68) 

Number 

UNDP 

Allocations 

Government 

Contributions 

Total 

Cost 

Number 

Total 

Cost 

Africa .... 

The Americas 

Asia and the Far East . 

Europe .... 

Middle East 

Inter-Regional 

Total 

276 

199 

193 

52 

57 

1 

282,435 

198,027 

188,732 

52,758 

44.792 

3,866 

345,416 

301,555 

268,731 

115,842 

76,586 

627,851 

499,582 

457,463 

168,600 

121,378 

3,866 

1,047 

647 

667 

213 

202 

142 

40.059 

22,390 

30,112 

4,270 

7,229 

S .855 

778 

770,610 

1,108,130 

1,878,740 

2,918 

112,915 


* The UNDP came into effect in January 1966, bringing together the previous activities 
Technical Assistance and the UN Special Fund. 


of the Expanded 


Programme of 


60 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Other Bodies) 


DISTRIBUTION OF PROJECTS, BY ECONOMIC SECTOR 


('ooo U.S. dollars) 


Sector 


Special Fund 
(1959-67) 


Technical Assistance 
(1967-68) 

Number 

UNDP 

Allocations 

Government 

Contributions 

Total 

Cost 

Number 

Total 

Cost 

Agriculture .... 

291 

276,957 

351,678 

628,635 

700 

28,713 

Industry .... 

211 

194,942 

261,991 

456,933 

381 

16,558 

Public Utilities 

108 

99,557 

125,264 

224,821 

365 

12,873 

Housing, Building, Physical 
Planning .... 

13 

12,807 

23,535 

36,342 

55 

x.SSS 

Multi-sector 

45 

63,819 

45,991 

109,810 

122 

5,53i 

Health .... 

6 

4-°32 

S, 8 gx 

12,923 

384 

16,090 

Education .... 

7 i 

88,071 

246,919 

334,990 

482 

i 7,077 

Social Welfare 

2 

1.595 

2,110 

3,705 

in 

4.030 

Public Administration and 
Other Services . 

31 

28,830 

41,751 

70,581 

318 

10,155 

Total 

778 

770,6x0 

1,108,130 

1,878,740 

2,91s 

112,915 


FINANCE 

The Development Programme is financed by the 
voluntary contributions of UN and Specialized Agency 
members which, for 1967, reached a total of approximately 
U.S. $170 million. Pledges for 1968 were U.S. $183 million 
(as of November 1st, 1967). 

Funds Committed: Over U.S. §1,150 million from the 
UNDP. Recipient governments have, in addition, com- 
mitted the equivalent of §920 million for the projects. 





















THE UNITED NATIONS— (Other Bodies) 

UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION — 

UNIDO 

Felderhaus, Rathausplatz 2, A-1010 Vienna, Austria 


Established January 1967 to promote industrial development by encouraging the mobilization of national and 
international resources, and to assist in, promote and accelerate the industrialization of the developing countries, 

with particular emphasis on the manufacturing sector. 


ORGANIZATION 


INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT BOARD 

Composed of 45 members elected by the UN General 
Assembly from among the members of the UN or its 
related agencies for a term of three years. Both developed 
and developing countries are equitably represented. The 
principle functions and powers of the Board are to formu- 
late principles and policies to achieve the purpose of the 
Organization, to consider and approve the programme of 
its activities and also to review and facilitate the co- 
ordination of activities within the United Nations system 


in the field of industrial development. The Board normally 
holds one session a year. 

President (1967): Moraiwid M. Tell (Jordan). 

Secretary: Almamv Sylla. 

SECRETARIAT 

Has overall responsibility for administration and re- 
search programmes and is in charge of operational pro- 
grammes, including activities executed by UNIDO as a 
participating organization of the UNDP. 

Executive Director: Ibrahim Helmi Abdel-Rahman (uar). 


FUNCTIONS 


Operational Activities 

Encourage, promote and recommend national, regional 
and international action to achieve more rapid indus- 
trialization of developing countries. 

Contribute to the most effective application in the 
developing countries of modern industrial methods of 
production, programming and planning, taking into 
account the experience of countries with different social 
and economic systems. 

Build and strengthen institutions and administration in 
the developing countries in the field of industrial tech- 
nology, production, programming and planning. 

Disseminate information on technological innovations 
originating in various countries and assist the developing 
countries in the practical application of such information. 

Assist, at the request of developing countries, in the 
formulation of industrial development programmes and in 
the preparation of specific industrial projects. 

Aid in the regional planning of industrialization of 
developing countries within their regional and sub-regional 
economic groupings. 

Offer advice and guidance on problems relating to the 
exploitation and efficient use of natural resources, industrial 
raw materials, by-products and new products of developing 
countries. 

Assist the developing countries in the training of 
technical and other appropriate categories of personnel 
needed for their accelerated industrial development, in 
co-operation with the specialized agencies concerned. 

Propose measures for the improvement of the inter- 
national system of industrial property, with a view to 
accelerating the transfer of technical knowledge to 
developing countries. 


Assist, at the request of developing countries, in obtain- 
ing external financing for specific industrial projects. 

Special Industrial Services (SIS) : Financed from volun- 
tary contributions, these services provide, at short notice, 
assistance to governments wishing to promote or carry 
out new industrial projects. 

Studies and Research 

Include, in particular, the compilation, analysis, publica- 
tion and dissemination of data concerning various aspects 
of industrialization, such as industrial technology, invest- 
ment, financing, production, management and planning. 

INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON 
INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT 

Convened by UNIDO in November-December 1967, at 
Athens, Greece, in order to initiate a dialogue between 
developed and developing countries on all major issues of 
industrialization and to stimulate further international 
co-operation in this field. The main items on the agenda 
were: (1) a general survey of the recent evolution and 
characteristics of world industry, with emphasis on the 
developing countries, (2) a review of key industries, 

(3) policies and measures in developing countries, and 

(4) ways and means of international co-operation. 

FINANCE 

Administrative and Research Budget: part of the regular 
budget of the UN; total (1967) U.S. $5,729,500. 

Operational Programmes: financed from voluntary con- 
tributions by governments, from the UNDP, and from the 
UN regular programme of technical assistance. 

PUBLICATION 

Industrial Development Survey (periodical). 


68 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Other Bodies) 


UNITED NATIONS CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT FUND 

United Nations, New York 

Established by the UN General Assembly in December 1966, the Capital Development Fund was due to begin 

operations in January 1968. 


ORGANIZATION 

Owing to initial lack of financial resources, it will not be possible in the first year to give full effect to the institutional 

arrangement described below. 


EXECUTIVE BOARD 

Composed of twenty-four representatives elected by the 
UN General Assembly for a term of three years from among 
members of the UN or its related intergovernmental 
agencies. There is equitable representation of developed 
and developing countries. The Board exercises control of 
the policies and operations of the Capital Development 
Fund and is the final authority for the approval of grants 
and loans submitted to it by the Managing Director. The 
Board meets at least once a year. 

The functions of the Board will provisionally be per- 
formed by the Governing Council of UNDP (1968). 


MANAGING DIRECTOR 

Chief executive officer; exercises his functions under 
general direction of Executive Board; has overall responsi- 
bility for the operations of the Capital Fund; submits, 
with his recommendations, requests for grants and loans 
to Executive Board. Appointed by the UN Secretary- 
General for a period of four years. 

Managing Director: The Administrator of UNDP (pro 
tern.). 


FUNCTIONS 


Assists developing countries in the development of their 
economies by supplementing existing sources of capital 
assistance by means of grants and loans, particularly 
long-term loans made free of interest or at low rates of 
interest. 

Assistance is directed towards the achievement of the 
accelerated and self-sustained growth of the economies of 
those countries and is orientated towards the diversifica- 
tion of their economies, with due regard to the need for 
industrial development as a basis for economic and social 
progress. 

Assistance given to a Member Government of the UN 
or of its related intergovernmental organizations or to a 
group of such States or to an authorized entity within such 
a State. 


Assistance may be given to support general development 
plans or to meet general development requirements, and 
is not necessarily limited to specific projects. 

Assistance is co-ordinated with aid from other sources. 
Close liaison is maintained with the Regional Economic 
Commissions, UNIDO, UNDP, the UN intergovernmental 
organizations and the regional development banks. 

FINANCE 

Administrative Activities: financed by the regular budget 
of the UN. 

Operational Activities: financed by voluntary contribu- 
tions, in cash or kind, from governments or other sources. 
Contributions (19GS): $1,298,65.1. 


UNITED NATIONS MIDDLE EAST MISSION 

Cyprus 

Established by the UN Security Council in November 1967 to form and maintain contacts with the States con- 
cerned in the 1067 Arab-Israeli conflct, in order to assist efforts to achieve a peaceful and acceptable settlement 

in the area. 


ORGANIZATION 

Secretary-General’s Special Representative: C.unnwr V. 
Jaaring (Sweden). 

Budget (106S): U.S. $355,600. 

69 



THE UNITED NATIONS 


CHARTER OF THE UNITED NATIONS 


We the peoples of the United Nations determined 
to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, 
which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to 
mankind, and 

to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the 
dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal 
rights of men and women and of nations large and small, 
and 

to establish conditions under which justice and respect 
for the obligations arising from treaties and other 
sources of international law can be maintained, and 
to promote social progress and better standards of life in 
larger freedom, 

And for these ends 

to practice tolerance and live together in peace with one 
another as good neighbours, and 

to unite our strength to maintain international peace and 
security, and 

to ensure, by the acceptance of principles and the 
institution of methods, that armed force shall not be 
used, save in the common interest, and 
to employ international machinery for the promotion of 
the economic and social advancement of all peoples. 

Have resolved to combine our efforts to accomplish these aims. 
Accordingly, our respective Governments, through 
representatives assembled in the city of San Francisco, 
who have exhibited their full powers found to be in good 
and due form, have agreed to the present Charter of the 
United Nations and do hereby establish an international 
organization to be known as the United Nations. 

Chapter I 

PURPOSES AND PRINCIPLES 
Article i 

The Purposes of the United Nations are: 
t. To maintain international peace and security, and to 
that end: to take effective collective measures for the 
prevention and removal of threats to the peace, and for the 
suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the 
peace, and to bring about by peaceful means, and in 
conformity with the principles of justice and international 
law, adjustment or settlement of international disputes or 
situations which might lead to a breach of the peace; 

2. To develop friendly relations among nations based on 
respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determin- 
ation of peoples, and to take other appropriate measures 
to strengthen universal peace; 

3. To achieve international co-operation in solving 
international problems of an economic, social, cultural, or 
humanitarian character, and in promoting and encouraging 
respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for 
all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion; 
and 

4. To be a centre for harmonizing the accusations of 
nations in the attainment of these common ends. 

Article 2 

The Organization and its Members, in pursuit of the 
Purposes stated in Article 1, shall act in accordance with 
the following Principles. 

1. The Organization is based on the principle of the 
sovereign equality of all its Members. 

2. Ah Members, in order to ensure to all of them the 


rights and benefits resulting from membership, shall fulfil 
in good faith the obligations assumed by them in accordance 
with the present Charter. 

3. All Members shall settle their international disputes 
by peaceful means in such a manner that international 
peace and security, and justice, are not endangered. 

4. All Members shall refrain in their international 
relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial 
integrity or political independence of any state, or in any 
other manner inconsistent w r ith the Purposes of the United 
Nations. 

5. All Members shall give the United Nations every' 
assistance in any action it takes in accordance with the 
present Charter, and shall refrain from giving assistance to 
any state against which the United Nations is taldng 
preventive or enforcement action. 

6. The Organization shall ensure that states which are 
not Members of the United Nations act in accordance with 
these Principles so far as may be necessary for the main- 
tenance of international peace and security. 

7. Nothing contained in the present Charter shall 
authorize the United Nations to intervene in matters which 
are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state 
or shall require the Members to submit such matters to 
settlement under the present Charter; but this principle 
shall not prejudice the application of enforcement mea- 
sures under Chapter VII. 

Chapter II 
MEMBERSHIP 

Article 3 

The original Members of the United Nations shall be the 
states which, having participated in the United Nations 
Conference on International Organization at San Francisco, 
or having previously signed the Declaration by United 
Nations of January x, 1942, sign the present Charter and 
ratify it in accordance with Article 110. 

Article 4 

1. Membership in the United Nations is open to all other 
peace-loving states which accept the obligations contained 
in the present Charter and, in the judgment of the 
Organization, are able and willing to carry out these 
obligations. 

2. The admission of any such state to membership in 
the United Nations will be effected by a decision of the 
General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security 
Council. 

Article 5 

A Member of the United Nations against which pre- 
ventive or enforcement action has been taken by the 
Security Council may be suspended from the exercise of 
the rights and privileges of membership by the General 
Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security 
Council. The exercise of these rights and privileges may be 
restored by the Security Council. 

Article 6 

A Member of the United Nations which has persistently 
violated the Principles contained in the present Charter 
may be expelled from the Organization by the General 
Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security 
Council. 


70 



THE UNITED NATIONS 


Chapter III 

ORGANS 

Article 7 

1. There are established as the principal organs of the 
United Nations; a General Assembly, a Security Council, 
an Economic and Social Council, a Trusteeship Council, 
an International Court of Justice, and a Secretariat. 

2. Such subsidiary organs as may be found necessary 
may be established in accordance with the present Charter. 

Article S 

The United Nations shall place no restrictions on the 
eligibility of men and women to participate in any capacity 
and under conditions of equality in its principal and 
subsidiary organs. 

Chapter IV 

THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY 

Composition 

Article 9 

1 . The General Assembly shall consist of all the Members 
of the United Nations. 

2. Each Member shall have not more than five repre- 
sentatives in the General Assembly. 

Functions and Powers 

Article 10 

The General Assembly may discuss any questions or any 
matters within the scope of the present Charter or relating 
to the powers and functions of any- organs provided for in 
the present Charter, and, except as provided in Article 12, 
may make recommendations to the Members of the United 
Nations or to the Security Council or to both on any such 
questions or matters. 

Article n 

1. The General Assembly may consider the general 
principles of co-operation in the maintenance of inter- 
national peace and security, including the principles 
governing disarmament and the regulation of armaments, 
and may make recommendations with regard to such 
principles to the Members or to the Security'' Council or to 
both. 

2. The General Assembly may discuss any questions 
relating to the maintenance of international peace and 
security brought before it by' any Member of the United 
Nations, or by the Security Council, or by a state which is 
not a Member of the United Nations in accordance with 
Article 35, paragraph 2, and, except as provided in Article 
12, may make recommendations with regard to any such 
question to the state or states concerned or to the Security' 
Council or to both. Any such question on which action is 
necessary' shall be referred to the Security' Council by' the 
General Assembly' either before or after discussion. 

3. The General Assembly may' call the attention of the 
Security' Council to situations which are likely to endanger 
international peace and security'. 

The powers of the General Assembly set forth in this 
Article shall not limit the general scope of Article ro. 

Article 12 

1 • While the Security Council is exercising in respect of 
any dispute or situation the functions assigned to it in the 
present Charter, the General Assembly shall not make any 
recommendations with regard to that dispute or situation 
unless the Security Council so requests. 

2. The Secretary-General, with the consent of the 
- ccurity Council, shall notify the General Assembly at 
each session of any matters relative to the maintenance of 
international peace and security which are being dealt with 


by the Security Council and shall similarly notify' the 
General Assembly, or the Members of the United Nations 
if the General Assembly' is not in session, immediately' the 
Security Council ceases to deal with such matters. 

Article 13 

1 . The General Assembly shall initiate studies and make 
recommendations for the purpose of: 

(a) promoting international co-operation in the political 
field and encouraging the progressive development 
of international law and its codification; 

(b) promoting international co-operation in the economic, 
social, cultural, educational, and health fields, and 
assisting in the realization of human rights and 
fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as 
to race, sex, language, or religion. 

2. The further responsibilities, functions and powers of 
the General Assembly' with respect to matters mentioned 
in paragraph i(b) above are set forth in Chapters IX and X. 

Article 14 

Subject to the provision of Article 12, the General 
Assembly may recommend measures for the peaceful 
adjustment of any situation, regardless of origin, which it 
deems likely' to impair the general welfare or friendly’ 
relations among nations, including situations resulting 
from a violation of the provisions of the present Charter 
setting forth the Purposes and Principles of the United 
Nations. 

Article 15 

1. The General Assembly shall receive and consider 
annual and special reports from the Security Council; 
these reports shall include an account of the measures that 
the Security' Council has decided upon or taken to maintain 
international peace and security. 

2. The General Assembly shall receive and consider 
reports from the other organs of the United Nations. 

Article 16 

The General Assembly' shall perform such functions with 
respect to the international trusteeship system as are 
assigned to it under Chapters XII and XIII, including the 
approval of the trusteeship agreements for areas not 
designated as strategic. 

Article 17 

1. The General Assembly' shall consider and approve the 
the budget of the Organization. 

2. The expenses of the Organization shall be borne by 
the Members as apportioned by the General Assembly. 

3. The General Assembly shall consider and approve 
any financial and budgetary' arrangements with specialized 
agencies referred to in Article 57 and shall examine the 
administrative budgets of such specialized agencies with a 
view to making recommendations to the agencies concerned. 

Voting 

Article iS 

1. Each member of the General Assembly shall have 
one vote. 

2. Decisions of the General Assembly on important 
questions shall be made by a two-thirds majority of the 
members present and voting. These questions shall include: 
recommendations with respect to the maintenance of 
international peace and security, the election of the non- 
permanent members of the Security Council, the election 
of the members of the Economic and Social Council, the 
election of members of the Trusteeship Council in accord- 
ance with paragraph i(c) of Article So the admission of 
new Members to the United Nations, the suspension of the 
rights and privileges of membership,, the expulsion of 
Members, questions relating to the operation of the 
trusteeship system, and budgetary questions. 


71 



THE UNITED NATIONS 


3. Decisions on other questions, including the determin- 
ation of additional categories of questions to be decided 
by a two-thirds majority, shall be made by a majority of 
the members present and voting. 

Article 19 

A Member of the United Nations which is in arrears in 
the payment of its financial contributions to the Organ- 
ization shall have no vote in the General Assembly if the 
amount of its arrears equals or exceeds the amount of the 
contributions due from it for the preceding two full years. 
The General Assembly may, nevertheless, permit such a 
Member to vote if it is satisfied that the failure to pay is 
due to conditions beyond the control of the Member. 

Procedure 

Article 20 

The General Assembly shall meet in regular annual 
sessions and in such special sessions as occasion may require. 
Special sessions shall be convoked by the Secretary- 
General at the request of the Security Council or of a 
majority of the Members of the United Nations. 

Article 21 

The General Assembly shall adopt its own rules of 
procedure. It shall elect its President for each session. 

Article 22 

The General Assembly may establish such subsidiary 
organs as it deems necessary for the performance of its 
functions. 

Chapter V 

THE SECURITY COUNCIL 

Composition 

Article 23 

x. The Security Council shall consist of eleven Members 
of the United Nations. The Republic of China, France, the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom 
of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United 
States of America shall be permanent members of the 
Security Council. The General Assembly shall elect six 
other Members of the United Nations to be non-permanent 
members of the Security Council, due regard being specially 
paid, in the first instance to the contribution of Members 
of the United Nations to the maintenance of international 
peace and security and to the other purposes of the 
Organization, and also to equitable geographical distri- 
bution. 

2. The non-permanent members of the Security Council 
shall be elected for a term of two years. In the first election 
of the non-permanent members, however, three shall be 
chosen for a term of one year. A retiring member shall not 
be eligible for immediate re-election. 

3. Each member of the Security Council shall have one 
representative. 

Functions and Powers 

Article 24 

1. In order to ensure prompt and effective action by the 
United Nations, its Members confer on the Security 
Council primary responsibility for the maintenance of 
international peace and security, and agree that in carrying 
out its duties under this responsibility the Security Council 
acts on their behalf. 

2. In discharging these duties the Security Council shall 
act in accordance with the Purposes and Principles of the 
United Nations. The specific powers granted to the Security 
Council for the discharge of these duties are laid down in 
Chapters VI, VII, VIII, and XII. 


3. The Security Council shall submit annual and, when 
necessary, special reports to the General Assembly for its 
consideration. 

Article 25 

The Members of the United Nations agree to accept and 
carry out the decisions of the Security Council in accordance 
with the present Charter. 

Article 26 

In order to promote the establishment and maintenance 
of international peace and security with the least diversion 
for armaments of the world’s human and economic 
resources, the Security Council shall be responsible for 
formulating, with the assistance of the Military Staff 
Committee referred to in Article 47, plans to be submitted 
to the Members of the United Nations for the establishment 
of a system for the regulation of armaments. 

Voting 

Article 27 

1. Each member of the Security Council shall have one 
vote. 

2. Decisions of the Security Council on procedural 
matters shall be made by an affirmative vote of seven 
members. 

3. Decisions of the Security Council on all other matters 
shall be made by an affirmative vote of seven members 
including the concurring votes of the permanent members; 
provided that, in decisions under Chapter VI, and under 
paragraph 3 of Article 52, a party to a dispute shall abstain 
from voting. 

Procedure 

Article 28 

1. The Security Council shall be so organized as to be 
able to function continuously. Each member of the Security 
Council shall for this purpose be represented at all times at 
the Seat of the Organization. 

2. The Security Council shall hold periodic meetings at 
which each of its members may, if it so desires, be repre- 
sented by a member of the government or by some other 
specially designated representative. 

3. The Security Council may hold meetings at such 
places other than the seat of the Organization as in its 
judgment will best facilitate its work. 

Article 29 

The Security Council may establish such subsidiary 
organs as it deems necessary for the performance of its 
functions. 

Article 30 

The Security Council shall adopt its own rules of pro- 
cedure, including the method of selecting its President. 

Article 31 

Any Member of the United Nations which is not a 
member of the Security Council may participate, without 
vote, in the discussion of any question brought before the 
Security Council whenever the latter considers that the 
interests of that Member are specially affected. 

Article 32 

Any Member of the United Nations which is not a 
member of the Security Council or any state which is not 
a Member of the United Nations, if it is a party to a dispute 
under consideration by the Security Council, shall be 
invited to participate, without vote, in the discussion 
relating to the dispute. The Security Council shall lay 
down such conditions as it deems just for the participation 
of a state which is not a Member of the United Nations. 


72 


THE UNITED NATIONS 


Chapter VI 

PACIFIC SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES 

Article 33 

1. The parties to any dispute, the continuance of which 
is likely to endanger the maintenance of international 
peace and security, shall, first of all, seek a solution by 
negotiation, enquiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, 
judicial settlement, resort to regional agencies or arrange- 
ments, or other peaceful means of their own choice. 

2. The Security Council shall, when it deems necessary, 
call upon the parties to settle their disputes by such means. 

Article 34 

The Security Council may investigate any dispute, or 
any situation which might lead to international friction or 
give rise to a dispute, in order to determine whether the 
continuance of the dispute or situation is likely to endanger 
the maintenance of international peace and security. 

Article 35 

1. Any Member of the United Nations . may bring any 
dispute, or any situation of the nature referred to in 
Article 34, to the attention of the Security Council or of 
the General Assembly. 

2. A state which is not a Member of the United Nations 
may bring to the attention of the Security Council or of 
the General Assembly any dispute to which it is a party if 
it accepts in advance, for the purposes of the dispute, the 
obligations of pacific settlement provided in the present 
Charter. 

3 - The proceedings of the General Assembly in respect 
of matters brought to its attention under this Article will 
be subject to the provisions of Articles n and 12. 

Article 36 

1. The Security Council may, at any stage of a dispute 
of the nature referred to in Article 33 or of a situation of 
like nature, recommend appropriate procedures or methods 
of adjustment. 

2. The Security Council should take into consideration 
ony procedures for the settlement of the dispute which 
have already been adopted by the parties. 

3 - In making recommendations under this Article the 
Security Council should also take into consideration that 
legal disputes should as a general rule be referred by the 
parties to the International Court of Justice in accordance 
with the provisions of the Statute of the Court. 

Article 37 

1. Should the parties to a dispute of the nature referred 
to in Article 33 fail to settle it by the means indicated in 
that Article, they shall refer it to the Security Council. 

2. If the Security Council deems that the continuance 
of the dispute is in fact likely to endanger the maintenance 
of international peace and security, it shall decide whether 
to take action under Article 36 or to recommend such 
terms of settlement as it may consider appropriate. 

Aiiiclc 38 

Without prejudice to the provisions of Articles 33 to 37, 
the Security Council may, if all the parties to any dispute 
so request, make recommendations to the parties with a 
view to a pacific settlement of the dispute. 

Chapter VII 

ACTION WITH RESPECT TO THREATS TO THE 
PEACE, BREACHES OF THE PEACE, 

AND ACTS OF AGGRESSION 

Article 39 

The Security Council shall determine the existence of 
ar iy threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of 


aggression and shall make recommendations, or decide 
what measures shall be taken in accordance with Articles 
41 and 42, to maintain or restore international peace and 
security. 

Article 40 

In order to prevent an aggravation of the situation, the 
Security Council may, before making the recommendations 
or deciding upon the measures provided for in Article 39, 
call upon the parties concerned to comply' with such 
provisional measures as it deems necessary' or desirable. 
Such provisional measures shall be without prejudice to the 
rights, claims, or position of the parties concerned. The 
Security Council shall duly take account of failure to 
comply with such provisional measures. 

Article 41 

The Security' Council may decide what measures not 
involving the use of armed force are to be employed to 
give effect to its decisions, and it may' call upon the 
Members of the United Nations to apply such measures. 
These may include complete or partial interruption of 
economic relations and of rail, sea, air, postal, telegraphic, 
radio, and other means of communication, and the severance 
of diplomatic relations. 

Article 42 

Should the Security Council consider that measures 
provided for in Article 41 would be inadequate or have 
proved to be inadequate, it may take such action by' air, 
sea, or land forces as may be necessary' to maintain or 
restore international peace and security'. Such action may 
include demonstrations, blockade, and other operations 
by air, sea, or land forces of Members of the United Nations. 

Article 43 

x. All Members of the United Nations, in order to 
contribute to the maintenance of international peace and 
security, undertake to make available to the Security 
Council, on its call and in accordance with a special 
agreement or agreements, armed forces, assistance, and 
facilities, including rights of passage, necessary for the 
purpose of maintaining international peace and security. 

2. Such agreement or agreements shall govern the 
numbers and types of forces, their degree of readiness and 
general location, and the nature of the facilities and 
assistance to be provided. 

3. The agreement or agreements shall be negotiated as 
soon as possible on the initiative of the Security Council. 
They shall be concluded between the Security' Council and 
Members or between the Security Council and groups of 
Members and shall be subject to ratification by the 
signatory' states in accordance with their respective 
constitutional processes. 

Article 44 

When the Security Council has decided to use force it 
shall, before calling upon a Member not represented on it 
to provide armed forces in fulfilment of the obligations 
assumed under Article 43, invite that Member, if the 
Member so desires, to participate in the decisions of the 
Security Council concerning the employment of contingents 
of that Member’s armed forces. 

Article 45 

In order to enable the United Nations to take urgent 
military measures. Members shall hold immediately 
available national air-force contingents for combined 
international enforcement action. The strength and degree 
of readiness of these contingents and plans for their 
combined action shall be determined, within the limits 
laid down in the special agreement and agreements referred 
to in Article 43, by the Security Council with the assistance 
of the Military Staff Committee. 


73 



THE UNITED NATIONS 


Article 46 

Plans for the application of armed force shall be made 
by the Security Council with the assistance of the Military 
Staff Committee. 

Article 47 

x . There shall be established a Military Staff Committee 
to advise and assist the Security Council on all questions 
relating to the Security Council’s military requirements for 
the maintenance of international peace and security, the 
employment and command of forces placed at its disposal, 
the regulation of armaments, and possible disarmament. 

2. The Military Stag Committee shall consist of the 
Chiefs of Stag of the permanent members of the Security 
Council or their representatives. Any Member of the 
United Nations not permanently represented on the 
Committee shall be invited by the Committee to be 
associated with it when the efficient discharge of the 
Committee’s responsibilities requires the participation of 
that Member in its work. 

3. The Military Stag Committee shall be responsible 
under the Security Council for the strategic direction of 
any armed forces placed at the disposal of the Security 
Council. Questions relating to the command of such forces 
shall be worked out subsequently. 

4. The Military Stag Committee, with the authorization 
of the Security Council and after consultation noth 
appropriate regional agencies, may establish regional sub- 
committees. 

Article 48 

r . The action required to carry out the decisions of the 
Security Council for the maintenance of international 
peace and security shall be taken by all the Members of the 
United Nations or by some of them, as the Security 
Council may determine. 

2. Such decisions shall be carried out by the Members 
of the United Nations directly and through their action in 
the appropriate international agencies of which they are 
members. 

Article 49 

The Members of the United Nations shall join in 
affording mutual assistance in carrying out the measures 
decided upon by the Security Council. 

Article 50 

If preventive or enforcement measures against any state 
are taken by the Security Council, any other state, whether 
a Member of the United Nations or not, which finds itself 
confronted with special economic problems arising from 
the carrying out of those measures shall have the right to 
consult the Security Council with regard to a solution of 
those problems. 

Article 51 

Nothing in the present Charter shall impair the inherent 
right of individual or collective self-defence if an armed 
attack occurs against a Member of the United Nations, 
until the Security Council has taken measures necessary 
to maintain international peace and security. Measures 
taken by Members in the exercise of this right of self-defence 
shall be immediately reported to the Security Council and 
shall not in any way affect the authority and responsibility 
of the Security Council under the present Charter to take 
at any time such action as it deems necessary in order to 
maintain or restore international peace and security. 

Chapter VIII 

REGIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 
Article 52 

1. Nothing in the present Charter precludes the existence 
of regional arrangements or agencies for dealing with such 
matters relating to the maintenance of international peace 


and security as are appropriate for regional action, piovided 
that such arrangements or agencies and their activities are 
consistent with the Purposes and Principles of the United 
Nations. 

2. The Members of the United Nations entering into 
such arrangements or constituting such agencies shall make 
every effort to achieve pacific settlement of local disputes 
through such regional agencies before referring them to 
the Security Council. 

3. The Security Council shall encourage the development 
of pacific settlement of local disputes through such 
regional arrangements or by such regional agencies either 
on the initiative of the states concerned or by reference 
from the Security Council. 

4. This Article in no way impairs the application of 
Articles 34 and 35. 

Article 53 

1. The Security Council shall, where appropriate, utilize 
such regional arrangements or agencies for enforcement 
action under its authority. But no enforcement action shall 
be taken under regional arrangements or by regional 
agencies without the authorization of the Security Council, 
with the exception of measures against any enemy state, 
as defined in paragraph 2 of this Article, provided for 
pursuant to Article 107 or in regional arrangements directed 
against renewal of agressive policy on the part of any such 
state, until such time as the Organization may, on request 
of the Governments concerned, be charged with the 
responsibility for preventing further aggression by such a 
state. 

2. The term enemy state as used in paragraph 1 of this 
Article applies to any state which during the Second World 
War has been an enemy of any signatory of the present 
Charter. 

Article 54 

The Security Council shall at all times be kept fully 
informed of activities undertaken or in contemplation 
under regional arrangements or by regional agencies for 
the maintenance of international peace and security. 

Chapter IX 

INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL 
CO-OPERATION 

Article 55 

With a view to the creation of conditions of stability and 
well-being which are necessary for peaceful and friendly 
relations among nations based on respect for the principle 
of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, the 
United Nations shall promote: 

(a) higher standards of living, full employment, and 
conditions of economic and social progress and 
development; 

(b) solutions of international economic, social, health, 
and related problems; and international cultural and 
educational co-operation; and 

(c) universal respect for, and observance of, human 
rights and fundamental freedoms for all without 
distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion. 

Article 56 

All Members pledge themselves to take joint and 
separate action in co-operation with the Organization for 
the achievement of the purposes set forth in Article 55. 

Article 57 

1. The various specialized agencies, established by 
intergovernmental agreement and having wide inter- 
national responsibilities, as defined in their basic instru- 
ments, in economic, social, cultural, educational, health. 


74 



THE UNITED NATIONS 


and related fields, shall be brought into relationship with 
the United Nations in accordance with the provisions of 
Article 63. 

2. Such agencies thus brought into relationship with 
the United Nations are hereinafter referred to as specialized 
agencies. 

Article 58 

The Organization shall make recommendations for the 
co-ordination of the policies and activities of the specialized 
agencies. 

Article 59 

The Organization shall, where appropriate, initiate 
negotiations among the states concerned for the creation 
of any new specialized agencies required for the accomplish- 
ment of the purposes set forth in Article 55. 

Article 60 

Responsibility for the discharge of the functions of the 
Organization set forth in this Chapter shall be vested in the 
General Assembly and, under the authority of the General 
Assembly, in the Economic and Social Council, which shall 
have for this purpose the powers set forth in Chapter X. 

Chapter X 

THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL 
Composition 

Article 61 

1. The Economic and Social Council shall consist of 
eighteen Members of the United Nations elected by the 
General Assembly. 

2. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3, six members 
of the Economic and Social Council shall be elected each 
year for a term of three years. A retiring member shall be 
eligible for immediate re-election. 

3. At the first election, eighteen members of the 
Economic and Social Council shall be chosen. The term of 
office of six members so chosen shall expire at the end of 
one year, and of six other members at the end of two years, 
in accordance with arrangements made by the General 
Assembly. 

4. Each member of the Economic and Social Council 
shall have one representative. 

I' unctions and Powers 

Article 62 

1. The Economic and Social Council may make or 
initiate studies and reports with respect to international 
economic, social, cultural, educational, health, and related 
matters and may make recommendations with respect to 
any such matters to the General Assembly, to the Members 
of the United Nations, and to the specialized agencies 
concerned. 

2. It may make recommendations for the purpose of 
promoting respect for, and observance of, human rights 
and fundamental freedoms for all. 

3- It may prepare draft conventions for submission to 
the General Assembly, with respect to matters falling 
within its competence. 

4. It may call, in accordance with the rules prescribed 
by the United Nations, international conferences on 
matters falling within its compctance. 

Article 63 

J. The Economic and Social Council may enter into 
agreements with any of the agencies referred to in Article 
57. defining the terms on which the agency concerned shall 
he brought into relationship with the United Nations. Such 
agreements shall be subject to approval bv the General 
Assembly. 


2. It may co-ordinate the activities of the specialized 
agencies through consultation with and recommendations 
to such agencies and through recommendations to the 
General Assembly and to the Members of the United 
Nations. 

Article 64 

1. The Economic and Social Council may take appro- 
priate steps to obtain regular reports from the special} zed 
agencies. It may make arrangements with the Members of 
the United Nations and with specialized agencies to obtain 
reports on the steps taken to give effect to its own recom- 
mendations and to recommendations on matters falling 
within its competence made by the General Assembly. 

2. It may communicate its observations on these reports 
to the General Assembly. 

Article 65 

The Economic and Social Council may furnish infor- 
mation to the Security Council and shall assist the Security 
Council upon its request. 

Article 66 

1. The Economic and Social Council shall perform such 
functions as fall within its competence in connection with 
the carrying out of the recommendations of the General 
Assembly. 

2. It may, with the approval of the General Assemblj-, 
perform services at the request of Members of the United 
Nations and at the request of specialized agencies. 

3. It shall perform such other functions as arc specified 
elsewhere in the present Charter or as may be assigned to 
it by the General Assembly. 

Voting 

Article 67 

1. Each member of the Economic and Social Council 
shall have one vote. 

2. Decisions of the Economic and Social Council shall 
be made by a majority of the members present and voting. 

Procedure 

Article 68 

The Economic and Social Council shall set up commissions 
in economic and social fields and for the promotion of 
human rights, and such other commissions as may be 
required for the performance of its functions. 

Article 69 

The Economic and Social Council shall invite any 
Member of the United Nations to participate, without 
vote, in its deliberations on any matter of particular 
concern to that Member. 

Article 70 

The Economic and Social Council may make arrange- 
ments for representatives of the specialized agencies to 
participate, without vote, in its deliberations and in those 
of the commissions established by it, and for its represent- 
atives to participate in the deliberations of the specialized 
agencies. 

Article 71 

The Economic and Social Council may make suitable 
arrangements for consultation with non-governmental 
organizations which arc concerned with matters within it-- 
competence. Such arrangements may be made with 
international organizations and, where appropriate, with 
national organizations after consultation with the Member 
of the United Nations concerned. 



THE UNITED NATIONS 


Article 72 

r. The Economic and Social Council shall adopt its own 
rules of procedure, including the method of selecting its 
President. 

2. The Economic and Social Council shall meet as 
required in accordance with its rules, which shall include 
provision for the convening of meetings on the request of 
a majority of its members. 

Chapter XI 

NON-SELF-GOVERNING TERRITORIES 
Article 73 

Members of the United Nations which have or assume 
responsibilities for the administration of territories whose 
peoples have not yet attained a full measure of self-govern- 
ment recognize the principle that the interests of the 
inhabitants of these territories are paramount, and accept 
as a sacred trust the obligation to promote to the utmost, 
within the system of international peace and security 
established by the present Charter, the well-being of the 
inhabitants of these territories, and, to this end: 

(a) to ensure, with due respect for the culture of the 
peoples concerned, their political, economic, social, 
and educational advancement, their just treatment, 
and their protection against abuses; 

(b) to develop self-government, to take due account of 
the political aspirations of the peoples, and to assist 
them in the progressive development of their free 
political institutions, according to the particular 
circumstances of each territory and its peoples and 
their varying stages of advancement; 

(c) to further international peace and security; 

(d) to promote constructive measures of development, 
to encourage research, and to co-operate with one 
another and, when and where appropriate, with 
specialized international bodies with a view to the 
practical achievement of the social, economic, and 
scientific purposes set forth in this Article; and 

(e) to transmit regularly to the Secretarj'-General for 
information purposes, subject to such limitations as 
security and constitutional considerations may 
require, statistical and other information of a 
technical nature relating to economic, social, and 
educational conditions in the territories for which 
they are respectively responsible other than those 
territories to which Chapters XII and XIII apply. 

Article 74 

Members of the United Nations also agree that their 
policy in respect of the territories to which this Chapter 
applies, no less than in respect of their metropolitan areas, 
must be based on the general principles of good-neighbour- 
liness, due account being taken of the interests and well- 
being of the rest of the world, in social, economic, and 
commercial matters. 

Chapter XII 

INTERNATIONAL TRUSTEESHIP SYSTEM 
Article 75 

The United Nations shall establish under its authority 
an international trusteeship system for the administration 
and supervision of such territories as may be placed there- 
under by subsequent individual agreements. These 
territories are hereinafter referred to as trust territories. 

Article 76 

The basic objectives of the trusteeship system, in 
accordance with the Purposes of the United Nations laid 
down in Article 1 of the present Charter, shall be: 

(a) to further international peace and security; 


(b) to promote the political, economic, social, and 
educational advancement of the inhabitants of the 
trust terrirories, and their progressive development 
towards self-government or independence as may be 
appropriate to the particular circumstances of each 
territory and its peoples and the freely expressed 
wishes of the peoples concerned, and as may be 
provided by the terms of each trusteeship agreement; 

(c) to encourage respect for human rights and for 
fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as 
to race, sex, language, or religion, and to encourage 
recognition of the interdependence of the peoples of 
the world; and 

(d) to ensure equal treatment in social, economic, and 
commercial matters for all Members of the United 
Nations and their nationals, and also equal treatment 
for the latter in the administration of justice, with- 
out prejudice to the attainment of the foregoing 
objectives and subject to the provisions of Article 80. 

Article- 77 

1. The trusteeship system shall apply to such territories 
in the following categories as may be placed thereunder by 
means of trusteeship agreements: 

(a) territories now held under mandate; 

(b) territories which may be detached from enemy 
states as a result of the Second World War; and 

(c) territories voluntarily placed under the system by 
states responsible for their administration. 

2. It will be a matter for subsequent agreement as to 
which territories in the foregoing categories will be brought 
under the trusteeship system and upon what terms. 

Article 78 

The trusteeship system shall not apply to territories 
which have become Members of the United Nations, 
relationship among which shall be based on respect for 
the principle of sovereign equality. 

Article 79 

The terms of trusteeship for each territory to be placed 
under the trusteeship system, including any alteration of 
amendment, shall be agreed upon by the states directly 
concerned, including the mandatory power in the case of 
territories held under mandate by a Member of the United 
Nations, and shall be approved as provided for in Articles 
83 and 85. 

Article 80 

1. Except as may be agreed upon in individual trustee- 
ship agreements, made under Articles 77, 79, and 81, 
placing each territory under the trusteeship system, and 
until such agreements have been concluded, nothing in 
this Chapter shall be construed in or of itself to alter in any 
manner the rights whatsoever of any states or any peoples 
or the terms of existing international instruments to which 
Members of the United Nations may respectively be parties. 

- ■ Paragraph 1 of this Article shall not be interpreted 
as giving grounds for delay or postponement of the 
negotiation and conclusion of agreements for placing 
mandated and other territories under the trusteeship 
system as provided for in Article 77. 

Article 81 

The trusteeship agreement shall in each case include the 
terms under which the trust territory will be administered 
and designate the authority which will exercise the 
administration of the trust territory. Such authority, 
hereinafter called the administering authority, may be 
one or more states or the Organization itself. 


76 



THE UNITED NATIONS 


Article 82 

There may be designated, in any trusteeship agreement, 
a strategic area or areas which may include part or all of the 
trust territory to which the agreement applies, without 
prejudice to any special agreement or agreements made 
under Article 43. 

Article 83 

1. All functions of the United Nations relating to 
strategic areas, including the approval of the terms of the 
trusteeship agreements and of their alteration or amend- 
ment, shall be exercised by the Security Council. 

2. The basic objectives set forth in Article 76 shall be 
applicable to the people of each strategic area. 

3. The Security Council shall, subject to the provisions 
of the trusteeship agreements and without prejudice to 
security considerations, avail itself of the assistance of the 
Trusteeship Council to perform those functions of the 
United Nations under the trusteeship system relating to 
political, economic, social, and educational matters in the 
strategic areas. 

Article 84 

It shall be the duty of the administering authority to 
ensure that the trust territory shall play its part in the 
maintenance of international peace and security. To this 
end the administering authority may make use of volunteer 
forces, facilities, and assistance from the trust territory in 
carrying out the obligations towards the Security Council 
undertaken in this regard by the administering authority, 
as well as for local defence and the maintenance of law and 
order within the trust territory. 

Article 85 

1. The functions of the United Nations with regard to 
trusteeship agreements for all areas not designated as 
strategic, including the approval of the terms of the trustee- 
ship agreements and of their alteration or amendment, shall 
be exercised by the General Assembly. 

2. The Trusteeship Council, operating under the 
authority of the General Assembly, shall assist the General 
Assembly in carrying out these functions. 

Chapter XIII 

THE TRUSTEESHIP COUNCIL 
Composition 

Article 86 

I - The Trusteeship Council shall consist of the following 
Members of the United Nations: 

(a) those Members administering trust territories; 

(b) such of those Members mentioned by name in 
Article 23 as are not administering trust territories; 
and 

( c ) as many other Members elected for three-year terms 
by the General Assembly as may be necessary to 
ensure that the total number of members of the 
Trusteeship Council is equally divided between 
those Members of the United Nations which admin- 
ister trust territories and those which do not. 

2. Each member of the Trusteeship Council shall 
designate one specially qualified person to represent it 

Functions and Powers 

Article 87 

The General Assembly and, under its authority, the 
trusteeship Council, in earning out tlicir functions, may: 

(a) consider reports submitted by the administering 
authority; 

(b) accept petitions and examine them in consultation 
with the administering authority; 


(c) provide for periodic visits to the respective trust 
territories at times agreed upon with the admin- 
istering authority; and 

(d) take these and other actions in conformity with the 
terms of the trusteeship agreements. 

Article 8S 

The Trusteeship Council shall formulate a questionnaire 
on the political, economic, social, and educational advance- 
ment of the inhabitants of each trust territory, and the 
administering authority for each trust territory within the 
competence of the General Assembly shall make an annual 
report to the General Assembly upon the basis of such 
questionnaire. 

Voting 

Article 89 

1. Each member of the Trusteeship Council shall have 
one vote. 

2. Decisions of the Trusteeship Council shall be made 
by a majority of the members present and voting. 

Procedure 

Article 90 

1. The Trusteeship Council shall adopt its own rules of 
procedure, including the method of selecting its President. 

2. The Trusteeship Council shall meet as required in 
accordance with its rules, which shall include provision for 
the convening of meetings on the request of a majority of 
its members. 

Article 91 

The Trusteeship Council shall, when appropriate, avail 
itself of the assistance of the Economic and Social Council 
and of the specialized agencies in regard to matters with 
which they are respectively concerned. 

Chapter XIV 

THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE 

Article 92 

The International Court of Justice shall be the principal 
judicial organ of the United Nations. It shall function in 
accordance with the annexed Statute, which is based upon 
the Statute of the Permanent Court of International 
Justice and forms an integral part of the present Charter. 

Article 93 

1. All Members of the United Nations are ipso facto 
parties to the Statute of the International Court of Justice. 

2. A state which is not a Member of the United Nations 
may become a party to the Statute of the International 
Court of Justice on condition to be determined in each case 
by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the 
Security Council. 

Article 94 

1. Each Member of the United Nations undertakes to 
comply with the decision of the International Court of 
Justice in any case to which it is a party. 

2. If any party to a case fails to perform the obligations 
incumbent upon it under a judgment rendered by the 
Court, the other party may have recourse to the Security 
Council, which may, if it deems necessary, make recom- 
mendations or decide upon measures to be taken to give 
effect to the judgement. 

Article 95 

Nothing in the present Charter shall prevent Members 
of the United Nations from entrusting the solution of their 
differences to other tribunals by virtue of agreements 
already in existence or which may be concluded in the 
future. 



THE UNITED NATIONS 


Article 96 

x. The General Assembly or the Security Council may 
request the International Court of Justice to give an 
advisory opinion on any legal question. 

2. Other organs of the United Nations and specialized 
agencies, which may at any time be so authorized by the 
General Assembly, may also request advisory opinions of 
the Court on legal questions arising within the scope of 
their activities. 

Chapter XV 
THE SECRETARIAT 
Article 97 

The Secretariat shall comprise a Secretary-General and 
such staS as the Organization may require. The Secretary- 
General shall be appointed by the General Assembly upon 
the recommendation of the Security Council. He shall be 
the chief administrative officer of the Organization. 

Article 98 

The Secretary-General shall act in that capacity in all 
meetings of the General Assembly, of the Security Council, 
of the Economic and Social Council, and of the Trusteeship 
Council, and shall perform such other functions as are 
entrusted to him by these organs. The Secretary-General 
shall make an annual report to the General Assembly on 
the work of the Organization. 

Article 99 

The Secretary-General may bring to the attention of the 
Security Council any matter which in his opinion may 
threaten the maintenance of international peace and 
security. 

Article 100 

1. In the performance of their duties the Secretary- 
General and the staS shall not seek or receive instructions 
from any government or from any other authority external 
to the Organization. They shall refrain from any action 
which might reflect on their position as international 
officials responsible only to the Organization. 

2. Each Member of the United Nations undertakes to 
respect the exclusively international character of the 
responsibilities of the Secretary-General and the staS and 
not to seek to influence them in the discharge of their 
responsibilities. 

Article 101 

1. The staS shall be appointed by the Secretary-General 
under regulations established by the General Assembly. 

2. Appropriate staSs shall be permanently assigned to 
the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council, 
and, as required, to other organs of the United Nations. 
These staSs shall form a part of the Secretariat. 

3. The paramount consideration in the employment of 
the staS and in the determination of the conditions of 
service shall be the necessity of securing the highest 
standards of efficiency, competence, and integrity. Due 
regard shall be paid to the importance of recruiting the 
staff on as wide a geographical basis as possible. 

Chapter XVI 

MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 
Article 102 

1. Every treaty and every international agreement 
entered into by any Member of the United Nations after 
the present Charter comes into force shall as soon as possible 
be registered with the Secretariat and published by it. 


2. No party to any such treaty or international agree- 
ment which has not been registered in accordance with the 
provisions of paragraph x of this Article may invoke that 
treaty or agreement before any organ of the United Nations. 

Article 103 

In the event of a conflict between the obligations of the 
Members of the United Nations under the present Charter 
and their obligations under any other international agree- 
ment, their obligations under the present Charter shall 
prevail. 

Article 104 

The Organization shall enjoy in the territory of each of 
its Members such legal capacity as may be necessary for 
the exercise of its functions and the fulfillment of its 
purposes. 

Article 105 

1. The Organization shall enjoy in the territory of each 
of its Members such privileges and immunities as are 
necessary for the fulfillment of its purposes. 

2 . Representatives of the Members of the United Nations 
and officials of the Organization shall similarly enjoy such 
privileges and immunities as are necessary for the indepen- 
dent exercise of their functions in connection with the 
Organization. 

3. The General Assembly may make recommendations 
with a view to determining the details of the application 
of paragraphs 1 and 2 of this Article or may propose 
conventions to the Members of the United Nations for this 
purpose. 

Chapter XVII 

TRANSITIONAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS 
Article 106 

Pending the coming into force of such special agreements 
referred to in Article 43 as in the opinion of the Security 
Council enable it to begin the exercise of its responsibilities 
under Article 42 , the parties to the Four-Nation Declaration 
signed at Moscow, October 30, 1943, and France, shall, in 
accordance with the provisions of paragraph 5 of that 
Declaration, consult with one another and as occasion 
requires with other Members of the United Nations with a 
view to such joint action on behalf of the Organization as 
may be necessary for the purpose of maintaining inter- 
national peace and security. 

Article 107 

Nothing in the present Charter shall invalidate or 
preclude action, in relation to any state which during the 
Second World War has been an enemv of any signatory to 
the present Charter, taken or authorized as a result of that 
war by the Governments having responsibility for such 
action. 

Chapter XVIII 
AMENDMENTS 
Article 108 

Amendments to the present Charter shall come into 
force for all Members of the United Nations when they 
have been adopted by a vote of two-thirds of the members 
of the General Assembly and ratified in accordance with 
their respective constitutional processes by two-thirds of 
the Members of the United Nations, including all the 
permanent members of the Security Council. 

Article 109 

1. A General Conference of the Members of the United 
Nations for the purpose of reviewing the present Charter 
may be held at a date and place to be fixed by a two-thirds 


78 



THE UNITED NATIONS 


vote of the members of the General Assembly and by a 
vote of any seven members of the Security Conncil. Each 
Member of the United Nations shall have one vote in the 
conference. 

2. Any alteration of the present Charter recommended 
by a two-thirds vote of the conference shall take effect 
when ratified in accordance with their respective constitu- 
tional processes by two-thirds of the Members of the United 
Nations including all the permanent members of the 
Security Council. 

3. If such a conference has not been held before the 
tenth annual session of the General Assembly following 
the coming into force of the present Charter, the proposal 
to call such a conference shall be placed on the agenda of 
that session of the General Assembly, and the conference 
shall be held if so decided by a majority vote of the 
members of the General Assembly and by a vote of an)' 
seven members of the Security Council. 

Chapter XIX 

RATIFICATION AND SIGNATURE 
Article no 

1. The present Charter shall be ratified by the signatory 
states in accordance with their respective constitutional 
processes. 

2. The ratifications shall be deposited with the Govern- 
ment of the United States of America, which shall notify 


all the signatory' states of each deposit as well as the 
Secretary-General of the Organization when he has been 
appointed. 

3. The present Charter shall come into force upon the 
deposit of ratifications by' the Republic of China, France, 
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the 
United States of America, and by' a majority' of the other 
signatory' states. A protocol of the ratifications deposited 
shall thereupon be drawn up by' the Government of the 
United States of America which shall communicate copies 
thereof to all the signatory states. 

4. The states signatory' to the present Charter which 
ratify it after it has come into force will become original 
Members of the United Nations on the date of the deposit 
of their respective ratifications. 

Article in 

The present Charter, of which the Chinese, French, 
Russian, English, and Spanish texts are equally authentic, 
shall remain deposited in the archives of the Government 
of the United States of America. Duly certified copies 
thereof shall be transmitted by that Government to the 
Governments of the other signatory states. 

In faith whereof the representatives of the Govern- 
ments of the United Nations have signed the present 
Charter. 

Done at the city of San Francisco the twenty-sixth day' 
of June, one thousand nine hundred and forty-five. 


AMENDMENTS 


The following amendments to Articles 23, 27 and 6t of the 
Charter came into force in Avgust 1965. 

Article 23 

1. The Security Council shall consist of fifteen Members 
of the United Nations. The Republic of China, France, 
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United King- 
dom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the 
United States of America shall be permanent members of 
the Security Council. The General Assembly' shall elect ten 
other Members of the United Nations to be non-permanent 
members of the Security' Council, due regard being 
specially paid, in the first instance to the contribution of 
Members of the United Nations to the maintenance of 
international peace and security' and to the other purposes 
of the Organization, and also to equitable geographical 
distribution. 

2- The non-permanent members of the Security Council 
shall be elected for a term of two years. In the first election 
of the non-permanent members after the increase of the 
membership of the Security' Council from eleven to fifteen, 
two of the four additional members shall be chosen for a 
te,rm of one year. A retiring member shall not be eligible 
for immediate re-election. 

3. Each member of the Security Council shall have one 
representative. 

Article 27 

1 . Each member of the Security Council shall have one 
vole. 


2. Decisions of the Security Council on procedural 
matters shall be made by an affirmative vote of nine 
members. 

3. Decisions of the Security' Council on all other matters 
shall be made by an affirmative vote of nine members 
including the concurring votes of the permanent members; 
provided that, in decisions under Chapter VI, and under 
paragraph 3 of Article 52, a party to a dispute shall abstain 
from voting. 

Article 6t 

1. The Economic and Social Council shall consist of 
twenty-seven Members of the United Nations elected by 
the General Assembly'. 

2. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3, nine 
members of the Economic and Social Council shall be 
elected each year for a term of three years. A retiring 
member shall be eligible for immediate re-election. 

3. At the first election after the increase in the member- 
ship of the Economic and Social Council from eighteen to 
twenty-seven members, in addition to the members 
elected in place of the six members whose term of office 
expires at the end of that year, nine additional members 
shall be elected. Of these nine additional members, the 
term of office of three members so elected shall expire at 
the end of one year, and of three other membxs at the end 
of two years, in accordance with arrangements made by 
the General Assembly. 

4. Each member of the Economic and Social Council 
shall have one representative. 


79 


AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK 

B.P. 1387, Abidjan, Ivory Coast 

Established September 1964, the Bank began operations in July 1966. 

MEMBERS 

Total Membership: 29 African countries. 


ORGANIZATION 


BOARD OF GOVERNORS 

Composed of one representative from each member state. 


BOARD OF DIRECTORS 

Consists of nine members; responsible for the general 
operations of the Bank. 

President and Chairman of Board of Governors: Mamoun 
Beheiry (Sudan). 

Vice-Presidents: Mansour Mo ale a, Louis Negre, Ola 
Vincent, Sheikh M. Alamoody. 


FINANCIAL STRUCTURE 

The initial authorized capital stock of the Bank, con- 
sisting of 250,000 shares, is equivalent to §250 million. It 
is to be subscribed solely by African countries. Half of the 
capital stock will be paid-up, the other half remains 
callable. Each member must subscribe equally to both 
paid-up share and callable shares. The paid-up capital 
stock is to be paid in gold or convertible currency in six 
instalments over a period of five years, ending March 1969. 

At September 30th, 1966, the equivalent of $2 15 million 
had been subscribed and about §40 million had been paid 
in. 

AIMS AND 

The Bank seeks to contribute to the economic and social 
development of members either individually or jointly. 
To this end, it aims to promote investment of public and 
private capital in Africa, to use its normal capital resources 
to make or guarantee loans and investments, and to pro- 
vide technical assistance in the preparation, financing and 
implementation of development projects. The Bank may 
grant direct or indirect credits; it may operate alone or in 
concert with other financial institutions. 

Three projects in which the Bank is currently par- 
ticipating are: loan of §3 million for two international 
trunk roads in Kenya; $120,000 equity investment to 
establish the proposed National Development Bank in 
Sierra Leone; assistance to Tanzania and Zambia in 
mobilizing financing of studies of proposed rail link 
between the two countries. 

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) 
is to provide $3 million, and the Bank’s members an 


Country 

Subscriptions 
(million U.S. 5 ) 

Algeria ...... 

24.5 

Cameroon ..... 

4.0 

Congo (Brazzaville) .... 

i -5 

Congo (Democratic Republic) . 

13.0 

Dahomey ..... 

1.4 

Ethiopia ..... 

10.3 

Ghana ...... 

12.8 

Guinea ...... 

2-5 

Ivory Coast ..... 

6.0 

Kenya ...... 

6.0 

Liberia ...... 

2.6 

Malawi ...... 

2.0 

Mali 

2-3 

Mauritania ..... 

1. 1 

Morocco ..... 

15 -i 

Niger 

x.6 

Nigeria ...... 

24.1 

Rwanda ..... 

1.2 

Senegal 

5-5 

Sierra Leone ..... 

2.1 

Somali Republic .... 

2.2 

Sudan ...... 

10. 1 

Tanzania ..... 

6-3 

Togo 

1.0 

Tunisia ...... 

6.9 

Uganda . . . . fc 

4.6 

United Arab Republic . . 

30.0 

Upper V olta ..... 

1.3 

Zambia ...... 

13.0 

Total .... 

10 

H 

Ot 

"0 


ACTIVITIES 

additional $1.9 million, to establish an investment pro- 
moting service to assist the Bank and its members to 
identify and formulate projects for capital financing, to 
carry out feasibility and engineering studies, and to co- 
operate with other international organizations on such 
projects. The UN is providing expert services in the fields 
of economic surveys, industry, agriculture, transport, 
civil engineering and finance. 

Resolutions adopted at the third annual general meeting 
of the Bank were: a project for the creation of an African 
Development Fund; a special programme for the relatively 
less-developed member countries; stepping-up of co-opera- 
tion between the Bank, ECA, IBRD and the UNDP. 

PUBLICATIONS 

Annual Report. 

Quarterly Summary Statements. 


80 



ANZUS TREATY 


The Security Treaty (ANZUS Pact) was signed in San Francisco in 1951 to co-ordinate defence as the first step 
to a more comprehensive system of regional security in the Pacific. This system was developed further in 1954 

with the formation of SEATO. 

MEMBERS 

Australia New Zealand U.S.A. 


ORGANIZATION 


ANZUS COUNCIL 

The ANZUS Council consists of the Foreign Ministers (or 
their Deputies) of the three signatory powers, and can 
meet at any time. 

There is no permanent staff, and costs are borne by the 
Government in whose territory the meeting is held. The 
instruments of ratification are deposited with the Govern- 
ment of Australia, Canberra. 


MEETINGS OF 

San Francisco, 1951. 

Honolulu, August 1952. 

Washington, September 1953. 

Geneva, May 1954. 

Washington, June 1954. 

Washington, October 1954. 

Washington, September 1955. 

Washington, November 1956. 

Washington, October 1957. 


MILITARY REPRESENTATIVES 

Each of the signatories nominates a Military Representa- 
tive accredited to the Council. 

The functions of the Military Representatives are to 
advise the Council on problems of military co-operation in 
the Pacific. They attend the annual Council meetings, and 
also meet periodically as required by circumstances. There 
is no fixed venue for meetings of the Military Representa- 
tives. 

ANZUS COUNCIL 

Washington, October 195S. 

Washington, October 1959. 

Canberra, May 1962. 

Wellington, June 1963. 

Washington, July 1964. 

Washington, June 1965. 

Canberra, June 1966. 

Washington, April 1967. 


SECURITY TREATY 

(Between Australia, New Zealand and the U.S.A.) 


The parties to this treaty: 

reaffirming their faith in the purposes and principles of 
the UN Charter and their desire to live in peace with all 
peoples and Governments, and desiring to strengthen the 
fabric of peace in the Pacific area; 

noting that the United States already has arrangements 
pursuant to which its armed forces are stationed in the 
Philippines, and has armed forces and administrative 
responsibilities in the Ryukyus, and upon the coming into 
force of the Japanese peace treaty may also station armed 
forces in and about Japan to assist in the preservation 
of peace and security in the Japan area; 

recognising that Australia and New Zealand, as members 
of the British Commonwealth of Nations, have military 
obligations outside as well as within the Pacific area: 

desiring to declare publicly and formally their sense of 
unity, so that no potential aggressor could be under the 
illusion that any of them stand alone in the Pacific area; 
and 

desiring further to co-ordinate their efforts for collective 
defence for the preservation of peace and security pending 


the development of a more comprehensive system of 
regional security in the Pacific area; 

declare and agree as follows: 

Article 1 

The parties undertake, in conformity with the UN 
Charter, to settle by peaceful means any international dis- 
putes in which they might be involved, and to refrain in 
their international relations from the use of force in any 
manner inconsistent with the purposes of the United 
Nations. 

Article 1 

In order more effectively to achieve the objectives of 
the treaty, the parties will maintain and develop their 
I individual and collective capacity to resist armed attack 
"by means of continuous self-help and mutual aid". 

Article 3 

The parties will consult together when, in the opinion 
of any one of them, the territorial integrity, political 
independence, or security of any one of them is threatened 
in the Pacific. 


81 



ANZUS TREATY 


Article 4 

"Each party recognizes that an armed attack in the 
Pacific area on any of the other parties would be dangerous 
to its own peace and safety, and declares that it will act 
to meet the common danger in accordance with its consti- 
tutional processes.” Any such attack, and all measures 
taken as a result of such attack will be reported to the 
UN Security Council. Such measures will be terminated 
when the Security Council has taken the necessary 
steps to restore and maintain international peace and 
security. 

Article 5 

For the purpose of Article 4, an armed attack on any of 
the three countries will be deemed to include “an armed 
attack on the metropolitan territory of any of the parties, 
or on the island territories under its jurisdiction in the 
Pacific, or on its armed forces, public vessels, or aircraft 
in the Pacific”. 

Article 6 

The treaty will not affect the rights and obligations of 
the three countries under the UN Charter, or the responsi- 
bility of the United Nations for the maintenance of inter- 
national peace and security. 

Article 7 

The three countries will establish a Council, consisting 
of their Foreign Ministers or deputies, to consider matters 


concerning the implementation of the treaty. The Council 
will be organized as to be able to meet at any time. 

Article 8 

Pending the development of a more comprehensive 
regional security system in the Pacific, and the develop- 
ment by the UN of more effective means to maintain 
international peace and security, the Council established 
under Article 7 will maintain a consultative relationship 
with States, regional organizations, associations of States, 
and other authorities in the Pacific area which are in a 
position to further the purpose of the treaty and contribute 
to the security of the area. 

Article 9 

The Treaty is to be ratified by the parties in accordance 
with their respective constitutional processes. The instru- 
ments of ratification are to be deposited with the 
Australian Government. 

Article 10 

The Treaty is to remain in force indefinitely. Any party 
may cease to be a member of the Council established by 
Article 7 one year after notice has been given to the 
Government of Australia, which will inform the Govern- 
ments of the other parties. 


82 


THE ARAB LEAGUE 

lYIidan Al Tahrir, Cairo, U.A.R. 

The League of Arab States is a voluntary association of sovereign Arab states designed to strengthen the close 
ties linking them and to co-ordinate their policies and activities and direct them towards the common good of all 

the Arab countries. 


MEMBERS 

Algeria Lebanon Syrian Arab Republic 

Iraq Libya Tunisia 

Jordan Morocco United Arab Republic 

Kuwait Saudi Arabia Yemen 

Sudan 



RECORD OF EVENTS 


1945 Pact of the Arab League signed, March. 

1946 Cultural Treaty signed. 

1950 J oint Defence and Economic Co-operation Treaty. | 

1952 Agreements on extradition, writs and letters of | 

request, nationality of Arabs outside their 1 
country of origin. * 

*953 Formation of Arab Telecommunications and , 

Radio Communications Union. ! 

Agreements for facilitating trade between Arab , 
countries. 

Founding of Institute of Advanced Arab Studies, 1 
Cairo. J 

Convention on the privileges and immunities of 
the League. ; 


1954 Formation of Arab Postal Union. 

Nationality Agreement. 

Agreement on social defence against crime. 

1057 Creation of Arab Development Bank, June. 

Cultural Agreement with UNESCO signed. 
November. 

1959 Arab Oil Conferences, Cairo, April, and Jeddah. 
October, with proposals for an Arab pipeline from 
the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean. 

1960 Inauguration of new Arab League I IQ at Midan 
Al Tahrir, Cairo, March. 

Agreement on co-ordination of petroleum policy, 
March. 



1961 Agreement to establish an International Arab 
Airline and an Arab Tanker Company. 

Arab Development Bank to be called Arab 
Financial Institution; agreement signed by 
Iraq and Kuwait. 

Kuwait joins League. 

Arab League force sent to Kuwait. 

Syrian Arab Republic rejoins League as inde- 
pendent member. 

Agreement on administrative sciences. 

1962 Agreement to establish economic unity signed by 
J ordan, Kuwait, Morocco, Syria and U. A .R. in J une. 
Council Meeting at Shtoura, Lebanon in August, 
to hear Syrian complaints against the U.A.R. 
U.A.R. announced intention of leaving Arab 
League. 

Council Meeting re-convened at Cairo in Septem- 
ber to reappoint Secretary-General. Boycotted by 
U.A.R. 

1963 Arab League decides to withdraw troops from 
Kuwait, leaving only token force, January - 
February. 

U.A.R. resumes active membership of League, 
March. 

1964 Cairo conference of Arab leaders on the exploita- 
tion by Israel of the Jordan waters, January. 
Arab Common Market agreement ratified, August. 


Second meeting on Jordan waters, September. 

Arab Common Market established, January. 
Emergency meeting on German recognition of 
Israel, March. 

Third Meeting on Jordan waters. May. Tunisia 
absent. 

Kuwait withdraws from Common Market, July. 
Casablanca Conference of Arab leaders, Septem- 
ber. Tunisia absent. 

1966 Cairo Conference of Arab leaders, March. Tunisia 
absent. 

Cairo Conference of Arab leaders, June. 

Cairo Conference of Arab Foreign Ministers, 
September. Tunisia absent. 

First session of Arab League Administrative 
Court, September. 

1967 Sixth Arab Petroleum Congress, Baghdad, March. 
Meeting of Arab Foreign Ministers, Kuwait, June. 
Cairo meeting of Heads of State of Algeria, Iraq, 
Sudan, Syria, U.A.R., July. 

Meeting of Arab Foreign Ministers, Khartoum, 
August. Topics discussed included Arab oil em- 
bargo against U.S.A. and U.K., and preparations 
for a meeting of Arab leaders. 

Extraordinary Session of the Council of Arab 
Information Ministers, Bizerta, September. 
Meeting of Arab Foreign Ministers, Cairo, 
December. 


THE ARAB LEAGUE 
1965 


ORGANIZATION 


THE COUNCIL 

The supreme organ of the Arab League. Meets in March 
and September. Consists of representatives of the thirteen 
member states, each of which has one vote, and a representa- 
tive for Palestine. 

PERMANENT COMMITTEES 
There are nine Permanent Committees for Political, 
Cultural, Economical, Social, Military, Legal Affairs, 
Information, Health and Communications. 

SECRETARIAT 

Secretary-General: Mohammed Abdel-Khalek Hassouna 
(U.A.R.). 

Assistant Secretaries-General: Dardiri Ahmad Ismail 
(Sudan), Dr. S. Nofal (U.A.R.), A. Zaher (Iraq). 
Military Assistant Secretary: Gen. Mohammed Fawzi 
(U.A.R.). 

Economic Assistant Secretary: Arif Zaher (Iraq). 

The Secretariat has departments of Economic, Political, 
Legal, Cultural, Social and Labour affairs, and for Petro- 
leum, Palestine, Health, Press and Information, Secre- 
tariat, Communications, and Protocol. 

ARAB COMMON MARKET 

Economic Council: Established in 1950; first meeting 
1953; composed of the Ministers of Economic Affairs or 
their representatives. 

Council of Arab Economic Unity: In June 1957 the 
Economic Council approved a Convention for Economic 
Unity; the Economic Unity Agreement was signed in 


1962 by Jordan, U.A.R., Morocco, Kuwait and Syria. 
Yemen and Iraq subsequently became signatories to the 
Pact. After ratification by five members a Council of Arab 
Economic Unity was set up in June 1964: the aims of the 
Arab Economic Unity Agreement include lowering internal 
tariffs, establishing common external tariffs, freedom of 
movement of labour and capital, and adoption of common 
economic policies; Sec.-Gen. Abdel el Banna (see below: 
text of Arab Economic Unity Agreement, and further 
details). 

In August 1964 U.A.R., Iraq, Kuwait, Syria and Jordan 
signed an agreement establishing the Common Market of 
Arab States, to operate from January 1st, 1965. Kuwait’s 
National Assembly voted against implementation of the 
agreement in July 1965. 

OTHER BODIES 

Joint Defence Council: Established in 1950 to implement 
joint defence; consists of the Foreign Ministers and Defence 
Ministers, or their representatives. 

Permanent Military Commission: Established 1950; com- 
posed of representatives of army General Staffs; main 
purpose, to draw up plans of joint defence for submission 
to the Joint Defence Council. 

Arab Cultural Union: Cairo; established by charter in 

February 1964. 

Federation of Arab Broadcasting Stations: Cairo. 

Federation of Arab News Agencies: Beirut; f. 1965; this 
Federation will work on the establishment of an Arab 
Central News Agency. 


84 


THE ARAB LEAGUE 


Arab Financial institution for Economic Development: 

Established 1959 as Arab Development Bank; members: 
U.A.R., Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, 
Iraq and Kuwait; capital £10 million in gold; Kuwait has 
declared she will contribute a further i'E 5 million. 

Arab Postal Union: 28 Adly Street, Cairo, U.A.R.; f. 
1954; Dir. Dr. Anouar Bakir. Pubis. Bulletin (monthly). 
Review (quarterly), News (annual) and occasional studies. 

Arab Scientific Union: Cairo; established 1956 to 
promote scientific co-operation in the Arab world. 

Arab Telecommunications Union: 83 Ramses Street, 
Cairo, U.A.R.; f. 1953; to co-ordinate and develop tele- 
communications between member countries; to exchange 
technical aid and encourge research. Mems.: Arab League 
countries; Pres. Mahmoud Mohamad Riad. 

Arab Tourist Federation: Jerusalem; f. 1965. 

Permanent Commission for the Problems of the Arab Gulf 
Emirates: Established in 1965 to assist the economic 
development of the Gulf states; Chair. Khaled Al Badr. 

Arab Labour Organization: Established in 1965 for co- 
operation between member states in labour problems; 
unification of labour legislation and general conditions 
of work wherever possible; research; technical assist- 
ance; social insurance; training. 

Federation of Arab Transport Workers: Cairo; f. 1966; 
mems. air, sea and land transport trade unions in Arab 
countries. 

Palestine Liberation Organization: Jerusalem; f. 1964; 
this organization is separate from the Arab League, which 
provides it with funds and support; Dir. Ahmed Shukairy, 
Palestine Rep. to the Arab League. 

Arab Board for the Diversion of the Jordan River: Cairo; 
f. 1964 to co-ordinate engineering aspects of diverting the 
headwaters of the River Jordan, to deprive Israel of water; 
main projects include the Mukhaiba Dam on the River 
Yarmuk (Jordan), to be linked by tunnel to the East Ghor 
Irrigation Scheme, and to serve as a storage dam for water 
diverted from rivers farther north (Litani, Hasbani, 
Wazzani and Banias). 

Arab Unified Military Command: Cairo; f. 1964 to co- 
ordinate military policies with regard to the liberation of 
Palestine. 


SPECIAL BUREAUX 

Bureau for Boycotting Israel, Damascus; Commissioner- 
General Mohammed Mahgoub. 

Pan-Arab Organization for Social Defence against 
Crime: Cairo. 

Arab Students Hostels, for Men and Women, Cairo. 

SPECIAL INSTITUTES 

Institute of Arab Research and Studies, Cairo. 

institute of Arab Manuscripts, Cairo. 

Cultural Museum, Cairo. 

Library, Cairo. 

Information Offices: New York (with branches at 
Washington, Chicago, San Francisco, Dallas), Geneva, 
Bonn, Rio de Janeiro, London, New Delhi, Rome, Ottawa, 
Buenos Aires, Tokyo and Paris. Offices are planned in 
Addis Ababa, Ankara, Dakar, Lagos, Nairobi, Copenhagen 
and Madrid. 


BUDGET 

CONTRIBUTIONS (%) 
(1964) 


U.A.R. 

- 23.73 

Tunisia 

4.67 

Kuwait 

. 14.00 

Sudan 

4. 11 

Saudi Arabia 

. 10.97 

Lebanon 

• 3 -S 5 

Iraq 

. 10.94 

J ordan 

• J -93 

Morocco 

. 10.68 

Libya 

1 - 5 ° 

Syria 

7.69 

Yemen 

0.03 

Algeria 

5.00 


100.00 


EXPENDITURE 1966-67 

& 

Ordinary Expenditure ..... 616,874 
Institute of Arab Research and Studies . . 60,943 

Pan-Arab Organization for Social Defence 

against Crime ...... 18,942 


Total ..... 696,759 


PUBLICATIONS 

Daily and fortnightly Bulletin (Arabic and English). 

New York Office; Arab World (monthly), and News and 
Views. 

Geneva Office: Le Monde Arabs (monthly), and Nouvellet 
du Monde Arabs (weekly). 

Buenos Aires Office: Arabia Review (monthly). 

Rio de Janeiro Office: Oricntc Arabs (monthly). 

Rome Office: Rassrgr.a del Moudo Arabo (monthly). 
London Office: The Arab (monthly). 

New Delhi Office: Al Arab (monthly). 

Bonn Office: Arabische Korrespor.dcnz (fortnightly). 
Ottawa Office: Spotlight on the Arab World (fortnightly). 


85 



THE ARAB LEAGUE 


THE PACT OF THE ARAB LEAGUE 

(March 22nd, 1945) 


Article 1 

The League of Lhe Arab States shall be composed of the 
independent Arab States signatories to this Pact. 

Each independent Arab state shall have the right to 
adhere to the League. Should it desire to adhere to the 
League, a petition to this effect should be filed with the 
General Secretariat, and submitted to the Council at the 
first session convened after the lodging of the petition. 

Article 2 

The object of the League shall be to strengthen the ties 
between the participant states, to co-ordinate their political 
activities with the aim of realising close collaboration 
between them, to preserve their independence and sover- 
eignty, and to consider, in general, the affairs and interests 
of the Arab countries. 

It shall also provide for close co-operation between the 
member states, with due regard to the structure of each 
state and the conditions prevailing therein, in the following 
matters: 

(i) Economic and financial affairs, including trade 
reciprocity, tariffs, currency, agricultural and industrial 
matters. 

(ii) Communications, comprising railways, roads, 
aviation, navigation, posts and telegraphs. 

(iii) Cultural affairs. 

(iv) Matters relating to nationality, passports and 
visas, execution of judgments, and extradition of 
criminals. 

(v) Matters relating to social welfare. 

(vi) Matters relating to public health. 

Article 3 

The League shall have a council composed of representa- 
tives of the member states. Each state shall have a single 
vote, Tegaxdless of the number of its representatives. 

The Council’s function shall be the realisation of the 
objects of the League and to give effect to agreements 
concluded between the member states, relating to the 
matters indicated in the previous Article and elsewhere. 

The Council shall also determine the methods of collabor- 
ation with international organisations which may, in 
future, be created for the preservation of peace and security 
and the regulation of economic and social relations. 

Article 4 

For each subject specified in Article 2, a special com- 
mittee shall be formed in which the member states shall be 
represented. These committees shall be responsible for 
formulating the bases, extent, and form of collaboration, 
in the shape of draft-agreements to be laid before the 
Council for consideration, preparatory to their presentation 
to the afore-mentioned states. 

Delegates representing the other Arab countries may 
participate in these committees. The Council shall define 
the conditions under which those representatives may 
participate, and the regulations for representation. 

Article 5 

Recourse to force to resolve disputes between two or 
more League states is inadmissible. If a difference should 


arise between them, not pertaining to the independence, 
sovereignty, or territorial integrity of any of the states 
concerned, and should the contending parties apply to the 
Council for settlement of the dispute, then the Council’s 
decision shall be effective and obligatory. 

In this eventuality, the contending states shall not 
participate in the proceedings and resolutions of the 
Council. 

The Council shall mediate in any dispute which may 
lead to war between two member states, or between a 
member state and another state, in order to conciliate 
them. 

Decisions relating to arbitration and mediation shall be 
taken by a majority vote. 

Article 6 

In the event of aggression or threat of aggression by a 
state against a member state, the member state may 
request an immediate meeting of the Council. 

The Council shall decide upon the appropriate measures 
to check this aggression, and shall issue a decision by 
unanimous assent. If the aggression is committed by a 
member state the vote of that state shall not be counted in 
determining unanimity. 

If aggression should be committed in such a way as to 
render the government of the attacked state unable to 
communicate with the Council, its representative at the 
Council may demand that it be convened for the purpose 
set forth in the preceding paragraph. If it is impossible for 
the representative to communicate with the Council, any 
of the member states may demand that it be convened. 

Article 7 

Decisions of the Council reached by unanimous assent 
shall be binding on all the member states of the League. 
Decisions of the League reached by a majority vote shall 
be binding on those who accept them. 

In either case, the decisions of the Council shall be 
executed in each state in accordance with the fundamental 
structure of that state. 

Article 8 

Each member state shall respect the regime existing in 
other League states, regarding it as a fundamental right of 
those states, and shall pledge itself not to undertake any 
action tending to alter that regime. 

A rticle 9 

The states of the Arab League which desire to establish 
stronger collaboration than is provided for in the present 
pact, may conclude among themselves whatever agree- 
ments they wish for this purpose. 

Treaties and agreements previously concluded, or which 
may be concluded with any other state, by any state 
belonging to the League, shall not be obligatory or binding 
on the other members. 

Article 10 

Cairo shall be the permanent seat of the League of Arab 
States. The League Council may assemble in whatsoever 
place it appoints. 


86 



THE ARAB LEAGUE 


Article ii 

The Council shall meet in ordinary session twice a year, 
during the months of March and October. Extraordinary 
session may be convened whenever occasion demands, on 
the request of two member states. 

Article 12 

The League shall have a permanent General Secretariat 
consisting of a Secretary-General, Assistant Secretaries, 
and an appropriate staff of officials. 

The League Council shall appoint the Secretary-General 
by a two-thirds majority of the League states. In consulta- 
tion with the Council, the Secretary-General shall appoint 
the Assistant Secretaries and the principal officials of the 
League. 

The Council shall establish an internal organisation to 
deal with the functions of the General Secretariat and 
matters of personnel. 

The Secretary-General shall hold ambassadorial status, 
and the Assistant Secretaries the status of Minister- 
Plenipotentiary. 

The first Secretary-General to the League shall be 
nominated in an appendix to this Pact. 

Article 13 

The Secretary-General shall prepare the draft Budget of 
the League, and submit it to the Council for approval 
before the beginning of each financial year. 

The Council shall allocate the share of each of the states 
of the League in the expenses, and may revise the share if 
necessary. 

Article 14 

Members of the League Council, members of its commit- 
tees, and those of its officials specified in the internal 
administration, shall enjoy diplomatic privileges and 
immunity during the performance of their duties. 

The inviolability of buildings occupied by bureaux of the 
League shall be observed. 

Article 15 

The Council shall be convened on the first occasion at the 
instance of the Head of the Egyptian Government, and 
subsequently at the instance of the Secretary-General. 

At each ordinary session the representatives of the 
League states shall preside over the Council by rotation. 

Article 16 

Apart from the conditions defined in this Pact, a 
majority opinion will suffice for the Council to make 
effective decisions on the following subjects: 

(i) Matters relating to personnel. 

(ii) Approval of the Budget of the League. 

(iii) The internal organisation of the Council, com- 
mittees and General Secretariat. 

(iv) The termination of sessions. 

Article 17 

The member states shall deposit with the Genera! 
Secretariat texts of all the treaties and agreements which 
they have concluded, or may conclude, with any other 
state belonging to. or outside, the League. 

Article iS 

If any of the League states contemplates withdrawal 
from the League, it shall give notice to the Council, of its 
decision to withdraw, a year before withdrawal takes effect. 


The League Council has the right to regard any state not 
fulfilling the obligations of this Pact as having ceased to 
belong to the League. This shall be effected by a decision 
issued by unanimous assent of the states, excepting the 
state indicated. 

Article 19 

It is permissible, by agreement of two-thirds of the League 
states, to amend this Pact, in particular to strengthen 
the ties between them, to found an Arab Court of Justice, 
and to co-ordinate the relations of the League with the 
international organisations which may, in future be 
created to guarantee peace and security’. 

No decision shall be taken as regards an amendment 
except in the sessions following that in which it is proposed. 

Any state which does not accept the amendment may 
withdraw on the amendment becoming effective, without 
being bound by the preceding Article. 

Article 20 

This present Pact, with its appendices, shall be ratified 
in conformity with the fundamental form of government in 
each of the contracting states. 

The articles of ratification shall be deposited with the 
General Secretariat, and the present Pact shall have effect 
with those who have ratified it, fifteen days after the 
Secretary- General has received articles of ratification from 
four states. 

This present Pact was drawn up in Arabic at Cairo, on 
the Sth of Rabi al Thani, 1364 (22nd March, 1945I, in a 
single text, which shall be preserved in the General 
Secretariat. 

A facsimile copy of the original shall be delivered to each 
of the League states. 

Special Appendix Relating to Palestine 

At the end of the last Great War, Palestine together with 
the other Arab States, was separated from the Ottoman 
Empire and became independent. 

The Treaty of Lausanne proclaimed that her fate should 
be decided by the parties concerned in Palestine. 

Even though Palestine was unable to control her own 
destiny, it was on the basis of recognising her independence 
that the League of Nations determined a system of govern- 
ment for her. Her existence and independence among 
nations can, therefore, be no more questioned ile jure than 
the independence of any other Arab state. 

Although the visible signs of this independence have 
remained hidden as :t result aijorce utajcitre it is not fitting 
that this should be an obstacle to the participation of 
Palestine in the League. 

Therefore, the States signatory to the Pact of the Arab 
League, consider that in view of Palestine’s special 
circumstances, the Council of the League should designate 
an Arab delegate from Palestine to participate in its work 
until this country enjoys actual independence. 

Special Appendix Relating to Co-operation with the Arab 
States, Non-participants in the League Council 

Whereas the member states of the League will have to 
deal cither in the Council or in the committees with 
questions affecting the interests of the entire Arab world, 

And whereas the Council cannot fail to take int > account 
the aspirations of the Arab countries not members of the 
Council and to work toward their realisation, the states 
signatory to the Pact of the Arab L.v.ene strnneiy tirste 
that the Council of the League should co-operate with 



THE ARAB LEAGUE 


them as far as possible in having them participate in the 
committees referred to in the Pact, and in other matters, 
should not spare any effort to learn their needs and under- 


stand their aspirations and should moreover, work for their 
common weal and the guarantee of their future by what- 
ever political means available. 


THE CULTURAL TREATY 


The Cultural Treaty of the Arab League was accepted 
by the League Council on November 27th, 1945, at Cairo. 

Article 1 

The states of the Arab League agree that each of them 
shall form a local organisation whose functions shall be to 
consider matters concerning cultural co-operation between 
the Arab states. Each state will be free as to how it forms 
this organisation. 

Article 2 

The states of the Arab League agree to exchange 
teachers and professors between their educational institu- 
tions, according to the general and individual conditions 
which will be agreed to. The period of service of any 
teacher or professor who is a Government official and who 
will be delegated for this purpose, will be considered as 
service for his own Government, with the maintenance of 
his rights as regards his post, promotion, and pension. 

Article 3 

The states of the Arab League agree to the exchange of 
students and scholars between their educational institu- 
tions. and their acceptance in the suitable classes as far 
as accommodation will allow, in accordance with the 
regulations of those institutions. 

In order to facilitate this, those states, while maintain- 
ing the basic educational principles adopted in their 
countries, will work towards harmonising their educational 
syllabuses and certificates. This will be done by special 
agreement between those states. 

Such facilities as may be possible will be given by each 
state to any other state which wishes to construct hostels 
for its students. 

Article 4 

The states of the Arab League will encourage cultural 
scouting and sports visits between the Arab countries, in 
areas which the governments allow, and the holding of 
cultural and educational meetings for students. Facilities 
will be given for this purpose, particularly in respect of 
travelling arrangements and the expenses of the journey. 

Article 5 

The states of the Arab League agree on the reciprocal 
establishment of educational and scientific institutions in 
their various countries. 

Article 6 

The states of the Arab League will co-operate in the 
revival of the intellectual and artistic legacy of the Arabs, 
safeguarding and propagating it as well as making it 
available to those who seek it by all possible means. 

Article 7 

In order to keep pace with the world's intellectual move- 
ments, the states of the Arab League will encourage and 
organise the translation of all foreign masterpieces, 
whether classical or modern. They will also encourage all 


intellectual output in the Arab countries by such means 
as the opening of institutes for scientific and literary 
research. They will organise competitions for authors, and 
will grant prizes to distinguished men of science, literature, 
and art. 

Article 8 

All the states of the Arab League undertake to legislate 
for the protection of scientific, literary, and artistic 
authorship rights for all publications in all states of the 
Arab League. 

Article 9 

The states of the Arab League will work for the standard- 
isation of scientific terms, by means of councils, congresses, 
and joint committees, which they will set up and by means 
of bulletins which these organisations will issue. They will 
work to make the Arabic language convey all expressions 
of thought and modern science, and to make of it the 
language of instruction in all subjects and in all educational 
stages in the Arab countries. 

Article 10 

The states of the Arab League will work for the con- 
solidation of contacts between libraries and museums, 
whether scientific, historical, or artistic, by such means as 
the exchange of publications and indexes, the holding of 
study conferences, and by organising exchange visits 
between library and museum personnel at frequent 
intervals. 

Article n 

The states of the Arab League agree to consolidate 
relations and to facilitate co-operation between scientists, 
literary men, journalists, members of the professions, those 
connected with art, the stage, the cinema, and broad- 
casting, by organising visits for them between one country 
and another, and by encouraging cultural, scientific, and 
educational conferences for the purpose; also by placing 
room, laboratories, and material in scientific institutions 
in every Arab country at the disposal of the learned of 
other countries to demonstrate scientific discoveries; also 
by the publication of periodical bulletins regarding books 
of scientific research published in all Arab countries. 
Each author or publisher must send to the "Cultural 
Committee" copies of his work for its library as well as for 
the principal libraries of each state. 

Article 12 

The states of the Arab League agree to include in their 
educational syllabuses the history 7 , geography, and litera- 
ture of the Arab countries, sufficiently to give a clear idea 
of the life of those countries and their civilisation. They 
also agree upon the institution of an Arab library for pupils. 

Article 13 

The states of the Arab League will work to acquaint 
their peoples with the social, cultural, economic, and polit- 
ical conditions in all Arab countries, i.e. by means of broad- 
casts, the stage, cinema, and press, or by any other means 
also by the institution of museums for Arab culture and 


88 



THE ARAB LEAGUE 


civilisation, as well as assuring its success by holding 
occasional exhibitions of arts and literature, and public 
and scholastic festivals in the various Arab countries. 

Article 14 

The states of the Arab League shall encourage the 
establishment of Arab social and cultural clubs in their 
respective countries. 

Article 15 

The states of the Arab League will take all necessary 
measures to approximate their legislative trends and to 
unify as far as possible their laws; also to include the study 
of legislation of other Arab countries in their syllabuses. 

Article 16 

This Treaty shall be ratified by the signatory states, 
according to the provisions of their constitutions, with the 
minimum of delay. The instruments of ratification shall be 
odged in the Secretariat-General of the Arab League, 


which will prepare a note of the receipt of each document 
and notify the other contracting states. 

Article 17 

Arab countries are permitted to adhere to this Treaty by 
notifying the Secretary-General of the League, who will 
communicate the fact to the other contracting states. 

Article 18 

This Treaty will come into force one month after the 
date of the receipt of the instruments of ratification from 
two states. It shall also come into force for the other 
states who participate one month .after the date of the 
deposit of the document of joining from these states. 

Article 19 

Any signatory state of this Treaty is allowed to with- 
draw from it by giving notice to the Secretary-General of 
the League. The notice will take effect six months from 
the date of its despatch. 


ARAB ECONOMIC UNITY AGREEMENT 

(THE ARAB COMMON MARKET) 

The Economic Unity Agreement between the member-states of the Arab League was drawn up in Cairo on June 6tli, 
1962, and subsequently came into effect on April 30th 1964, U.A.R., Iraq, Syria, Kuwait and Jordan having subscribed 
as official members. The Unity Council held its first meeting in Cairo on June 3rd, 1964. 

The Agreement is summarized below. 


OBJECTS 


Preamble 

The Governments of the member-states of the Arab 
League, desirous of organizing between them and unifying 
their relations on bases accommodating to the natural 
and historical ties between them, and for the purpose of 
creating the best conditions for the growth of their economy, 
for promoting their riches, and for ensuring the prosperity 
of their peoples, have agreed on creating a complete 
unity between them, to be achieved gradually with the 
maximum possible speed ensuring the transition to the 
desired situation without causing harm to their essential 
interests. 

Article 1 

The main objective of the Agreement is to attain 
complete Arab Economic Unity. The Arab State will thus 


have a unified, integrated, proportionate Arab economy 
guided by one single economic policy for all the component 
parts. The member-states and their nationals are guaran- 
teed equality in the following: 

(1) Freedom of movement of persons and capital. 

(2) Freedom of exchange of domestic and foreign 
goods and products. 

(3) Freedom of residence, work, employment, and 
exercise of economic activities. 

(4) Freedom of transport and transit and of using means 
of transport, ports and civil airports. 

(5) Rights of ownership, of making one’s will, and of 
inheritance. 


METHODS 


Article 2 

The Arab states are required to work for accomplishing 
the following: 

(1) The Arab slates should be made one customs zone 
subject to a single administration. Customs tariffs, 
legislations, and regulations applied in these states should 
be standardized. This is to be achieved by gradual abolition 
of customs duties between the Arab states for ensuring 
the exchange of Arab-made goods and the eventual 
removal of duties altogether. In addition customs duties 
should be adjusted between the Arab states so as to 
arrive, at standard rates in respect of the outside world. 

In this way, the Arab states would be converted into one 
market where both home-produced and imported goods 
could move without being subject to any duties other j 
than those imposed in respect of the outside world. 1 


(2) The Arab states should work for standardizing their 
import-export policies and all relevant regulations. It is a 
prerequisite for the creation of one Arab market to have 
import-export policies and regulations unified and co- 
ordinated. 

(3) Standardizing transport and transit systems. As 
the means of transport will enjoy freedom of movement 
between all parts of the Arab homeland, they should 
necessarily become subject to standard regulations. 

(4) Trade agreements and payments agreements with 
outside countries arc to he concluded collectively by the 
Arab states. The creation of one Arab market makes it 
necessary to have such agreements concluded jointly. 
Relations with the outside world will be unified. 

(5) Policies related to agriculture, industry and internal 
trade should be co-ordinated. Economic legislation should 



THE ARAB LEAGUE 


be standardized in a manner ensuring equal terms to all 
nationals of the contracting countries in respect of work in 
agriculture, industry, or any other calling. The co- 
ordination of these policies and legislations is an inevitable 
sequence to the creation of the United Arab Market where 
Arab nationals are to be guaranteed the right of taking up 
any profession or any economic activity anywhere in the 
Arab world. 

(6) Steps should be taken to co-ordinate labour and 
social legislation. In so far as Arab workers are to enjoy 
the freedom of working anywhere they please in the Arab 
homeland, it is necessary to make them all subject to one 
labour law and to the same social security rules. 

(7) (a) Steps should be taken to co-ordinate legislation 
concerning government and municipal taxes and duties 
and all other taxes pertaining to agriculture, industry, 
trade, real estate, and investments in a manner ensuring 
equal opportunities. 


(6) Measures should be taken to prevent the duplication 
of taxes and duties levied on the nationals of the contracting 
countries. 

(8) The monetary and fiscal policies and all relevant 
regulations of the contracting countries should be co- 
ordinated before the standardization of currency. 

(9) Standardizing the methods of the classification of 
statistics. 

(10) All necessary measures should be taken to ensure 
the attainment of the goals specified in Articles 1 and 2 of 
the Agreement. 

It is however possible to by-pass the principle of 
standardization in respect to certain circumstances and 
certain countries — this being made with the approval of 
the Arab Economic Unity Council. 


ORGANIZATION 


Articles 3-10 

Article 3 provides for the establishment of a body with 
the name of "The Arab Economic Unity Council". This 
Council will have its centre in Cairo and will be composed 
of a full member from each of the contracting parties. 
Decisions are taken by a two-thirds majority. Each state 
has one vote. 

The Council has been vested with all necessary powers 
for implementing the rules of the Agreement and its 
protocols, for running the subsidiary committees and 
establishments and for appointing members of staff and 
experts. 

Branching from the Unity Council are a number of 
permanent and provisional committees. 

The permanent committees are: 

(r) The Customs Committee, whose task will be to 
handle customs technical and administrative affairs and 
transit affairs. 

(2) The Monetary and Financial Committee. This 
Committee will undertake the handling of affairs pertaining 
to monetary matters, banking taxes, duties and other 
financial affairs. Two Sub-Committees have been formed: 

(а) Sub-Committee on Financial and Taxation Affairs; 

(б) Sub-Committee on Monetary Affairs. 

(3) The Economic Committee. It will be the duty of 
this Committee to handle matters pertaining to agriculture, 


industry, trade, transport, communications, labour and 
social affairs. Five Sub-Committees have been formed: 

(a) Agricultural Growth Sub-Committee; ( b ) Industrial 
Co-ordination and Mineral Wealth Development Sub- 
committee; (c) Planning and Trade Co-ordination Sub- 
Committee; [d) Planning and Transport and Communica- 
tions Co-ordination Sub-Committee; (e) Social Affairs Sub- 
Committee. 

The Council and its subsidiaries enjoy financial and 
administrative autonomy. The Council will have a special 
budget to which the member-states will subscribe at the 
rate of their subscriptions to the budget of the Secretariat- 
General of the Arab League. The Council has been entrusted 
with the tasks of formulating regulations and legislations 
aiming at the creation of a unified Arab customs zone and 
at co-ordinating foreign trade policy. The conclusion of 
trade agreements and of payments agreements has been 
made subject to the approval of the Council. The Council 
is also entrusted with the task of co-ordinating economic 
growth, laying down programmes for the attainment of 
common economic development plans, co-ordinating 
policies for agriculture, industry and external trade, 
working out transport and transit regulations and unifica- 
tion of regulations on labour and social security, and 
harmonizing financial and monetary policies with the 
purpose of standardizing currency. It will also formulate 
all other legislation necessary for the achievement of the 
purposes of the Agreement. 


IMPLEMENTATION 


Articles n-20. Protocols 

The implementation of the Agreement is, however, to 
be spread over an indeterminate period. The Council has 
been required to draw up a practical plan for the stages 
of implementation and to define the legislative, administra- 
tive and technical measures for two countries or more to 
conclude economic unity wider than that provided for 
under the Agreement. 

The Council shall exercise its powers in accordance with 
resolutions which it will pass, which will be executed by 
the member-states in accordance with their constitutional 
rules. 

The Governments of the contracting parties have pledged 
not to promulgate any laws, regulations or administrative 
decisions of a nature which might conflict with the 
Agreement or its Protocols. However, the contracting 
parties have been given the freedom, under the Agreement’s 
First Protocol, to conclude bilateral economic agreements. 


for extraordinary political or defensive purposes, with 
outside parties, provided that such bilateral agreements 
contain nothing prejudicial to the objectives of this 
Agreement. 

The Agreement’s Second Protocol places limitations on 
the powers of the Arab Economic Unity Council. In the 
course of an initial period not exceeding five years (but 
which can be renewed for up to ten years) the Council 
is required to study the necessary steps for co-ordinating 
the economic, financial and social policies and for the 
attainment of the following objectives: 

(a) The freedom of the movement of persons and the 
freedom of work, employment, residence, ownership, 
making one’s will, and inheritance. 

(b) Giving unrestricted and unqualified freedom to the 
movement of transit goods without any restrictions in 
respect of the type or nationality or the means of transport. 


90 


THE ARAB LEAGUE 


(c) Facilitating the exchange of Arab goods and Arab 
products. 

(d) The freedom of exercising economic activities — it 
should be understood that this should cause no harm to 
the interests of some of the contracting parties at this 
stage. 

(c) The freedom of using ports and civil airports in a 
manner guaranteeing activization and development. 


At its first session held in Cairo from June 3rd-6th, 1964, 
the Economic Unity Council decided to interpret the time 
periods suggested in the Second Protocol in such a manner 
as to speed up the accomplishment of the various phases. 
Thus the Council considered the five-year period proposed 
as a maximum limit for the completion of the necessary 
studies. The Council also resolved to benefit from the rule 
established in Article 4 of the Protocol, which provided 
for the following: 

"Two parties or more can, if they so desire, agree on 
ending the introductory stage or any other stage, and move 
directly to comprehensive economic unity.” 

The Council has therefore begun by studying the 
practical steps to be taken for the achievement of economic 
unity. It was decided that the Arab Common Market 
project should be accomplished as quickly as possible. A 


Technical Committee was assigned with the study c«l the 
subject, and its detailed report was debated and approved 
by the Council at its second meeting on August 7th. 
1964. 

The resolution passed at that meeting called for exemp- 
ting from customs duties all agricultural and animal 
products as well as natural resources and industrial goods 
exchanged between the members of the Arab Market. This 
exemption will be either complete or gradual. It was also 
resolved that, in the case of gradual exemption, the rate 
should be ten per cent in respect of industrial goods and 
twenty per cent for agricultural products, to be effective 
from the beginning of 1965. 

The Arab Common Market came into operation on 
January 1st, 1965, with U.A.R., Iraq, Syria, Jordan and 
Kuwait as members. However, the Kuwait National 
Assembly voted against ratification of the Agreement 
in July 1965. The four remaining members of the Council 
met again in Amman in November 1965; no further 
reductions in customs duties were agreed at that time, 
however. 

In mid-1966 the Economic Unity Council adopted a 
resolution calling for the creation of an Arab Payments 
Union. The purpose of the projected Union is to reduce or 
eliminate non-tariff restrictions, imposed by national 
governments for balance of payments reasons. 



ASIAN AND PACIFIC COUNCIL— ASP AC 

Canberra, Australia 


Set up June 1966 to foster solidarity and to further regional co-operation among Asian and Pacific countries. 


Australia 

MEMBERS 

Republic of Korea 

Philippines 

Republic of China (Taiwan) 

Malaysia 

Thailand 

Japan 

New Zealand 

Republic of Viet-Nam 


OBSERVER 

Laos 



ORGANIZATION 


ASIAN AND PACIFIC COUNCIL 

Composed of the Foreign Ministers of member states; 
first meeting held at Seoul, Republic of Korea, in June 
1966, second held at Bangkok, Thailand, in July 1967, and 
the third to be held at Canberra, Australia, in 1968. 

Secretariat: rotates between member states; at present 
provided by the Government of Australia; acts as a 
clearing house for information and a secretariat 
between meetings of the Council. 


STANDING COMMITTEE 

Composed of accredited ambassadors of the participating 
states; regularly meets between Council meetings for 
consultations and for examination of proposals for projects 
in the economic and social fields. Meetings: August 1967* 
September 1967, October 1967. 

Chairman: The Australian Minister for External Affairs 
(the Rt. Hon. Paul Hasluck, m.p.). 


AIMS 


ASPAC is a consultative association of nine non- 
Communist countries of the Asian and Pacific region, 
membership being open to other states in the area. The 
organization aims to foster greater co-operation and 
solidarity among members and to assist the development 
of the national economies of the member states. Co- 
operation is envisaged in the economic, technical, cultural, 
social and information fields. Ministers, in the communique 
released after the Second Ministerial Meeting expressed 
their determination: 

1. to preserve national integrity and independence 
against threats of any kind; 

2. to uphold and strengthen the institutions of free 
societies in forms best suited to the needs and 
circumstances of their peoples; 

3. to accelerate regional economic and material growth 
in the spirit of equal partnership in order to strengthen 


the foundations for a prosperous community of Asian 
and Pacific nations; 

4. to widen and deepen mutual understanding and 
appreciation of the cultural heritages and civilizations 
of the nations in the region without discrimination 
on the grounds of race, colour or creed; and 

5. to maintain closer and beneficial co-operation with 
other nations and organizations pursuing similar 
objectives. 

The Second Ministerial Meeting accepted as ASPAC 
projects a Register of Experts' Services in Canberra, 
Australia, and a Social and Cultural Centre in Seoul, 
Republic of Korea. The Ministers considered the proposal 
for the establishment of a Food and Fertilizer Bank for the 
Asian and Pacific region and agreed that this project be 
examined by suitable experts under the direction of the 
Standing Committee. 


92 


ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK— ADB 


Commercial Center, P.O.B. 126 , Makati, Rizal, Philippines 

Telephone: 88-87-81, 88-87-88. 


Established under the aegis of the UN Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (ECAFE), the Bank 
commenced operations in December, 1966. Members: 19 regional and 12 non-regional countries. 


ORGANIZATION 


BOARD OF GOVERNORS 

All powers of the Bank are vested in the Board which 
may delegate its powers to the Board of Directors except 
in such matters as admission of new members, changes in 
the Bank’s authorized capital stock, election of Directors 
and President, amendment of the Charter. One Governor 
and one Alternate Governor appointed by each member 
country. Board meets at least once a year. 

Chairman: Eduardo Z. Romualdez (Philippines). 

Vice-Chairmen: Bong Kyun Suh (Republic of Korea), 
N. Wimalasena (Ceylon). 

BOARD OF DIRECTORS 

Responsible for general direction of operations and 
exercises all powers delegated by the Board of Governors. 
Composed of ten Directors elected by the Board of 


Governors, seven representing regional member countries 
and three non-regional member countries. Each Director 
serves for two years and may be re-elected. The President 
of the Bank, though not a Director, is Chairman of the 
Board. 

Chairman of Board of Directors and President (1966-71): 

Takeshi Watanabe (Japan). 

Vice-President: C. S. Krishna Moorthi (India). 

ADMINISTRATION 

Departments: Operations, Economic and Technical Assist- 
ance, Administration. 

Offices: Secretary, General Counsel, Chief Information 
Officer, Internal Audit. 

Secretary: Douglas C. Gunesekera (Ceylon). 

General Counsel: Timothy B. Atkeson (U.S.A.). 


AIMS 


To foster economic growth and co-operation in the ; 
region and to accelerate the economic progress of the | 
developing countries of the region, either collectively or 
individually, by: i 

Promoting investment of public and private capital ! 
for development purposes in the ECAFE region. . 

Utilizing the available resources for financing develop- I 
ment, giving priority to those regional, sub-regional and ! 
national projects and programmes which will contribute 
most effectively to the harmonious economic growth of 
the region as a whole, and having special regard to the 
needs of the smaller and less developed member conn- | 
tries. 

Meeting requests from members in the region to assist : 
in the co-ordination of development policies aud plans j 
"*th a view to achieving better utilization of their j 
resources, making their economies more complementary, 
and promoting the orderly development of their foreign 
trade, in particular, intra-regiona! trade. 

Providing technical assistance for the preparation, 
tmaticmg and execution of development projects and 
programmes, including the formulation of specific pro- 
ject. proposals providing technical assistance also on the 


functioning of existing institutions or the creation of new 
institutions, on a national or regional basis, in such 
fields as agriculture, industry and public administration. 

Co-operating with UN, its subsidiary agencies and 
other international organizations concerned with the 
investment of development funds in the region. 

Activities in 1967 include an agricultural survey of the 
Asian region to provide the basis for the Bank’s future 
operations in this sector, the despatch of reconnaissance 
missions to several regional countries, and an agreement 
to provide technical assistance to Indonesia in food 
production. 

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE 

Capital: The ADB has an authorized capital of 
U.S. $r,ioo million, of which $965 million has been sub- 
scribed. Each member is to pay one-half of its subscribed 
capital in five equal, annual instalments: one-half of each 
instalment is required to be paid in gold or convertible 
currency and the other half may lve paid in local currency. 
The other half of the subscribed capital will remain as 
callable shares as a credit backing for tin- Bank's 
obligations. 


93 


ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK 


Country 

Subscriptions 
( million U.S. $) 

Regional Members: 


Afghanistan .... 

4.78 

Australia ..... 

85.00 

Cambodia ..... 

3-50 

Ceylon ..... 

8.52 

China (Taiwan) .... 

16.00 

India ...... 

93.00 

Indonesia ..... 

25.00 

Japan 

200.00 

Korea, Republic .... 

30.00 

Laos ...... 

0.42 

Malaysia ..... 

20.00 

Nepal ..... 

2.16 

New Zealand .... 

22.56 

Pakistan ..... 

32.00 

Philippines ..... 

35 -oo 

Singapore ..... 

5.00 

Thailand ..... 

20.00 

Yiet-Nam, Republic 

12.00 

Western Samoa .... 

0.06 


615.00 


Ordinary Funds: Composed mainly of subscribed capital 
and borrowings. Ordinary Fund operations are mainly 
direct loans to governments, national development banks, 
public and private entities, international agencies, for 
particular development projects in such fields as industry, 
agriculture, power, transport and communications. 


Country 

Subscriptions 
(million U.S. $) 

Non- Regional Members: 

Austria ..... 

5-00 

Belgium ..... 

5.00 

Canada ..... 

25.00 

Denmark ..... 

5.00 

Finland ..... 

5.00 

German Federal Republic 

34.00 

Italy ...... 

20.00 

Netherlands .... 

II .00 

Norway ..... 

5.00 

Sweden ..... 

5.00 

United Kingdom .... 

30.00 

U.S. A 

200.00 


350.00 

Total .... 

965 . 00 


Special Funds: ADB may accept contributions to Special 
Funds which it will administer on terms agreed upon with 
the donors as long as the purposes are consistent with the 
Bank's objectives; xo per cent of paid-in capital may also 
be used as Special Funds which the Bank may use for 
extending assistance on terms more lenient than those of 
Ordinary Fund operations. 

A Special Agricultural Fund is to be established. 


94 



ASSOCIATION OF SOUTH-EAST ASIA— ASA 


Founded by the Declaration of Bangkok, 1961, to promote economic, social and cultural co-operation among 
peoples of South-East Asia and to enhance welfare and prosperity in the region. 


Malaysia 


MEMBERS 

Philippines Thailand 


AIMS 


1. To establish machinery to inform, consult, collaborate 
and aid each other in the economic, social, cultural, 
scientific and administrative fields. 

2. To provide educational, professional, technical and 
administrative training and research facilities. 

3. To promote South-East Asian studies. 

4. To collaborate in the utilization of natural resources, the 
development of agriculture and industry, the expansion 


of trade, the improvement of transport and communica- 
tions, and generally in raising the standard of living. 

5. To co-operate in studying international commodity 
trade. 

6. To achieve the aims and purposes of the Association 
and to contribute to the work of existing international 
organizations. 


ORGANIZATION 


FOREIGN MINISTERS’ CONFERENCE 

The main administrative body of ASA, composed of the 
Foreign Ministers of the three member countries. Meets 
annually. Since the inaugural meeting at Bangkok in 1961, 
meetings have been held at Kuala Lumpur (April 19G2), 
Manila (April 1963) and Bangkok (August 1966). No 
meeting was held in 1964 or in 1965. 

JOINT WORKING PARTY 

Composed of officials of member countries. Meets 
annually to prepare the ground for the Foreign Ministers’ 
Conference. 

STANDING COMMITTEE 

Responsible for continued operation of projects between 
annual Foreign Ministers’ Conferences. Members: Foreign 
Minister of the host country and ambassadors of the other 
two countries. 

SUBSIDIARY COMMITTEES 
Economic Committee. 

Social and Cultural Committee. 

Technical Co-operation and Research Committee. 

PRINCIPAL PROJECTS 

l.eonomic Co-operation and Development. The establish- 
ment of an Organization for Asian Economic Co-operation 
has been agreed in principle and steps arc being taken to 
intensify trade among member countries by relaxing or 
eliminating regulations and restrictions on the free flow of 
trade. Efforts are also being made to increase trade between 
the region and the rest of the world. A multilateral agree- 
ment on commerce and navigation is being prepared, and 


the private sector is to play a greater part in promoting 
economic development and developing industry. 

Joint Research and Technology. Joint research pro- 
grammes have been formulated and study tours organized. 
There is wide exchange of technical experts and training 
facilities are made available for nationals of other member 
countries. An ASA Research Centre is to be established in 
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 

Education. Exchanges of teachers and students and 
increased facilities for teaching the language, history and 
: geography of member countries. Accreditation and cquiva- 
I lence of degrees are being studied to facilitate exchanges 
j in higher education. 

Transport ami Tourism. The Malaysian and Thai national 
! airlines have pooled services and the Philippines is to join 
the pool at a later date. A project for a joint airline to 
operate supersonic aircraft is under discussion. The 
! possibility of an ASA shipping line is being studied. In 
1962 a through train service between Kuala Lumpur and 
Bangkok was inaugurated and further rail links are to be 
established. Visas have been abolished for officials and 
1 visa fees waived for nationals of member countries, 
j Tourism is being actively encouraged and a "Visit ASA 
; Year” campaign was launched in 19O3. 

Cultural Exchange. Tours by theatrical and dance 
j groups, holding of art exhibitions, and exchange of radio 
and television programmes, films and visual aids. 

ASA FUND 

I To be set up to finance joint projects. Equal contribu- 
I tions arc to be made by member countries. 

Initial outlay: U.S. S3.000.000. 



BANK FOR INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENTS 


9. Open and maintain current or deposit accounts with 
central banks. 

10. Accept deposits from central banks on current or 
deposit account. 

ir. Accept deposits in connection with trustee agreements 
that may be made between the Bank and governments 
in connection with international settlements. 

12. Act as agent or correspondent of any central bank or 
arrange with any central bank for the latter to act as 
its agent or correspondent. 

13. Enter into agreements to act as trustee or agent in 
connection with international settlements. 

14. Enter into special agreements with central banks to 


facilitate the settlement of international transactions 
between them. 

The Bank shall be administered with particular regard 
to maintaining its liquidity, and for this purpose shall 
retain assets appropriate to the maturity and character of 
its liabilities. Its short-term liquid assets may include bank 
notes, cheques payable on sight drawn on first-class banks, 
claims in course of collection, deposits at sight or at short 
notice in first-class banks, and prime bills of exchange of 
not more than ninety days’ usance, of a kind usually 
accepted for rediscount by central banks. 

Note: The Bank acts as Agent of OECD under the Euro- 
pean Monetary Agreement and as Depositary under an 
Act of Pledge concluded with the High Authority of the 
European Coal and Steel Community. 


STATEMENT OF ACCOUNT 

(as at July 31st, 1967) 

In gold francs (units of 0.29032258 . . . grammes fine gold — Art. 5 of the Statutes) 


Assets 


% 

Gold in bars and coins . 

2,672,577,158 

29.0 

Cash on hand and on sight a/c 

54,711,506 

0.6 

Rediscountable Treasury bills . 

678,465,727 

7-5 

Bills cashable on demand 

75.7 0 i.596 

0.8 

Time deposits and advances . 

4,099,678,733 

44.9 

Other bills and securities 

1,531,105,766 

16.9 

Miscellaneous assets 

772, S80 

0.0 

Total 

9,113,013,366 

100.0 


Liabilities 


% 

Capital: 



Auth. and issued 200,000 
shares of which 25 per cent 
paid up. 

125,000,000 

1.4 

Reserves .... 

45 - 259.924 

o -5 

Deposits (gold) 

3,923,807,094 

43 -o 

Deposits (currencies) 

4,124,544,723 

45-3 

Notes ..... 

605,041,098 

6.6 

Miscellaneous 

58,360.527 

0.7 

Provision for contingencies 

231,000,000 

2-5 

Total 

9 , 113 , 013,366 

100.0 


98 



BENELUX 


39 rue de la Rfigence, Brussels 1 

Telephone: 13. 86. So. 


The Treaty of Benelux Economic Union came into force on November 1st, i960. Its aim is the economic union 

of Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxemburg. 

MEMBERS 

Belgium The Netherlands Luxembourg 

ORGANIZATION 


THE COMMITTEE OF MINISTERS OF THE 
ECONOMIC UNION 

The Committee of Ministers consists of not less than 
three Ministers and generally speaking the Ministers of 
Foreign Affairs, Foreign Trade, Economic Affairs, 
Agriculture, Finance and Social Affairs of the three 
countries. Resolutions in the Committee of Ministers 
must be carried unanimously, but an abstention will 
not be considered as a negative vote. It supervises 
the application of the Benelux Economic Union 
Treaty and ensures that the aims specified therein are 
pursued. To this end, the Committee of iMinisters can 
take decisions, establish conventions, make recom- 
mendations and issue directives. The Committee may 
also set up Working Parties to which it may delegate 
certain of its powers. 

THE CONSULTATIVE 
INTER-PARLIAMENTARY COUNCIL 
Permanent Secretary: G. Bruyneel, Palais de la Nation, 

Brussels 1. 

The Consultative Inter-Parliamentary Council con- 
sists of forty-nine members, twenty-one each from the 
Netherlands and Belgian Parliaments and seven from 
Luxembourg Parliament. It was set up by a Conven- 
tion which entered into force in September 1956. This 
Council maj r deliberate and communicate to the three 
Governments its views on problems of direct concern 
to tlie Economic Union, including cultural relations, 
foreign policy and the standardization of laws. The 
Interparliamentary Council receives an annual report, 
jointly established by the three Governments, on 
each of the above problems. These reports are 
published. 

THE COUNCIL OF ECONOMIC UNION 
Chairmen: Prof. G. Brouwers (Netherlands), Prof. G. 

Craen (Belgium), A. DOhr (Luxembourg). 

The Council of Economic Union consists of three 
chairmen, one from each member country, and of 
the presidents of Committees; presidents of the Special 
Committees may be co-opted on to the Council when 
their special fields arc under discussion. 

The Council is responsible for ensuring the execu- 
tion of the decisions of the Committee of Ministers 
and for making proposals to the Committee of Min- 
isters; for co-ordinating the work of the Committees 
and Special Committees; for giving them directives ! 
and for transmitting their proposals to the Committee j 
of Ministers. 1 


COMMITTEES AND SPECIAL COMMITTEES 

There are eight Committees; Foreign Economic 
Relations; Monetary and Financial; Industrial and 
Commercial; Agriculture, Food and Fisheries; Customs 
and Taxation; Transport; Social; Movement and 
Establishment of Persons. 

There are six Special Committees; Co-ordination of 
Statistics; Comparison of Government Budgets; Public 
Tenders; Public Health; Retail Trade and Handicrafts; 
Movement of Persons (control at external frontiers). 

THE SECRETARIAT-GENERAL 

Secretary-General: Dr. C. D. A. Baron van Lynden. 
Deputies: E. R. Van Der Aa, E. Leick. 

The Secretary-General is always of Netherlands 
nationality and is assisted by one Belgian and one 
Luxembourg Deputy Secretary-General. They are 
appointed by the Committee of Ministers and are 
directly responsible to the Working Group of the Com- 
mittee of Ministers for the administration of the 
Union. The Budget of the Secretariat for 1967 was 
35,386,000 Belgian Francs to which Belgium and the 
Netherlands each contributed 48.5% and Luxem- 
bourg 3%. 

JOINT SERVICES 

The Committee of Ministers may establish Joint 
Sendees to improve the functioning of the Economic 
Union, and determine their tasks, operational layout 
and working methods. Up to now no joint sendees 
have been established. 

THE ARBITRATION TRIBUNAL 

The Arbitration Tribunal is composed of six persons 
(two from each member country) appointed by the 
Committee of Ministers. Their function is to settle any 
disputes that may arise from the working of the 
Union. 

THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ADVISORY COUNCIL 

President: A. de Smaele. 

The Economic and Social Advisory Council consists 
of twenty-seven members and twenty-seven deputy 
members from representative economic and social 
organizations, each country supplying one third of the 
| number. It may offer advice on its own initiative or 
prepare considered opinions when requested to do so 
by the Committee of Ministers. 


BENELUX 


IMPORTANT EVENTS 


1921 Economic and Customs Union between Belgium 
and Luxembourg. 

1943 London Monetary Agreement. 

1944 London Customs Convention. 

1948 Customs Union comes into force; agreement on 
unifying customs formalities. 

1949 Pre-Union Agreement. 

1950 Agricultural Protocols. 

1953 Hague Protocol on co-ordination of economic 
and social policy; Commercial Protocol. 

1954 Agreement on liberalization of capital move- 
ments. 

1955 Agreement on the setting-up of a Consultative 
Inter-Parliamentary Council. 


1956 OEEC recognises Benelux as a single unit in 
inter-European trade; Labour Convention; 
Protocol on tenders and purchases. 

1958 Treat}' of the Benelux Economic Union signed. 

i960 Benelux Treaty came into force, together with 
the Labour Treaty. 

1962 Liberalization of road transport. 

1963 Convention on free movement and establish- 
ment in the three countries came into force. 

1965 Treaty on the establishment of a Benelux 
Court signed. 

1966 Treaty on reciprocal assistance for the per- 
ception of the turnover tax came into force. 


HISTORY 


During the later war years the governments-in- 
exile of Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg 
began to lay plans for an economic and customs union 
of their countries. Their efforts crystallized in the Lon- 
don Monetary Agreement of October 2 1st, 1943. A firm 
exchange value was needed between the Belgian franc 
and the Dutch florin; the pre-war gold parity of 16.52 
Belgian francs to one Dutch florin was agreed on, as 
well as a scheme of reciprocal credits between the two 
countries. There was also agreement on the need for 
continual consultation and for the co-ordination of 
such measures as each country felt compelled to take 
in their respective capital markets. 

The London Customs Convention of September 5th, 
1944, marked a further step forward. The principle 
was established of reciprocal tariff abolition, to lead in 
the first place to a “tariff community", which in its 
turn would be a preliminary step towards a full 
customs, and eventual economic union. Methods of 
procedure were established and three committees set 
up — the Administrative Customs Committee, the 
Administrative Foreign Trade Committee and the 
Committee for Trade Agreements. A tentative tariff 
list was drawn up, and provision made for withdrawal 
at one year’s notice. 

In the last months of the war Holland was devas- 
tated, whereas Belgium and Luxembourg emerged 
almost unscathed. A combination of factors brought 
economic prosperity to Belgium immediately after the 
war, and because of this discrepancy in recovery rates 
the envisaged Customs Convention could not be 
applied immediately. In March 1947 the first Hague 
Protocol was signed; the Customs Convention was 
given its final form and a General Secretariat estab- 
lished in Brussels. The Customs Union came into force 
on January 1st, 194S. 


OPERATING THE UNION 

A further step forward was made by the Pre-Union 
Agreement of October 15th, 1949. Among other pro- 
visions, three stand out as particularly important; 
these laid down the principles of progressive liberaliza- 
tion of exchange trade between the three partners, the 
systematic co-ordination of commercial and monetary 
policies with regard to other countries and the prepara- 
tion of a unified system of foreign trade negotiation. In 
spite of these advances, Benelux ran into difficulties in 
the following year, 1950, largely arising from the war 
in Korea, to which the economies of Belgium and 
Luxembourg on the one hand and of the Netherlands 
on the other reacted sharply and differently. In the 
Netherlands the deficit in payments and gold reserves 
increased; in Belgium and Luxembourg gold reserves 
rose and the payments surplus grew to such a size as 
to be unhealthy. Wages and prices in the Netherlands 
were still at that period abnormally low; in the other 
two partners they rose. 

In 1951 and 1952 the whole Benelux structure was 
in danger of breakdown, but was saved by the 
strenuous efforts of the three Governments, which 
were put into concrete and effective form by the 
important Hague Protocol of July 24th, 1953, the 
Commercial Protocol of December 9th, 1953, and the 
agreement on the liberalization of capital movements 
July 8th, 1954. The Hague Protocol of July 1953 
embodied agreements on the stabilization and adjust- 
ments of wages and rents in the three partners and the 
recognition of the principle that social legislation must 
be co-ordinated in order to avoid excessive differences 
between social charges which might adversely affect 
cost prices and the competitive positions of the three 
countries. The Commercial Protocol was complement- 
ary to this agreement. It laid down the guiding aim of 


100 


BENELUX 


maximum trade combined with maximum freedom, 
but emphasized the necessity of consultation in the 
case of export promotion, as well as joint action 
whenever complications arose with trade partners who 
refused reciprocity. 

A convention providing for the free movement of 
labour was signed on June 7th, 1956, which was 
clarified and expanded by a further agreement on 
March 20th, 1957, while a protocol defining the pro- 
cedure to be followed with regard to public tenders 
and government purchases was signed on July 6th, 
1956, and came into force on August 29th, 1958. 

By 1956, 96.5 per cent of the trade between the 
three partners was free, and of the remaining 3.5 per 
cent, 3.33 per cent was accounted for by food and 
agricultural products. Agriculture, as in all plans 
such as Benelux, had proved to be the most intransi- 
gent problem. In this sphere the Netherlands have a 
superior position, with a large export trade and low 
costs. In Belgium and Luxembourg the position is 
reversed, with a high import rate and high costs. Some 
price equalization duties are charged on Netherlands 
agricultural products exported to Belgium and 
Luxembourg. These duties are levied by the Nether- 
lands Government, of which half are handed over to 
Belgium and Luxembourg for the development and 
improvement of their agriculture and half are retained 
by the Netherlands and devoted to the rationalization 
of their own agriculture. 

SINGLE TRADING UNIT 

One of the most significant dates in the evolution of 
Benelux is January 26th, 1956. On that date the 
Organisation for European Economic Co-operation 
announced that henceforth Belgium, Luxembourg and 
the Netherlands were to be regarded as one country 
for all purposes of inter-European trade. In January 
1955, O.E.E.C. had raised its compulsory trade 
liberalization requirements to 90 per cent between 
member countries; the Benelux Governments pre- 
sented a unified single list applying to all three of 
them and covering 95.6 per cent of their imports from 


other member countries. Consequently, O.E.E.C. 
could now regard the three as one. 

ECONOMIC UNION TREATY 

The Benelux Treaty was signed in February 195S, 
and came into force in November 1960. By the 
Treafy% all trade agreements with outside countries 
were to be concluded by Benelux as an entity- from 
January' 1961. By November 1963, all tenders issued 
by national, provincial or local authorities were to be 
made accessible to tenders of all three countries. By 
November 1968, all obstacles to the free flow of goods 
between the three countries, including agricultural 
produce, must be eliminated. 

The Benelux Economic Union’s main aims are to 
raise prosperity by co-ordinating national economic 
policies, by pursuing a common foreign trade policy, 
and permitting the free movement of persons, goods, 
capital and sendees. Unlike EEC the Benelux Econo- 
mic Union is not a supra-national institution. Its 
institutions are based on those which grew up 
empirically within the Benelux Customs Union. 

RESULTS 

Co-operation between the Benelux countries has 
resulted in the area becoming the first completely free 
labour market. Capital movement as well as services 
have been made almost completely free. Examination 
of travel permits at Benelux frontiers was abolished 
in i960. 

PRIVATE ORGANIZATION 

Belgo-Nctherlands-Luxembourg Rapprochement Committe* 
(Comit6 Benelux): 40 rue du Congres, Brussels; 3S 
Nassauplein, The Hague; 14 a boulevard Royal, Luxem- 
bourg; f. 1945; a private organization to stimulate co- 
operation between the Benelux countries; organisation: 
International Committee of delegates from the three 
national committees; Pres. L. Ameve (Belgium), 
V. G. M. MaRIJNEN (Netherlands), M. Huss (Luxem- 
bourg); Secs. J. Chabert (Belgium), J. M. Corver van 
Haaftex (Netherlands), L. F. Lemmek (Luxembourg); 
publ. Nouvclles Benelux (every two months — French 
and Dutch). 


THE TREATY OF ECONOMIC UNION 


The Treaty consists of 100 Articles and is valid in 
the first instance for fifty years. 

1. Definition' ok Principles 
The main aim of the Economic Union is to raise the 
prosperity of the people by realizing the free mutual 
movement of persons, goods, services and capital, the 
co-ordination of national economic policy and the pur- 
suance of a common foreign trade policy. 

All nationals of the three member countries arc free to 
move anywhere within the territory of the Union and to 
enjoy in the other two countries the same rights and 
privileges as are accorded to the nationals of those coun- 
tries, with regard to freedom of movement, residence and 
establishment, the exercise of economic and professional 
activities, capital transactions, labour conditions, social 
provisions, dues, taxes and legal protection. Trade between 


the three countries is freed from all import dues and from 
all restrictions of a qualitative, quantitative or currency 
nature. This free intercourse must neither be unduly 
impeded by non-economic or non-financial measures, 
although controls and statistical inspections at frontiers 
will not be considered as restrictions within the meaning 
of the Treaty. Capital movements are also free and ex- 
change of services arc subject to the same principles as that 
of merchandise. Any distortion of competitive conditions 
arc forbidden, lest they should impede tiic development of 
mutual free trade. 

The three governments engage themselves to consult 
jointly on matters of economic policy in order to create the 
necessary conditions for full economic integration. Further- 
more, they will also consult each other ir. order to determine 
the Union's policy at international meetings and in a!! 
matters concerned with regional economic integration or 


10 ! 


BENELUX 


rpiatine to foreign countries, in so fax as these 
matters aflect the purposes of the Union. There will also be 
a common policy with regard to foreign trade and payments 
and a common tariS in respect of import and other duties. 

The Economic Union does not include a monetary union 
but certain monetary rules are laid down, particularly that 
policy with regard to rates of exchange must be formulated 
bv consultation. It is further provided that should the vital 
interests of a member country be in danger, the Committee 
of Ministers may deviate from the provisions of the Treaty. 

2. Institutions of the Union 
These are listed as the Committee of Ministers, the 
Consultative Inter-Parliamentary Council, the Council of 
Economic Union, the Committees and Special Committees, 
the Secretariat-General, the Joint Sendees, the Arbitration 
Tribunal and the Economic and Social Consultative Council 
(see the section on Organization above). 


3. Special Provisions 

This section elaborates certain principles laid down in 
Part 1, and also de-limits certain fields in which the 
Committee of Ministers may take binding decisions and 
further provides that the principles of the Treaty shall be 
effected by special agreement in certain cases. 


4. General Provisions 

The main provisions of this part are that the scope of the 
Treaty is limited to the territories of the member countries 
in Europe, though the interests of Belgian and Netherlands 
overseas territories should be safeguarded in foreign trade 
agreements; and that the Treaty should be valid for a 
period of fifty years, subject to tacit extension by periods 
of ten years; the Treaty may be revoked by any member 
country on one year’s notice. 


STATISTICS 


AREA AND POPULATION 



Belgium 

Netherlands 

Luxembourg 

Total 

Area (sq. km.) . 
Population (Dec. 1966) 

30,507 

9 , 556 > 0 °° 

33,397 

12,530,647 

2,586 

333 ,°°° 

66,490 

22.419,647 


AGRICULTURE 

PRINCIPAL CROPS 
(’000 metric tons) 



1965 

1966 


Belgium 

Netherlands 

Luxembourg 

Belgium 

Netherlands 

Luxembourg 

Wheat 

s 54 

691 

46 

650 

59 i 

39 

Rve . 

98 

250 

IO 

76 

190 

5 

Barley 

520 

373 

3 ° 

486 

416 

37 

Oats . 

3°4 

363 

34 

293 

357 

3 i 

Potatoes 

1.419 

2,196 

74 

1.475 

2,572 

6S 

Sugar Beet . 

2.537 

3,573 

— 

2,586 

3,645 

— 

Mangolds . 

3,106 

1,121 

76 

3,°32 

1.055 

67 


LIVESTOCK, 1966 
(’000) 



Horses 

Cattle 

Sheep 

Pigs 

Poultry 

Belgium .... 

95 

2,767 

91 

i, 94 S 

18,515 

Netherlands 

i °5 

3,968 

558 

3 , 9 i 8 1 

45,285 

Luxembourg . 

2 

173 

4 

127 

443 


102 
























BENELUX 


ANIMAL PRODUCTS 1966 
('000 metric tons) 



Milk 

Butter 

Cheese 

Eggs* 

Meat 

Belgium .... 

3.941 

83 

n.a. 

15S 

561 

Netherlands 

7 A 5 I 

102 

221 

236 

804 

Luxembourg . 

188 

5 

1 

4 

23 


*1,000 metric tons = 17 million eggs 


INDUSTRY 



Unit 


1965 


f 

1966 


Belgium 

Nether- 

lands 



Nether- 

lands 

Luxem- 

bourg 

Coal .... 

’000 metric tons 

19,786 

11,446 

— 

17.499 

10,052 

— 

Coke .... 

11 11 11 

7.334 

4.383 


6.961 

3.SS7 

— 

Crude Petroleum 

11 11 11 

— 

2,395 



2.366 

— 

Gas .... 

million cubic metres 

3,268 


26 

2.933 

— 

19 

Electricity 

million kWh 

20,364 

23.657 

2,214 

21,51s 

26,372 

2.19S 

Pig Iron 

'000 metric tons 

8,366 

2,364 

4.145 

S.230 

2,209 

3.962 

Steel .... 

H 11 tl 

9,169 

3.138 

4.585 

8,917 

3.256 

4.390 

Leather 

11 11 11 

2-5 

4-3 

— 

■1 2 

4.2 

— 

Paper .... 


515 

957 

— 

548 

L0S5 

— 

Colton Yarn . 

11 11 11 

96 

70 

— 

93 

68 

— 

Yarns of Wool and Hair . 

II 11 11 

65 

21 

— 

70 

20 

— 

Yarn of Artificial Fibre . 


13.6 

39-2 

— 

17.2 

^ 37-6 

— 

Cement .... 

11 it 11 

5.905 

2,973 


5.794 

3 . 16.3 


Bricks .... 

million 

M s 3 

2,061 

— 

1.358 

2,084 

— 

Shoes .... 

’ooo pairs 

12,650 

2«{,200 


15.437 

22,1 OO | 

1 

~ 


EXTERNAL TRADE 

(million Belgian francs) 



Imports 

Exports 

194S 

. 

. 

149.764 

100,508 

1954 



228,339 

194.479 

1955 



254.034 

225,813 

1956 



293,220 

246.271 

1957 


. 

315.497 

253.930 

1958 



280,79s 

257.561 

1959 



305.343 

283,617 

i960 


• 

353.482 

321,281 

1961 


• 

3S5.1SS 

33 2,921 

1962 



.joS.o.jo 

362,33s 

1963 



45S.7S0 

398,187 

19G4 



536,250 

400,99 * 

1965 



576.457 

520,902 

1066 


• 

631,08 2 

552.104 



103 





















BENELUX 


PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES 


(million Belgian francs) 



1965 

1966 

Imports 

Exports 

Imports 

Exports 

Food Products 

68,224 

82,449 

72,838 

83,630 

Meat and Meat Products ..... 

3.898 

19,841 

4,086 

21,404 

Dairy Products ...... 

2,843 

i 8,399 

3,552 

i 7- 8 55 

Fruit and Vegetables ..... 

12,573 

18,669 

14,089 

i 7 , 75 i 

Raw Materials ....... 

84,207 

37.537 

86,177 

41,078 

Wood ........ 

13.184 

1,098 

12,513 

971 

Textile Fibre ....... 

20,073 

10,731 

20,110 

10,764 

Metal Ore and Waste ..... 

20,717 

4.836 

19,954 

6,135 

Fuel and Mineral Oil ...... 

61,216 

3 L 446 

60,487 

27,871 

Chemical Products ...... 

39 .II 7 

45.690 

44,388 

51,684 

Manufactured Articles ..... 

121,474 

173,894 

141,898 

184,989 

Rubber Articles ...... 

3,283 

2,680 

3,817 

2,757 

Paper ........ 

9,886 

6,564 

10,914 

7.741 

Textiles ....... 

22,361 

37.915 

24,793 

40,652 

Clothing ....... 

9 , 44 ° 

5,630 

12,545 

6,461 

Silver, Platinum and Jewels (non-ferrous metals) 

24,132 

26,581 

32,663 

31,132 

Non-precious Metals (Iron and Steel) 

22,250 

62,147 

24,444 

60,210 

Metal Articles ...... 

14,746 

11,074 

16,151 

11,867 

Scientific and Professional Instruments 

8,617 

7.582 

9,954 

8,200 

Vehicles ........ 

49.954 

35,572 

53.674 

40,152 

Non-electric Machinery ..... 

57 , 79 fi 

35.321 

69,341 

38,703 

Electric Machinery ...... 

32,842 

34.054 

34.957 

34,082 


PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES 


(million Belgian francs) 



19 

35 

19 

66 

Imports 

Exports 

Imports 

Exports 

Argentina ...... 

Australia ...... 

Austria ...... 

Congo (Democratic Republic) 

Canada ...... 

Denmark ...... 

Finland ...... 

France ...... 

German Federal Republic 

German Democratic Republic 

Iran ....... 

Italy ....... 

Japan 

Kuwait and Iraq ..... 

Norway ...... 

Sweden ...... 

Switzerland ..... 

United Kingdom ..... 

U.S.S.R 

U.S.A 

Venezuela ...... 

7,446 

3,455 

4,300 

10.676 
7.647 

4.091 

7,053 

72.677 
157,365 

2,945 

8,997 

27,462 

5,327 

8,117 

3,784 

17.755 

10,718 

48,670 

4,961 

65,760 

2,185 

i, 5 H 

3,140 

5.6io 

3,546 

6,086 

10,502 

4.535 

73.408 

158,501 

1.595 

1.944 

25,663 

3,480 

1,902 

7,055 

16,718 

14,208 

43 ,m 

2,604 

38,689 

2,299 

7,896 

3,468 

4.435 

15,941 

7 , 94 ° 

4,442 

6,822 

79 , 88 o 

177 U 97 

2,908 

6,285 

31,441 

6,061 

9,701 

3,870 

18,052 

11,954 

5 i,on 

5,452 

73.958 

2,398 

1,264 

3,045 

5,979 

3 , 76 o 

5.556 

9,873 

3.993 

85.363 

162,818 

2,533 

2,256 

26,926 

4,818 

2,031 

7 . 36 i 

16,629 

14,642 

43.821 

2,581 

44.919 

1,959 


104 











BENELUX 


TRADE WITHIN BENELUX 
(million Belgian francs) 



From the Nether- 
lands to Belgium 
and Luxembourg 

From Belgium and 
Luxembourg to 
the Netherlands 

1948 

7 .i 89 

19,087 

1954 • 

17,068 

24,222 

1955 

18,811 

29,011 

1956 

21.363 

35,265 

1957 

24,302 

37>°47 

1958 

24.581 

32,355 

1959 

27,166 

36,145 

i960 

29.390 

4 L 5 I 9 

1961 

32,154 

48,663 

1962 

33.665 

52,542 

1963 

37.696 

57,479 

1964 . 

43.986 

67.833 

1965 

48.255 

73.197 

1966 

52.427 

76.074 


TRANSPORT 

RAILWAYS 



Million Ton-kms. 

Million Passenger-kms. 

Belgium 

Netherlands 

Luxembourg 

Belgium 

Netherlands 

Luxembourg 

1962 . 

6,420 

3,704 

639 

8,959 

7.S78 

223 

1963 • 

6,780 

4.093 

651 

9,009 

7,901 

221 

1964 . 

6,862 

3.885 

671 

9,042 

7.854 

231 

1965 . 

6,698 

3,522 

622 

8,975 

7.715 

229 

1966 . 

6,173 

3,272 

567 

8,708 

7.603 

229 


INLAND WATERWAYS 


Traffic within Benelux (’ooo tons) 



Belgium 

Netherlands 

1962 

25,522 

66,000 

1963 

22,777 

62,600 

1964 

26,356 

77 , 00 ° 

1965 

25 , 77 S 

82,200 

1966 

26,455 

80,000 


SHIPPING 

CIVIL AVIATION 




Ocean-going Ships 

Entering Benelux 

Ports 


Million 

Passenger-kms. 

'ooo Ton-iuts. 

Number 

'ooo Tons 

Sabcna 

KLM 

Sabcna 

KLM 

1962 

1963 

1964 

1965 

1966 

63 , 4 t 3 

64.370 

69.S66 

71.20S 

70.29S 

132,665 

I 37 . 33 S 

I.i6,907 

151,896 

159.312 

1962 

1963 . 

1964 . 

1965 . 

1966 . 

I. 3 S 4 

1.346 

1,626 

1.7S5 

1,654 

2.835 

2,561 

3,001 

3.342 

3.S71 

39,403 

44.277 

52,164 

04.SS7 

68.775 

Mi. 5:9 

141,725 

164,263 

211,967 

241,198 


PUBLICATIONS 


Benelux Texles de Base. Benelux Bulletin. Economical and Statistical Bulletin (quarterly). 
Yearly Budget Comparisons. What is the Significance of Benelux ? 

k>:> 



CENTRAL AMERICAN COMMON MARKET— CACM 

Established in i960 under the aegis of the Organization of Central American States (ODECA). 

MEMBERS 

Costa Rica Guatemala El Salvador Honduras Nicaragua 


ORGANIZATION 


CENTRAL AMERICAN ECONOMIC COUNCIL 

(Consejo Economico Centroamericana — CEC) 
Consists of the Ministers of Economy of the member 
states and meets every three months in one of the five 
capitals. 

EXECUTIVE COUNCIL 

(Consejo Ejecutivo del Tratado General-GETG) 
Consists of two government delegates of each member 
state. Meetings are convened by the Permanent Secretariat. 


Its function is to prescribe the measures necessary for the 
fulfilment of the terms of the General Treaty. 

PERMANENT SECRETARIAT 

(Secretaria Permanente de Integracidn Econdmica Centro- 
americana — SIECA) 

4a Avenida 10-25 Zona 14, Guatemala City, Guatemala 

Secretary-General: Dr. Carlos Manuel Castillo (Costa 
Rica). 


INSTITUTIONS 


Banco Gontroamericano de Integracidn Economica (BCIE) 

{Central American Economic Integration Bank): P.O. 
Box 772, Tegucigalpa, Honduras; f. 1960, started 
operations 1961 ; capital $40 million; available resources, 
including loans §100 million; to finance public and 
private development projects, particularly relating to 
industrialization and infrastructure; to administer the 
newly established Central American Integration Fund 
for regional infrastructure projects, to which each 
CACM member is contributing §1.4 million. Pres. Dr. 
Gustavo A. Guerrero; Sec. Antonio Membreno M.; 
publ. Annual Report. 

Union Monetaria Centroamericana {Central American 
Monetary Union): Banco Central de Reserva de El 
Salvador, San Salvador, El Salvador; since 1952 the 
Central Banks of the five Republics had been meeting 
to discuss monetary, exchange and credit aspects of 
their respective economies. In 1961 the Central 
American Clearing House was founded. An agreement 
for the establishment of the Central American Monetary 
Union became effective for the five Republics in March 
1964. 

Consejo Monetario Gentroamericano {Central American 
Monetary Council): Composed of the Presidents of 
the Central Banks of El Salvador, Guatemala, 
Honduras and Nicaragua and the Manager of the 
Central Bank of Costa Rica. 

President: Lie. Arturo P£rez Galliano (Guate- 
mala). 

Comitis de Consulta 0 de Accifin {Consulting and Working 
Committees): 

Comiid de Politico Monetaria (Monetary Policy 
Committee), 

Comile de Politico Cambiaria y de Compensation 
(Exchange and Clearing Policy Committee). 
Cotnili de Operaciones Financieras (Financial 
Committee). 

Comiti de Estudios Juridicos (Juridical Studies 
Committee). 

The Monetary Council will create other committees 
as it becomes necessary. 

Secretaria Ejocutiva {Executive Secretariat) : Its functions 


are to prepare the technical studies which may be 
necessary, and to co-ordinate the activities of the 
different committees. Rotative seat, at present in 
San Salvador. 

Secretary-General: Lie. Alvaro Castro Jenkins. 
Cfimara Centroamericana de Compensacion de Monedas 
{Central American Clearing House): Tegucigalpa; f. 1961 
and joined Central American Monetary Union in 1964; 
capital $1.5 million; operations 1965 $1 12.2 million; 
banking operations based on the Central American 
peso, at par with the U.S. dollar. Pres. Rolando 
Duarte (El Salvador). 

Federacifin de Cdmaras de Gomercio del Istmo Gentro- 
americano {Federation of Central American Chambers of 
Commerce ): f. 1961; for planning and co-ordinating 
industrial and commercial interchanges. Rotative seat, 
at present in Tegucigalpa, Honduras. 

Federacion de Camaras y Asociaciones IndustrialesdeConfro- 
arn erica (FEGAICA) {Federation of Industrial Chambers 
and Associations in Central America): Edificio Canteros 
772, Tegucigalpa, Honduras; established in 1959 by 
the Chambers of Industry of the CACM countries to 
promote commerce and industry, principally by inter- 
change of information. 

Federacion de Bancos de Centroam erica y Panama {Federa- 
tion of Bankers Associations of Central America and 
Panama): f. 1965 to co-operate in carrying out the 
integration movement. Rotative seat, at present in 
Guatemala. 

Institute Centroamdricano de invesfigacidn y Tccnologia 
Industrial {Central American Institute of Research and 
Industrial Technology — ICAITI): Avenida Reforma 
4-47 Zona 10, Guatemala City, Guatemala; f. 1956 by 
the five Central American Republics, ■with assistance 
from the United Nations, to contribute to the expansion 
and improvement of industry in the region. 

Institute Centroamericano do Administraeidn de Empresas 
{Central American Institute for Business A dministration) : 
Edificio Banco Central de Nicaragua, piso 13, Managua, 
Nicaragua; established in July 1963 as a management 
training school by countries of the CACM to promote 
commerce and studies. 


106 


CENTRAL AMERICAN COMMON MARKET 


Escueta Superior de Administracidn Pdbiica, America 
Centra! (Central American School of Public Adminislra- 
lion — ESAPAC ): San Jos6, Costa Rica; f. 1954 by the 
five Central American Republics, with assistance from 
the United Nations, with a view to improving Public 
Administration; Panama joined later. 

Consejo Superior Universitario Centroamericano ( Superior 
Council for Central American Universities — CSUCA): 
San Jos< 5 , Costa Rica; f. 1948; Sec.-Gen. Ing. Edgardo 
Sevilla IdiAquez. 

Instituto de Nutricidn de Centro America y Panama (Insti- 


tute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama — 
INCAP): Guatemala City, Guatemala; f. 1949; 
regional office of the World Health Organization 
(WHO). 

Corporation Centroamericana de Servicios de Navegacidn 
A£rea (Central American Air Navigation Service Cor- 
poration — COCESNA): Tegucigalpa, Honduras; f. 
i960. 

Secretaria de Integracifin Turistica Centroamericana— 
SITCA (Secretarial for the Integration of Tourism in 
Centra! America): Managua, Nicaragua; f. 1966. 


FUNCTIONS 


The Central American Common Market was established 
under the Tratado Multilateral de Libre Comercio e 
Integracidn Econdmica Centroamericana and the Tratado 
de Integration Econdmica Centroamericana. It visualises 
the eventual elimination of all tariffs and barriers between 
members, and the establishment of a common external 
tariff for the rest of the world. So far practically all internal 
barriers have been removed and agreement has been 
reached on 98 per cent of the items in the regional customs 
classification; uniform tariffs now apply to 80-85 per cent 
of these items and the others are to be equalized over a 
five-year period. 

It is expected that there will be a common customs 
administration by 1970 and further goals include a unified 
fiscal policy, a regional industrial policy and co-ordinated 
regional policies in public health, labour, education, 
transport and agriculture. 

Sec also: Chronology of Central American Integration in 
the chapter on the United Nations Economic Commission 
for Latin America (ECLA) . 

TREATIES 

TRATADO MULTILATERAL DE LIBRE COMERCIO 
E INTEGRAClON econOmica 
CENTROAMERICANA 

Signed in Tegucigalpa in 1958 by all members of ODBC A, 
except Costa Rica who joined in 1962. For the equalisation 
of Customs duties between the members. All duties were 
removed from 237 groups of regionally produced commodi- 
ties when the Treaty came into force and will be extended 
to include all regionally produced goods in the next ten 
years. 

TRATADO DE INTEGRAClON ECONOMICA 
CENTROAMERICANA 

Signed in 1959 by all members of ODECA except Costa 
Rica who joined in 1962. In July 1962 the members signed 
agreements establishing uniform tariffs on more than 95 
per cent of all products entering the area. 

TRATADO DE ASOCIACI 0 N ECONOMICA 

Signed in February i960 by El Salvador, Guatemala 
and Honduras, and came into force in April i960. Tariffs 
'vere then removed on 05 per cent of all goods traded 


between the members, and most remaining tariffs had 
been removed by June 1966. At a later stage restrictions 
on the movement of capital and labour will be removed. 
A Development and Welfare Fund has been set up. 

Development and Welfare Fund 

Opens with resources of $5.5 million. (Guatemala con- 
tributes quetzal es 2 million, El Salvador colones 5 millions, 
Honduras lempiras 3 millions). 

Governors: The three Ministers of Economy of the Member 
States. 

Sccretary-Gonoral: Rafael Huezo Selvas (Guatemala 
City). 

TRATADO DE INTERCAMBIO PREFERENCI A L 
Y DE LIBRE COMERCIO 

Signed by Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Panama in 1961 
j and ratified in 1962, to speed economic integration through 
tariff reductions between members. 

OTHER AGREEMENTS 

| Convention on Integrated Industries: provides that 
special monopoly status be given to an individual enter- 
prise in each industry, to be established in one member 
country with a view to exporting to the rest. The operation 
of this convention has been limited and, to date, only two 
integration industries have been set up — a tyre factory in 
Guatemala and an insecticides plant in Nicaragua. 

Special System of Promotion of Productive Industries: 

signed January 1963, this system uses tariff regulations to 
encourage projects requiring heavy investment, with the 
limitation that such projects must produce at least In If 
the total of the regional demand. 

Convention of Uniform Fiscal Incentives for Industrial 
Development: signed in July 1962, the Convention provide, 
for a wide range of benefits to be applied to various 
categories of industries in Central America. 

Agreement to establish the Central American Monetary 
Union: signed by the Governors of the Central Banks in 
1964. The Monetary Union is not yet effective; it involve*, 
the alignment of foreign exchange and monetary politic .. 
and the operation of a common currency (Central American 
peso at par with the U.S. dollar). 


107 



CENTRAL AMERICAN COMMON MARKET 
STATISTICS 


AREA 
(sq. km.) 


Costa Rica 

El Salvador 

Guatemala 

Honduras 

Nicaragua 

50,900 

20,000 

108,889 

112,088 

118,358 


POPULATION 

( 1965 ) 


Costa Rica 

El Salvador 

Guatemala 

Honduras 

Nicaragua 

1,463,013 

2,928,045 

4,400,000 

2,362,817 

1,625,518 


INTRA-REGIONAL TRADE 
(’000 Central American Pesos)* 


Costa Rica 



Impo 

RTS 

Exp 

ORTS 

1965 

1966 

1965 

1966 

El Salvador 
Guatemala . 
Honduras . 
Nicaragua . 

Total CACM 

4,788 

5-32i 

I.H5 

3.167 

7.651 

9,143 

2,030 

4.368 

5.063 

3.883 

2,989 

6,853 

5.885 

4.257 

5.319 

10,598 

14,691 

23.192 

18,788 

26,059 


Guatemala 



Impo 

RTS 

Exp 

ORTS 

1965 

1966 

1965 

1966 

Costa Rica . 

El Salvador 
Honduras . 
Nicaragua . 

Total CACM 

3,883 

22,428 

3.770 

1.443 

4.257 

23,910 

3.951 

2,120 

5,321 

18,511 

8,695 

6,395 

9,143 

27,192 

10,614 

8,936 

31.524 

34.237 

38,923 

55,885 


El Salvador 



Impc 

>RTS | 

Exp 

ORTS 

1965 

1966 

1965 

1966 

Costa Rica . 
Guatemala . 
Honduras . 
Nicaragua . 

Total CACM 

5.063 

18,511 

15,682 

3N52 

5.885 

27,192 

13.344 

5,542 

4.788 

22,428 

12,337 

6,521 

7.651 

23,910 

I5.97I 

9,996 

42,408 

51.963 

46,074 

57,528 

• 


Honduras 



Impc 

RTS 

Exp 

ORTS 

1965 

1966 

1965 

1966 

Costa Rica . 

El Salvador 
Guatemala . 
Nicaragua . 

Total CACM 

2,989 

12,337 

8,695 

2,299 

5,319 

15,971 

10,614 

3.258 

1,415 

15,682 

3,770 

1,266 

2,030 

13.344 

3.951 

2,165 

26,320 

35,163 

22,133 

21,490 


Nicaragua 



Impc 

RTS 

Exp 

ORTS 

1965 

1966 

1965 

1966 

Costa Rica . 

El Salvador 
Guatemala . 
Honduras . 

Total CACM 

6,853 

6,521 

6,395 

1,266 

10,598 

9,996 

8,936 

2,165 

3.167 

3U52 

M43 

2,299 

4.368 

5,542 

2,120 

3»258 

21,035 

31.695 

10,060 

15.288 


* 1 Central American peso ($CA) = 1 US $. 
108 



CENTRAL COMMISSION FOR THE NAVIGATION 

OF THE RHINE 

Palais du Rhin, Strasbourg, France 


Set up by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to ensure free movement of traffic and equal river facilities for vessels 

of all nations on the Rhine. 


MEMBERS 

Belgium German Federal Republic Switzerland 

France Netherlands United Kingdom 


ORGANIZATION 


COMMISSION 

Chairman: Bernard de Menthon. 

General. The overall function of the Commission is to 
enable member Governments to co-ordinate inland 
waterway policy and to supervise the application of the 
Convention (see below). It meets twice a year (occasionally 
more often) in full session. Each member state provides 
between one and four commissioners with one or two 
substitutes. Decisions are taken by unanimous agreement. 


ADMINISTRATIVE CENTRE FOR 
SOCIAL SECURITY 

Set up to apply the 1950/1961 Agreement on social 
security of Rhine boatsmen. Members: Belgium, France, 
German Federal Republic, Netherlands, Switzerland. 

TRIPARTITE COMMISSION FOR 
LABOUR CONDITIONS 

Set to apply the 1954/1963 Agreement on labour 
conditions of Rhine boatsmen. Members: Belgium, France, 
German Federal Republic, Netherlands, Switzerland. 


SECRETARIAT 

Secretary-General: H. Walther (Switzerland). 

Chief Engineer: O. Schoppe (German Federal Republic). 
Deputy Secretary-General: R. Doerflinger (France). 


FUNCTIONS 


Navigational Security. The Commission draws tip and 
executes rules for navigational signals and routes, for the 
construction and loading of boats, for minimum numbers 
of crew and for carrying of dangerous goods. 

Customs. Customs regulations have been simplified and 
standardized. 

Court of Appeal. The Commission is a Court of Appeal 


for criminal and civil cases involving Rhine trnillc. 

Hydrology. The Commission gives navigational approval 
to plans of bridge and barrage construction, and assesses 
other hydro-technical projects. 

Research. The Commission undertakes study voyages 
from time to time. 


1 1)0 



CENTRAL COMMISSION FOR THE NAVIGATION OF THE RHINE 


CONVENTION 

Signed at Mayence in 1S16. Revised at Mannheim in 1868 and at Strasbourg in 1963 (not yet ratified). 

MAIN PROVISIONS 


1. Freedom of navigation for vessels and crews of all 
nations without technical, fiscal, customs, professional 
or administrative hindrance. 

2. Equality of treatment for all flags. 

3. Freedom of transit for all merchandise with or without 
warehousing or trans-shipment. 

4. All import, export and transit facilities available for 
other forms of transport to he accorded also to Rhine 
transport. 

5. The claiming of special rights for a vehicle or its cargo 
based on the fact of navigation to be forbidden. 

6. Customs formalities for direct transit to be limited to 
the presentation of a declaration, the closure of holds 
or guardianship. 


7. States to be obliged to open free ports and places of 
loading and unloading. 

8. Rules relating to vessel security, navigation police and 
transport police to be standardised and extended. 

9. States to be obliged to maintain the waterway, to 
co-ordinate hydro-technical works and to eliminate 
all technical hindrance. 

10. Special jurisdiction in the riparian states, with com- 
petence fixed by the Convention and the right of 
parties to have recourse either to the Central Com- 
miission or to a national court. 

11. All interested parties have the right to lay complaints 
before the Central Commission. 


budget 

The budget is fixed annually and member states make an equal contribution. 


ASSOCIATED BODY 

INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE RHINE SHIPS REGISTER 
89 Schiedamscvest (P.O.B. 947), Rotterdam, Netherlands 

Founded in 1947 for the classification of Rhine ships, the publication of a register and the 
unification of general average rules. Associated with the Central Commission. 

Director: M. Verhoeff (Netherlands). 


MEMBERS 

Shipowners and associations, insurers and associations, shipbuilding engineers, average 
adjusters and others with a commercial interest in Rhine Traffic. 


HO 


CENTRAL TREATY ORGANISATION— CENTO 

Old Grand National Assembly Building, Ankara, Turkey 


The Central Treaty Organisation aims to provide mutual security and defence for member countries and seeks the 
peaceful economic development of the region through co-operative effort. CENTO replaced the Baghdad Pact 

Organisation after the withdrawal of Iraq in March 1959. 


MEMBERS 

Iran Pakistan Turkey United Kingdom 

The United States is a member of the Organisation's Military, Economic, and Counter-Subversion 
Committees, and signed bilateral agreements of military and economic co-operation with Iran, 

Pakistan and Turkey in Ankara in March 1959. 


RECORD OF EVENTS 


1955 Turkey and Iraq signed Baghdad Pact, February. 
United Kingdom acceded to the Pact, April. 
Pakistan acceded to the Pact, September. 

Iran acceded to the Pact, November. 

International Secretariat established, December. 

1956 United States joined Economic and Counter- 
Subversion Committees of the Pact. 

195S Pact’s Headquarters and staff moved to Ankara. 

1959 Bilateral defence agreements signed between the 
United States, Turkey, Pakistan and Iran, March. 
Iraq withdrew from the Pact, March. 

Opening of Nuclear Centre in Teheran, June. 

Name of Organisation changed to CENTO, August. 

1960 Establishment of new Permanent Military Deputies 
Group in Ankara, January'. 

Development Loan Fund agreed to loan $6 million 
to Turkey to help build Turkey-Iran Railway'. 

1961 First stage of High-Frequency' Telecommunication 
link opened between London, Istanbul, Anlmra and 
Teheran, June. 

Contract for $16,490,000 awarded by U.S. Govern- 
ment to build microwave telecommunications 
system. 

1962 Visit to CENTO Headquarters of Vice-President of 
the United States, Mr. Lyndon Johnson, August. 


Visit to CENTO Headquarters of His Imperia 
Majesty the Shahanshah of Iran, October. 

1963 CENTO project for the development of the Turkish 
port of Trabzon completed, aided by a grant of 
£ 1 80,000 sent by United Kingdom. 

rg64 United States Development Loan Fund agreed to 
loan over $18 million to meet foreign exchange 
requirements for completion of CENTO Turkey- 
Iran railway'. CENTO Permanent Military Tele- 
communication System linking Ankara, Teheran and 
Rawalpindi officially inaugurated at cost of over 
$2 million provided by' U.S. United Kingdom 
announce increased financial aid to CENTO: from 
April 1965 £1 million annually', subject to govern- 
ment approval. First section of Turkey-Iran railway, 
Mu$ to Tatvan (100 km.) completed and put into 
service. 

1965 CENTO Microwave Telecommunications system 
handed over for operation to governments of 
Turkey, Iran and Pakistan (June). 

1966 CENT O Microwave Telecommunications System 
officially* dedicated (April). 

Section of CENTO Turkey-Iran Road between 
Sivelan (Turkey) and Rczaiyeh (Iran) officially 
dedicated (June). 


ORGANIZATION 


THE COUNCIL 

Ministerial Level: Meets normally once each year in 
rotation at CENTO country capitals. Attended by Prime 
Ministers, Foreign Ministers or senior Cabinet Ministers. 

Deputies Level: Meets fortnightly in Ankara under 
permanent Chairmanship of the Secretary-General. 
Attended by Ambassadors resident in Ankara, and a senior 
representative from the Turkish Ministry of Foreign 
Auairs. The United Slates is represented at the Council 
m '—sings, both at Ministerial and Deputy level, by an 
ob‘-rvcr nltn participates fully in the discussions. 


COMMITTEES OF THE COUNCIL 
Military Committee: Each country is usually represented 
by its Chief-of-Staff or Commander-in-Chief; makes recom- 
mendations to the Council on strengthening of military 
security and on co-operation in defence. 

Permanent Military Deputies Group: Compered of 
officers of the equivalent rank of Lt.-Gen. from each of 
the five CENTO countries; permanently established in 
Ankara: held its first meeting on January 4th, jc/'O; Chair. 
(1067) Lt.-Gen. Ghoi..\?.!ri:7\ Azh.mm (Iran). 

Counter-Subversion Committee: Advise*, how rubverrion 
in the region can best be countered. 

11 



CENTRAL TREATY ORGANISATION 


Liaison Committee: Facilitates exchange of information 
on questions of security. 

Economic Committee: Consists of Ministers or senior 
officials; advises on economic co-operation; has Sub- 
Committees on Communications and Public Works; Trade 
and Economics; Agriculture, Animal Production and 
Animal Health; Health. 

Council tor Scientific Education and Research: Consists 
of one representative from each country; exercises general 
control over the scientific and technical policies of CENTO; 
also directs the CENTO Institute for Nuclear and Applied 
Science. 

COMBINED MILITARY PLANNING STAFF 

Chief-of -Staff: Maj.-Gen. F. W. Boye, Jr. (United States); 
has international staff of officers from all three services 


of the five member nations of the Military Committee; 
has Intelligence Division, Plans, Training- and Opera- 
tions Division, and Logistics Division; performs all 
duties normally assigned to a high-level military 
planning unit. 


TRAINING AND RESEARCH INSTITUTES 
CENTO Agricultural Machinery and Soil Conservation 
Training Centre: Kata), Iran; opened July 1961. 

CENTO Institute of Animal Reproduction: Set up 1961 
at Malir, West Pakistan, with equipment and an Adviser 
provided by the United Kingdom. 

Regional Research Centre for Virus Diseases: f. 1962 at 
the Razi Institute in Teheran with equipment valued at 
£50,000 supplied by the United Kingdom. 


SECRETARIAT 

Eski Meclis, Ankara, Turkey 

Secretary-General: H.E. Turgut Menemencioglu (Tur- 
key). The Secretariat is divided into four divisions: 
Political and Administration, Economic, Public Rela- 
tions, and Security Organization. 


ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME 


Pakistan-Iran road link joining Karachi, Lasbella, Quetta, 
Zahidan, and Kerman in progress. 

Pakistan-Iran road link joining Lasbella, Pishin and 
Bandar Abbas under construction or being surveyed. 

Turkey-Iran road link joining Sivelan, Bajirge, Rezaiyeh 
and Tabriz-Teheran Main Road at Zanjan under con- 
struction. 

Turkey-Iran road link joining Cizre, Hakkari and Sivelan 
under construction and scheduled to be completed by 
the end of 1967. 

Turkey-Iran rail link joining Mu$, Tatvan, Khoi and 
Tabriz under construction. Mu$-Tatvan section 
completed 1964; remainder scheduled for completion 
by 1968. 

Pakistan-Iran rail fink joining Zahidan and Kashan. 

Development of the ports of Trabzon and Iskenderun; 
Trabzon project completed in 1963. 

CENTO Airway; U.S.A. has granted $6.3 million and 
United Kingdom £200,000 towards improved naviga- 
tional and other aids for regional air traffic. 

High-frequency' radio telecommunication finks between 
London and key regional stations, i.e. Istanbul, 
Ankara, Teheran, Karachi and Dacca, first stage 
completed in 1964. 

Ankara-Teheran-Karachi microwave links project (for 
which the U.S.A. has committed $18,370,000) involving 


88 relay stations and 13 air navigation stations, opened 
1965, completed 1966. 

Development of public health in the CENTO region — 
eradication of malaria, control of smallpox, teaching 
of preventive medicine, environmental sanitation, 
hospital administration, health education, etc. 

Scientific co-operation — development of science and tech- 
nology and the peaceful uses of atomic energy. CENTO 
Institute for Nuclear and Applied Science provides 
courses and undertakes research. 

Agriculture: increased production, development policy, 
banking and credit, forestry', pest control, land classifi- 
cation and soil survey. 

Animal production and health: improved annual breeding 
and control of virus and parasitic diseases of livestock. 

Training facilities provided at: CENTO Agricultural 
Machinery and Soil Conservation Training Centre, 
Karaj, Iran; Regional Research Centre for Virus 
Diseases, Teheran, Iran. 

Technical Assistance Programme: training fellowships, 
visits and tours of experts, working and travelling 
seminars and conference of experts. 

BUDGET 

(1966-67) 

U.S. ?i,ooo,ooo (approx.) 


112 


CENTRAL TREATY ORGANISATION 


PACT OF THE CENTRAL TREATY ORGANISATION 

(February 24th, 1955) 


Article 1 

Consistent with Article 51 of the United Nations 
Charter the High Contracting Parties will co-operate for 
their security and defence. Such measures as they agree to 
take to give effect to this co-operation may form the subject 
of special agreement with each other. 

Article 2 

In order to ensure the realization and effectapplica tion 
of the co-operation provided for in Article 1 above, the 
competent authorities of the High Contracting Parties 
will determine the measures to be taken as soon as the 
present Pact enters into force. These measures will become 
operative as soon as they have been approved by the 
Governments of the High Contracting Parties. 

Article 3 

The High Contracting Parties undertake to refrain from 
any interference whatsoever in each other’s internal 
affairs. They will settle any dispute between themselves in 
a peaceful way in accordance with the United Nations 
Charter. 

Article 4 

The High Contracting Parties declare that the disposi- 
tions of the present Pact are not in contradiction with any 
of the international obligations contracted by either of 
them with any third state or states. They do not derogate 
from, and cannot be interpreted as derogating from, the 
said international obligations. The High Contracting 
Parties undertake not to enter into any international 
obligation incompatible with the present Pact. 

Article 5 

This Pact shall be open for accession to any member state 
of the Arab League or any other state actively concerned 
with tire security' and peace in this region which is fully 


recognized by both of the High Contracting Parties. 
Accession shall come into force from the date of which the 
instrument of accession of the state concerned is deposited 
with the Ministry' of Foreign Affairs of Iraq. 

Any' acceding State Party to the present Pact, may con- 
clude special agreements, in accordance with Article 1, 
with one or more states Parties to the present Pact. The 
competent authority of any acceding State may determine 
measures in accordance with Article 2. These measures 
will become operative as soon as they' have been approved 
by the Governments of the Parties concerned. 

Article 6 

A Permanent Council at Ministerial level will be set up 
to function within the framework of the purposes of this 
Pact when at least four Powers become parties to the Pact. 

The Council will draw up its own rules of procedure. 

Article 7 

This Pact remains in force for a period of five years 
renewable for other five-year periods. Any Contracting 
Party may withdraw from the Pact by notifying the other 
parties in writing of its desire to do so, six months before 
the expiration of any of the above mentioned periods, in 
which case the Pact remains valid for the other Parties. 


Article 8 

This Pact shall be ratified by the Contracting Parties 
and ratifications shall be exchanged at Ankara as soon as 
possible. Thereafter it shall come into force from the date 
of the exchange of ratifications. The three texts of the Pact 
in Arabic, Turkish and English are equally authentic 
except in the case of doubt when the English text shall 
prevail. 


113 


THE COLOMBO PLAN FOR CO-OPERATIVE 
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AND 

SOUTH-EAST ASIA 


12 Melbourne Avenue, P.0. Box 596, Colombo, Ceylon 


Set up in low bv the British Commonwealth and subsequently joined by South-East Asian countries, Japan 

and the United States. 


Afghanistan 

Bhutan 

Burma 

Cambodia 

Ceylon 

India 


MEMBERS 

Within the Area 

Indonesia 

Iran 

Korean Republic 
Laos 

Maidive Islands 
Malaysia 


Nepal 

Pakistan 

Philippines 

Singapore 

Thailand 

Viet-Namese Republic 


Australia 

Canada 


Outside the Area 
Japan 

New Zealand 


United Kingdom 
United States 


OBSERVERS 


Asia Productivity Organisation 

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development 
(World Bank) 

United Nations Economic Commission for Asia and the 
Far East (ECAFE) 


United Nations Development Programme 
Commonwealth Secretariat 
International Labour Organization 
Asian Development Bank 


ORGANIZATION 


THE CONSULTATIVE COMMITTEE 

The Consultative Committee, consisting of representa- 
tives of member governments at Ministerial level, is the 
senior directing body of the Colombo Plan. It meets once a 
year, in different countries. Reports submitted by member 
countries are discussed and the Committee provides the 
central co-ordinating body for Capital Aid and Technical 
Co-operation Schemes. All members take part on equal 
terms and the meetings are attended by representatives of 
the Observers (above) and the Colombo Plan Bureau in 
an advisory capacity. 


THE COUNCIL FOR TECHNICAL CO-OPERATION 
IN SOUTH AND SOUTH-EAST ASIA 

President: H.E. Wunna Kyaw Htin Sao Boonwat 
(Burma) (to Feb. 1968). 

The Colombo Plan Council for Technical Co-operation, 
which holds sessions in Colombo several times a year is a 
forum for consultation on the general principles within 
which Technical Co-operation operates, subject to the 
general direction of the Consultative Committee. It serves 
as a co-ordinating and receiving body. It has also been 
charged by the Consultative Committee with the responsi- 
bilities of carrying out information activities on the 
Colombo Plan as a whole. It is composed of representatives 
of Member Governments, who are generally their diplo- 
matic representatives in Colombo, but at times from 
representatives sent for that purpose. The executive arm 
of the Council is the Colombo Plan Bureau. 


THE COLOMBO PLAN BUREAU 


Director: D. A. Strachan (United States). 

Adyiscr on Intra-Rcgional Training: (Vacant). 

Information Officer: John Senduk (Indonesia). 

Asst. Information Officer: L. P. Goonetilleke (Ceylon). 

The functions of the Bureau are: 

1. To assist the Council in overseeing the general opera- 
tion of Technical Co-operation under the Colombo 
Plan. 


2. To keep records of technical assistance given and 
received under bilateral agreements. 

3. To keep member governments informed of the 
training facilities, experts and equipment available. 

4. To promote fuller utilization of training facilities 

within the area at technician level. s? 

5. To promote the supply of information abowy 
Colombo Plan as a whole. 

6. To issue progress reports and statistics. 

7. To maintain a record of capitr^U • 


114 



THE COLOMBO PLAN 

GO -OPERATION AND CAPITAL 


FORMS OF CO-OPERATION 

By the supply of experts and the provision of technical 
training to students from South and South-East Asia and 
the supply of special equipment for training and research. 

From 1950 to June 1967, 48,440 students had received 
technical training and 10,024 experts and equipment to 
the value of /111.4 million had been provided. 

During 1966-67, 5,956 students received training: 1,453 
experts were sent out; value of equipment supplied /12.3 


million; total value of co-operation activities from the 
inception of the Plan to June 1967 over £316.7 million, of 
which 20 per cent was spent on trainees, 49 per cent on 
experts and advisers and the remainder on technical 
equipment. 

The United States is the largest donor of training places 
(44 per cent} while India is both the largest donor in the 
development area and the largest recipient of aid. 


TECHNICAL AID 
LC Sterling) 


Supplying 

Country 

1966-67 

Trainees 

Experts 

Equipment 

Total 

Australia . 

L449.395 

297o s 7 

47L456 

2,2iS,43S 

Burma 

329 

— 

— 

329 

Canada 

L339,oi7 

641,271 

X 

J 

r,gSo,28S 

Ceylon 

2,284 

— 

— 

2,284 

India 

141,125 

19,892 

142, Soo 

303.S17 

Japan 

43L544 

858,470 

320,687 

1,610,701 

Korea 

897 

— 

— 

S97 

Malaysia . 

1,167 

— 

— 

1,167 

New Zealand 

315.420 

144.055 

291 

459.766 

Pakistan . 

12,158 

121 

65 

12.344 

Philippines 

4i9 

— 

— 

419 

Singapore . 

10,062 

— 

— 

10,062 

United Kingdom* 

888.257 

1,271,74s 

293.237 

2.453,242 

United States 

2,892,987 

25.130.668 

11.069.S07 

39,093,462 

Total . 

7.485,061 

28, 363,812 

12,298,743 

48,147,216 


* Excluding aid given under the Colonial Development 
and Welfare Acts and for Educational Co-operation in the 
Commonwealth. 

) Counted as Capital Aid. 


DEVELOPMENT EXPENDITURE 


(dollar equivalent per capita) 


Country 

I 964-65 

1965 - 1 ". 

Afghanistan 

7.19 

7*65 

Bhutan 

6.50 

8. 32 

Burma 

5 - 4 ° 

7.00 

Cambodia . 

15-51 

14-52 

Ceylon 

9.01 

10.34 

India . 

11.66 

14.03 

Indonesia . 

4.40 


Korea (Republic) 

22.79 

26.91 

Laos . 

n.a. 

n.a. 

Maidive Islands . 

n.a. 

n.a. 

Malavsia 

20. 4S 

20 . Sc 

Nepal 

4 .So 

5-00 

Pakistan 

7-45 

0.25 

Philippines . 

5-09 

5.22 

Thailand 

1 7 .87 

21 .OO 

Vict-Nam 

(Republic) 

6.97 

I I . 20 


TOTAL CAPITAL AND TECHNICAL AID, 1951-1967 


. 

... 

Millions 

Australia ...... 

AS19G.9 

Canada ...... 

? 93 ° 

India ...... 

Rs. 2S.q f 

Japan 

140,307 ven 

New Zealand ..... 

NZ$29. oSt 

United Kingdom .... 

/420 

1 nited States ..... 

819 . 47 ° 

IBRD and IDA 

82,338 


* Technical Aid only, 
j The former /X Z is now worth NZ$2. 


; Capital aid takes the form of grants and loans for national 
projects; commodities included foodgrains, fertilisers, con- 
. sumcr goods, machinery and equipment. 

From 1050 to 1967 external assistance from the nnin 
group of donor countries (comprising Australia. Canada. 
Japan, New Zealand, U.K., and U.S.A.) amounted to 
approximately $22,600 million, including capital aid 
commodities. 

During 1966-67 aid to the value of $2,800 million 
received. 


PUBLICATIONS 


I ht Colombo Plan (monthly broadsheet). 

Annual Report of the Consultative Committer. 

Annua! Report of the Council for Technical Co-operation. 
Progte re of the Colombo Plan (annually) 1 <157-0,) , 1966). 

T he Colombo Plan Storv 1961. 

Change in Asia — 1963. 

II hat the Colombo Plane (1067). 


! Report on Training Facilities at the Technician Leul in 
South and South-Far! Asia. 

Handbook of Training Facilities a! the Technician Le;e! in 
j South and South-Fast Aria. 

| Unique Experiment in . Mutual Assistance 1963. 

! Commemorative Iloohlc! 1002, 1963. li.O;, 10V.. ji/,7. 
j Horizons Xcuveaur (French). 

1 Colombo Plan Calendar (1965, 1967. 1 



COLUMBIA RIVER TREATY 

Provides for increased power generation and flood control in the Columbia River basin. 


SIGNATORIES 

Canada U.S.A. 


ORGANIZATION 


Canada: Canadian Entity: c/o British Columbia Hydro and 
Power Authority, 970 Burrard St., Vancouver 1, 
British Columbia; responsible for the representation of 
Canadian interests in the implementation of the Treaty, 
and for the construction and operation of the three 
treaty projects; Chair. Dr. H. L. Keenleyside. 

U.S.A. : United States Entity: c/o Bonneville Power 
Administration, P.O.B. 3621, Portland, Oregon 97208; 
responsible for U.S. interests in the operation of the 
treaty provisions; Acting Chair. Henry R. Richmond. 
Columbia Storage Power Exchange: P.O.B. 1709, East 
Wenatchee, Washington; a non-profit corporation 
organized in 1964 to act as the single purchaser of the 
Canadian Entitlement to downstream power benefits 
of the Columbia River scheme; represents over forty 
bodies in the northwest U.S.A. 


Joint Bodies: Permanent Engineering Board: composed of 
four representatives, two from each country; keeps 
under surveillance progress of the treaty projects; 
reports on any deviation from operation plans; assists, 
if requested, in reconciling technical or operational 
differences that may arise between the Entities. 
International Joint Commission: differences arising 
under the Columbia River Treaty which Canada and 
the United States of America cannot solve may be 
referred by either to the International Joint Commis- 
sion for decision. This Commission, established under 
a Britain-United States treaty signed January nth, 
1909, and ratified by Canada in 1911, is composed of 
six members (three appointed by the President of the 
United States and three by the Government of Canada). 
The Commission reports to the Secretary of State for 
External Affairs of Canada and to the Secretary of 
State of the United States. 


THE COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN 


The Columbia River flows 498 miles from its source in 
British Columbia to the Canadian-U.S. border and a 
further 745 miles through northwestern U.S.A. to the 
Pacific. With its tributaries, of which the Snake and 
Kootenay rivers are the largest, it drains an area of 259,000 
square miles. Of this total, 85 per cent is in the U.S.A. 
The basin’s annual discharge of 180 million acre feet, the 
fast flow, and the steep descent from the Rocky mountains 
to sea level, combine to create the greatest hydro-electric 
potential in North America. Eleven main stream dams 
have been built on the United States section of river, six by 
federal and five by non-federal U.S. agencies. Until the 
commencement of the Columbia Treaty projects no dams 
had been built on the Canadian section. The extreme 
seasonal variations of the flow had, therefore, consistently 
caused flooding during the period of maximum flow in 
late spring and early summer and a shortage of power 
during the period of minimum flow in autumn and winter. 
The Treaty provides for the construction of three storage 
dams in British Columbia to eliminate this flooding and 
improve tire flow of the river, enabling the eleven down- 
stream dams in the U.S.A. to produce an additional 
capacity of 2.S million kilowatts as well as protecting life 
and property from annual flooding. The total power 
potential of the Columbia basin within Canada after 
development will amount to 4.4 million kilowatts, one-fifth 
of the present total hydro-electric capacffy of Canada. 


In 1944. the Governments of Canada and the U.S.A. 
requested the International Joint Commission to deter- 
mine whether the development of the water resources of 
the Columbia River basin would be practical and ad- 
vantageous to both countries. The International Joint 
Commission established the International Columbia River 
Engineering Board to undertake these investigations, and 
the Board submitted its report in 1959 indicating suitable 
sites for the construction of storage reservoirs. Also in 
*959. the Commission submitted a special report recom- 
mending the principles for calculation and apportionment 
of benefits that would result from the co-operative develop- 
ment of the basin. During i960 and 1961 direct negotiations 
were conducted between the Governments of Canada and 
the U.S.A. concerning the selection, construction and co- 
operative use of specific projects. These negotiations led 
to the signing of the Treaty in January 1961. Canada con- 
cluded agreements in 1963 and 1964 with British Columbia 
(tire owner of the Canadian water resources) on the 
respective responsibilities of each government in the 
development of the Columbia River. International 
negotiations continued until January 1964, when Canada 
and the U.S.A. approved an important protocol, which 
modified the 1961 Treaty and in addition confirmed the 
sale for thirty years of the Canadian Entitlement to 
downstream power benefits. 


116 



COLUMBIA RIVER TREATY 


PROJECTS 


Three storage dams to be built in Canada: 

Duncan Darn: on Duncan River; completed July 31st, 
1967; Storage 1.4 million acre feet. 

Arrow Dam: on Columbia River; to be completed by 
April ist, 1969; Storage 7.1 million acre feet. 

Mica Dam: on Columbia River; to be completed by 
April ist, 1973; Storage 12 million acre feet; ultimate 
generating capacity 2 million kilowatts; generating plants 


will also be built downstream from Mica at Downio, 
Revelstoke and Murphy, with a combined capacity of 
1.9 million kilowatts. 

The U.S.A. has exercised the option to build one storage 
dam: 

Libby Dam: on Kootenai River; to be completed by 
1974; Storage 5 million acre feet; Capacity 840,000 kilowatts. 


FINANCE 


The three Canadian dams are financed by revenue from 
the U.S.A., derived as follows: 

Canadian Entitlement Purchase: Canada sold, for a 
period of thirty years from the completion of each project, 
her half-share of the additional downstream power pro- 
duced by the treaty projects. The sum of $253.9 million in 
U.S. funds received from the sale was transferred by 


Canada to the Government of British Columbia to be used 
for constructing the three dams. 

Flood Control Benefits: As the storage reservoirs come 
into operation, U.S.A. will pay Canada a total of $64.4 
million in U.S. funds for flood control benefits, and 
additional amounts if further flood control is required. 


COLUMBIA RIVER TREATY 

Signed January 1961 and ratified September 1964. 


Article I. Interpretation: technical terminology'. 

Article II. Development by Canada: 15.5 million acre 
feet of storage to be provided by Canada. 

Article III. Development by the United States of 
America Respecting Power. 

Article IV. Operation by Canada: Canada to operate 
storage for sixty years, and to operate additional storage 
when requested. 

Article V. Entitlement to Downstream Power Benefits: 
Canada entitled to half these benefits. 

Article VI. Payment for Flood Control. 

Articles VII, VIII, IX. Downstream Power Benefits: 
Determination, Disposal, Variation. 

Article X. East-West Standby Transmission: Canadian 
costs. 

Article XI. Use of Improved Stream Flow. 

Article XII. Kootenai River Development: U.S.A. 
given option to build Libby Dam; each country to retain 
benefits accruing from this dam. 

Article XIII. Diversions: limitation of diversion of 
waters that alters the flow within the Columbia River 
basin at the U.S.-Canadian border. 


Article XIV. Arrangements for Implementation: 
U.S.A. and Canada each to designate entities to formulate 
and carry out the operating arrangements. 

Article XV. Permanent Engineering Board. 

Article XVI. Settlement of Differences: differences to 
be referred to the International Joint Commission, and 
after three months to a tribunal of three members; 
decisions of either body to be definitive and binding. 

Article XVII. Restoration of Pre-Treaty Legal Status: 
upon termination of the Treaty, the Boundary Waters 
Treaty, 1909, shall apply to the Columbia River basin. 

Article XVIII. Liability for Damage. 

Article XIX. Period of Treaty: Treaty to remain in 
force at least sixty years. 

Article XX. Ratification. 

Article XXL Registration with the United Nations. 

PROTOCOLS 
Signed January 1964. 

Modify and clarify technical provisions and contain 
terms of the sale of Canada's entitlement to downstream 
power benefits. 



THE COMMONWEALTH 


Her Majesty’s Dominions of the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Ceylon, Sierra Leone, Jamaica, 
Trinidad and Tobago, Malta, Gambia, Barbados, Guyana, Mauritius and all Dependent Territories. 

Territories under Her Majesty’s protection — Protectorates and Protected States. 

The Republics of India, Pakistan, Ghana, Cyprus, Tanzania, Nigeria, Uganda, Zambia, Kenya, Singapore, 

Malawi, Botswana. 

Independent Monarchies: The Federation of Malaysia, Kingdom of Lesotho. 


INDEPENDENT COMMONWEALTH COUNTRIES 



Area 
( sq. miles) 

Population 

Date of 
Independence 

United Kingdom 

94.205 

53,813,100 



Canada ..... 

3,851,809 

19,919,000 

1867 

Australia .... 

2 . 967 .Q 0 Q 

11,544,691 

1900 

New Guinea .... 

92,160 

1,582,439 


Papua ..... 

86,100 

600,597 


Christmas Island . 

64 

3 , 38 i 


Norfolk Islands 

13 

1,142 


Cocos Islands 

5 

684 


New Zealand .... 

103,736 

2,676,919 

IQOI 

Island Territories . 

194 

26,059 


India ..... 

1,127,345 

487,000,000 

Aug. 15, 1947 

Sikkim .... 

2,828 

161,080 


Pakistan ..... 

365,529 

94,601,000 

Aug. 15, 1947 

Ceylon ..... 

25,332 

11,232,000 

Feb. 4, 1948 

Ghana ..... 

91,843 

7,945,000 

Mar. 6, 1957 

Cyprus ..... 

3,572 

600,000 

Aug. 16, i960 

Nigeria ..... 

365,669 

55,670,000 

Oct. i, i960 

Sierra Leone .... 

27.925 

2,183,000 

April 27, 1961 

Tanzania .... 

363,708 

10,179,000 

Dec. 9, 1961 

Jamaica ..... 

4,244 

1,839,094 

Aug. 5, 19&2 

Trinidad and Tobago 

1,980 

974,000 

Aug. 31, 1962 

Uganda ..... 

91,076 

7,740,000 

Oct. 9, 1962 - 

Malaysia ..... 

128,338 

9,558,000 

Sept. 16, 1963 

Kenya ..... 

224,960 

9,643,000 

Dec. 12, 1963 

Malawi ..... 

36,897 

4 , 042,412 

July 6, 1964 

Malta ..... 

12 1 

323,591 

Sept. 21, 1964 

Zambia ..... 

228,130 

3,780,000 

Oct. 24, 1964 

Gambia ..... 

4.003 

315,486 

Feb. 18, 1965 

Singapore .... 

224 

1,913,500 

Oct. 16, 1965 

Guyana ..... 

83,000 

654.716 

May 26, 1966 

Botswana .... 

220,000 

543,105 

Sept. 30, 1966 

Lesotho ..... 

11,716 

976,000 

Oct. 4, 1966 

Barbados .... 

166 

245.352 

Nov. 30, 1966 

Mauritius .... 

S08 

75 i, 4 oo 

Mar. 12, 1968 


It has not yet been decided (February, 1968) whether Western Samoa and Nauru are to become members of the 

Commonwealth. 


IIS 




THE COMMONWEALTH 


DEPENDENT TERRITORIES 



Form of 
Government 

Area 
( sq. miles) 

Population 

Central A frica: 




Rhodesia (Southern) 

Colony with special 
status 

150,820 

4,457,000 

Southern Africa: 




Swaziland .... 

Protectorate 

6,704 

390,000 

Far East: 




Brunei .... 

Protected State 

2,226 

100,000 

Hong Kong . 

Colony and Leased 
Territories 

398 

3,698,400 

Indian Ocean: 




British Indian Ocean Territory 

Colony 

150-200 

1,500 

Seychelles .... 

Colony 

156 

47,424 

Mediterranean: 




Gibraltar .... 

Colony 

2 

25,270 

Atlantic Ocean: 




British Antarctic Territory 

Colony 

472,000 

24* 

Falkland Islands . 

Colony 

4,700 

2,140 

Falkland Islands Dependencies 

Dependency 

1,520 

IS 2 

St. Helena .... 

Colony 

47 

CO 

0 

Ascension .... 


34 

Tristan da Cunha 


38 

265 

IPcsi Indies and Bermuda: 




Bahamas .... 

Colony 

5,36s 

138,107 

Bermuda .... 

Colony 

21 

48,799 

British Honduras . 

Colony 

S ,866 

100,504 

British Virgin Islands . 

Colony 

67 

8,600 

Cayman Islands 

Colony 

100 

S.S53 

Leeward Islands: 


Antigua .... 

Associated State 

171 

60,000 

Montserrat 

Colony 

39 

13.855 

St. Christopher, Nevis, 



Anguilla 

Associated State 

138 

50,000 

Turlis and Caicos Islands 

Colony 

166 

6,770 

Windward Islands: 


Dominica .... 

Associated State 

305 

66,000 

Grenada .... 

Associated State 

133 

03,000 

St. Lucia .... 

Associated State 

238 

100,000 

St. Vincent 

Associated State 

150 

87,000 

Western Pacific: 




Fiji 

Colony 

7,095 

469,934 

Pitcairn Islands 

Colony 

2 

98 

Western Pacific High Commis- 
sion: 



British Solomon Islands 

Protectorate 

11,500 

139,730 

Gilbert and Ellice Islands . 

Colony 

369 

49.600 

New Hebrides 

Anglo-French 

Condominium 

5.700 

66.000 

Tonga ..... 

Protected State 

270 

73.729 


* Temporary Base personnel. 


110 


THE COMMONWEALTH 


CONSTITUTIONAL RELATIONS 


The Commonwealth has no written constitution. The 
relationship between its members is to some extent defined 
by legislation, notably the Statute of Westminster, but 
for the most part rests on agreed constitutional conven- 
tions. The Commonwealth is not a federation, for there is 
no central government, nor are there any rigid contractual 
obligations such as bind the members of the United Nations. 
Membership is granted only by consent of all the members 
and the right of secession is implicit. 

At the Imperial Conference of 1926, Commonwealth 
countries were described in what came to be known as the 
"Balfour formula” as "Autonomous communities within 
the British Empire, equal in status, in no way subordinate 
one to another in any aspect of their domestic or external 
affairs”. This principle was legally formulated in the 
Statute of Westminster of 1931 which gave effect to this 
fully independent status of the Dominions in relation to 
Great Britain and, by implication, in relation to each 
other. 

The citizens of the states of India, Pakistan, Ghana, 
Cyprus, Tanzania, Nigeria, Uganda, Zambia, Kenya, 
Singapore, Malawi and Botswana, which are Republics 
with a President as Head of State, do not owe allegiance to 
the Crown, but accept the Queen as the symbol of the free 
association of the independent member nations of the 
Commonwealth and, as such, Head of the Commonwealth. 
Malaysia and Lesotho have their own monarchs but 
recognize the Queen as Head of the Commonwealth. 

The other member countries of the Commonwealth 
owing allegiance to the Crown are administered by their 
own governments, in the name of the Crown, and the 
Queen is represented by Govemors-General appointed by 
her on the advice of the Ministers of the country con- 
cerned. The Governor-General acts in accordance with the 
constitutional practice obtaining in the country to which 
he is appointed in regard to the exercise of the powers of 
the Crown, and is wholly independent of the Government 
of the United Kingdom. In all essential respects, he holds 
the same position in relation to the administration of 
public affairs in the country to which he is appointed as 
the Queen holds in the United Kingdom. 

In 1967, the six islands of Antigua, St. Christopher- 
Nevis-Anguilla, Dominica, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and 


Grenada achieved the status of Associated States within 
the Commonwealth. The Queen remains the Head of State 
in these territories, represented in each country. There is a 
British Commissioner for the region to represent British 
interests. Britain retains responsibility for defence and 
foreign relations, but each territory is wholly responsible 
for internal affairs, can amend its own constitution, and 
both Britain and the Associated States can terminate the 
association unilaterclly. (See chapter: West Indies Associa- 
ted States.) 

The following countries have left the Commonwealth on 
becoming independent: Burma (1947), Eire (1949), Sudan 
(1956), British Somaliland (in i960, when it formed the 
Somali Republic together with the former UN Trust 
Territory of Italian Somaliland), Southern Cameroons (in 
1961, when it joined the French Cameroons to form the 
Eederal Republic of Cameroon), the Maidive Islands (1963, 
on ceasing to become a protected state). The Union of 
South Africa became a republic in May 1961 and ceased to 
be a member of the Commonwealth after the Prime 
Ministers’ Meeting of March 1961 which was largely con- 
cerned with the Union’s racial policies. 

Independent member countries of the Commonwealth 
make their own laws, decide their own policies, negotiate 
and sign their own treaties, decide for themselves the 
issues of peace and war, and maintain their own diplo- 
matic representation in foreign countries, who in turn 
accredit representatives separately and independently. 
Governments of member countries are represented in 
other Commonwealth countries by High Commissioners 
who have a status equivalent to Ambassadors. 

The Commonwealth is bound by a complex system of 
consultation and co-operation in political, economic, 
educational, scientific and cultural fields, operating 
through a multitude of Commonwealth organizations, 
through continuous personal contacts, and through the 
periodic Commonwealth Prime Ministers’ Meetings. Until 
recently it has had no formal institutional expression but 
the Prime Ministers’ Meeting in 1964 promoted the 
establishment of a Commonwealth Secretariat to foster 
closer and more informed understanding between their 
governments. 


120 



THE COMMONWEALTH 


PRIME MINISTERS’ MEETINGS 

Succeeded the Colonial Conferences 1887—1907 and the Imperial Conferences 1911-37. 


1944 May First Meeting of new series of Common- 

wealth Conferences. United Kingdom, 
Australia, Canada, Now Zealand, South 
Africa represented. India and Southern 
Rhodesia attended some sessions. 

1946 April-May Second Meeting. 

1948 October Ceylon, India and Pakistan represented. 

1949 April Decision to continue India's member- 

ship as a Republic recognizing the 
Sovereign as Head of the Common- 
wealth. 

1951 January Fifth Meeting. 

1953 June Sixth Meeting (following the Coronation 
of Queen Elizabeth II). 

1955 January- 

Fcbruary Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland 
represented. 

195C June-July Eighth Meeting. 

1957 June-July Ghana represented. 

1960 May Federation of Malaya represented. 

1961 March Cyprus and Nigeria represented. Dis- 

cussion of South Africa’s position in 
a multi-racial Commonwealth. South 
Africa withdrew from membership. 

10G2 September Jamaica, Sierra Leone, Tanganyika 
and Trinidad and Tobago represented. 
Discussion of United Kingdom’s appli- 
cation to join the European Economic 


Community. (Barbados, British Guiana, 
Hong Kong, Kenya, Malta, Mauritius, 
Singapore and Uganda attended some 
sessions.) 

1964 July Kenya, Malawi and Uganda repre- 

sented. 

1965 June Malta, Zambia and Gambia repre- 

sented. Commonwealth Secretariat 
established. Discussions on Rhodesia. 

1966 January Lagos meeting on Rhodesia. Nineteen 

countries represented. Two special 
committees established: one on sanc- 
tions against Rhodesia and the special 
needs of Zambia, the other on the 
training of Rhodesian Africans. 

1966 September Guyana represented. Special statement 
issued defining Commonwealth attitude 
to Rhodesia. 

Meetings are private and informal with no agenda 
prepared in advance. There are no permanent rules for 
procedure. Many smaller meetings take place following 
the first full session, at which a broad conference agenda 
is drawn up. A final communiqufi is issued, but decisions 
are not normally taken except in matters of immediate 
constitutional importance, such as membership. All 
meetings, except that held in January 1966. have taken 
place in London. 


COMMONWEALTH SECRETARIAT 

Marlborough House, London, S.W.i. 


Established July, 1965, to enable Commonwealth 
countries to exchange opinions in an informal atmosphere. 

The Secretariat exercises its main functions under the 
following headings: International Affairs, Economic 
Affairs, and Administrative duties. The tasks of the 
organisation include the dissemination of information to 
member countries on political, economic, social and 
cultural questions of common concern. The main adminis- 
trative function is the servicing of future meetings of 
Commonwealth Heads of Government and, where appro- 
priate, other Ministerial and official meetings. It has no 
executive functions. 

1 he cost of the Secretariat is borne by Commonwealth 
Governments in agreed shares based on the UN formula. 

A finance Committee composed of Commonwealth High 
Commissioners and a representative of the British Govern- 
ment recommended a budget for 1966-67 of Zero, 210. 

* he Secretariat is staffed from member countries and 
the Secretary-General is appointed by the Prime Ministers 
for a period of five years. 

Secretary-General: Anxoi.n C.. Smith (Canada). 

Deputy Sccrctarics-Gcncral: A. I.. A nr (Ghana), T. E. j 

Gooncc.'.tn'i: (Ceylon). 

Economic Consultant: Sir Eivwin McCauthv. 

Special Assistants: G. Hensley, M. Wilson. 1 


Genera! Economic Division 
Director: N. C. Sex Gupta. 

Assistant Director: D. R. Clark. 

Commodities Division 
Director: C. G. Cruickshank. 

Education Division 

Assistant Secretary-General: Dr. II. W. Springer. 
Director: L. M. Graham. 

International Affairs Division 
Director: T. W. Aston. 

Assistant Director: E. C. Anyaoku. 

Administration Affairs Division 
Director: M. Rahman. 

MARLBOROUGH HOUSE 

Marilmrough House came into tme as a Commonwealth 
centre in 1962, to serve as a centre for Commonwealth 
meetings in London. In addition to the Secretariat, it 
houses a reference library, offices for Prime Ministers, and 
their accompanying delegations am! stabs, (he Common- 
wealth Foundation, the Commonwealth Education l.'.’-Fon 
Unit and an Information Centre and Press Cotsbrcucr 
Room. 



THE COMMONWEALTH 


COMMONWEALTH OFFICE 

Downing Street, London S.W.i, England 


Formed August 1966 by the merging of the Colonial 
Office and the Commonwealth Relations Office, the 
Commonwealth Office advises the Secretary of State for 
Commonwealth Affairs on all aspects of Commonwealth 
relations. It communicates on his behalf with other 
Commonwealth Governments and with the Common- 
wealth Secretariat, keeps in touch with and advises other 
United Kingdom Government departments on Common- 
wealth policy, provides information to the British press 
and public about Commonwealth activities, and deals 
generally with matters affecting members of the Common- 
wealth both as a group and as individuals. 

The Commonwealth Office co-operates closely with other 
departments, particularly the Foreign Office and the 


Ministry of Overseas Development, in discharging its 
responsibilities in those dependent territories in the 
Commonwealth for which the United Kingdom is still 
responsible. Each of these territories has its own admini- 
stration, but the British Government is finally responsible 
for their good government and for their relations with 
other countries. 

Relations with Rhodesia and the Maidive Islands are 
also the responsibility of the Secretary of State for Com- 
monwealth Affairs, as are relations with the Republic of 
Ireland which, although not a Commonwealth country, is 
for most purposes not treated as a foreign country. 
Secretary of State for Commonwealth Affairs: The Rt. Hon- 
George Thomson. 


COMMONWEALTH CO-OPERATION 


STERLING AREA 

MEMBERS 


Commonwealth 

United Kingdom and 

Uganda 

Dependent Territories 

Malaysia 

Australia 

Kenya 

New Zealand 

Malawi 

India 

Malta 

Pakistan 

Zambia 

Ceylon 

Gambia 

Ghana 

Singapore 

Nigeria 

Guyana 

Sierra Leone 

Botswana 

Cyprus 

Lesotho 

Tanzania 

Barbados 

Jamaica 

Trinidad and Tobago 

Western Samoa 

N on -Comm on we alth 

South Africa 

Libya 

South West Africa 

Kuwait 

Iceland 

Bahrein 

Irish Republic 

Qatar 

Jordan 

Trucial Oman States 


Note: Canada alone in the Commonwealth is not a member 
of the Sterling Area. Rhodesia’s membership was sus- 
pended in November 1965. Burma withdrew from 
membership in October 1966. 

The Sterling Area consists of those countries whose 
currency exchange rates are fixed in relation to the pound 
sterling and who finance the bulk of their foreign trade in 
sterling. The United Kingdom dependencies have their 
currencies statutorily linked with sterling, and the other 
independent members of the Sterling Area normally hold 


the bulk of their foreign exchange reserves and- a pro- 
portion of their statutory reserves in sterling. Since 
December 1958 sterling has been freely transferable and 
convertible into dollars and in February 1961 it became 
fully convertible under the terms of Article 8 of the 
International Monetary Fund. 

To a large extent the central banks of the member 
countries pool their gold and dollar earnings in London, 
forming a central reserve upon which they draw at need. 

NATIONALITY AND CITIZENSHIP 

In 1947 a Commonwealth Conference agreed on a 
general scheme for defining citizenship, whereby the 
citizens of the United Kingdom and Colonies would be 
treated as one, and every Commonwealth country would 
recognise as British subjects (or Commonwealth citizens) 
both its own citizens and the citizens of other Common- 
wealth countries. Naturalisation of aliens would automatic- 
ally confer the status of British Subject or Commonwealth 
citizen and be recognised throughout the Commonwealth. 
Not every country of the Commonwealth has enacted this 
clause and where action has been taken there have been 
differences in form. 

There is considerable difference between countries in the 
practical effects of possessing common status. In the 
United Kingdom British subjects bold full franchise rights, 
are entitled to membership of both Houses of Parliament 
and the Privy Council and admission to professions closed 
to aliens. In other Commonwealth countries, the rights ot 
a British subject not originally a citizen of that country 
are more limited. Only Canada. Australia (with certain 
exceptions) and New Zealand grant franchise rights. 
Admission to the professions is generally open to all British 
subjects, whether nationals of the country or not. 


122 



THE COMMONWEALTH 


MIGRATION 

Large-scale emigration from the United Kingdom is 
directed mainly towards the older countries of the 
Commonwealth, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. 
Immigration is mainly from the older Dominions, the West 
Indies, Cyprus, India, Pakistan and West Africa. In 1962 
the end to free entry of Commonwealth citizens was brought 
about by the Commonwealth Immigrants Act, which 
restricts entry to those having evidence of employment 
prospects or means to support themselves; restrictions can 
also be imposed on medical or security grounds. There is 
no immigration control over travel from the non-Common- 
v.-ealth country' of Ireland. 

Entry into Canada for United Kingdom citizens, has, 
since 1961, been restricted to those having assured jobs or 
satisfactory prospects of emplovment; for other Common- 
wealth citizens each case is considered on its merits but 
coloured persons must have a sponsor. Australia allows 
unrestricted entry' for United Kingdom citizens; no 
coloured person is permitted to take up permanent 
residence; New Zealand amended her legislation in 1961, so 
that all persons, including United Kingdom subjects, 
require an entry permit. 

RECIPROCAL SOCIAL SECURITY 

No overall scheme of Social Security exists covering the 
whole of the Commonwealth. The following reciprocal 
schemes arc in operation: 

United Kingdom-Australia and United Kingdom-New 
Zealand: old age, widowhood, orphanage, sickness, 
hospitalisation, invalidity and unemployment benefits; 
family allowances. 

United Kingdom-Canada: unemployment and retirement 
benefits; family allowances. 

United Kingdom-Malta: old age, widowhood, orphanage, 
sickness, unemployment and industrial injuries benefits. 

United Kingdom-Cyprus: old age, widowhood, orphanage, 
sickness, maternity', unemployment and death benefits. 

ECONOMICS AND TRADE 

Since 1959 official economic co-operation has been 
co-ordinated in the Commonwealth Economic Consultative 
Council. The Council generally meets at the level of Finance 
Ministers each year before the meetings of the International 
Monetary Fund and the International Bank for Recon- 
struction and Development. In 1966 there was also a 
meeting of the Council at the level of Commonwealth 
• rade Ministers, at which it was decided to instruct the 
Commonwealth Secretariat to explore the feasibility of a 
Commonwealth Market Development Fund to assist 
developing member countries in the technique of export j 
promotion, A conference was accordingly held in Nairobi j 
m May 1967 on co-operation in planning. Commonwealth i 
assistance atul trade promotion. 

A Commonwealth conference on the problems facing the 
tourist industry in member countries was held in Ynlettn in 
Novemlx-r 19O7. 

Economic Coxrr.itr.Ncrs 
"152 London 

105S Montreal (Trade and Economics). ' 


Meetings of Finance Ministers 


1949 

London 

1 959 

London 

I95 2 

London 

i960 

London 

1954 

Sydney’ 

1961 

Accra 

1955 

Istanbul 

1963 

London 

1956 

Washington 

1965 

Jamaica 

1957 

Mont Tremblant, 

1966 

Montreal 


Quebec 

I967 

Port of Spain 


COMMONWEALTH 

PREFERENCE 


Commonwealth Preferenceis asystem of tariff preferences 
operating between most of the Commonwealth territories. 
Preference is granted by' levying a customs duty on all 
imports from foreign countries and a lower rate or none on 
imports from tlie Commonwealth. 

The present system dates from the Imperial Economic 
Conference, Ottawa, 1932. By the 19.57 UN General 
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) existing imperial 
preferences were retained but no new ones were permitted. 
Commonwealth countries have also obtained certain 
exemptions from GATT tariffs. 

In recent years the scope of Commonwealth Preference 
has been reduced by some countries, but it continues to be 
an important trade factor. In 1957 about four-fifths of 
manufactured goods imports from the Commonwealth to 
the United Kingdom enjoyed tariff preference, while in 
1961 about half of United Kingdom exports to the Com- 
monwealth were accorded preference. 

COMMONWEALTH SUGAR AGREEMENT 

An Agreement was concluded in 1951 between the British 
Government and Commonwealth sugar industries and 
exporters, providing for a U.K. commitment to buy 
specified quantities of sugar at prices negotiated as being 
reasonably' remunerative to efficient producers, and for the 
orderly marketing in the U.K., New Zealand and Canada 
of supplies in excess of the negotiated price quotas from 
the exporting countries. 

Exporting countries at present adhering to the Agree- 
ment, which has been extended to the cml of 197.5, are 
Australia, British Honduras, East Africa, Fiji, India. 
Mauritius, Swaziland and the West Indies and Guyana. 
(The Rhodesian quota lias been placed in suspense until 
the return of constitutional rule). 

Talks on the future of the Agreement in the advent of 
Britain joining the European Common Market were held 
in London in June 1967. 

Commonwealth Secretariat Commodities Division: 10 
Carlton House Terrace, London. S.W.i; formerly known 
as the Commonwealth Economic Committee; f. 1925 as 
the Imperial Economic Committee, became official Iwdv 
in 1933 to provide economic and statistical services 011 
subjects affecting Commonwealth production and trade 
as well as to examine and report on any economic ques- 
tions which a member government tnay refer to it; 
Dir. C. G. Crgickshank; pubL. Cctr.ivcJily Sri w- 
(annue.1), JntelU^-r.ct Service Series (quarterly and 
monthly). 

Commonwealth Liaison Committee: f. 1050 u> rupplvnent 

existing inter-governmental channels for information or: 
financial and economic qm stion*. l>w - r.ot f'irmtil.it** 
policy but acts a-, a forum for exchr.nee <-■: rxom/i me 
information and con- idem pmrvu.d- -’wst ('ommon- 



THE COMMONWEALTH 


wealth, development projects. Also carries out statistical 
work for the sterling area. All Commonwealth Govern- 
ments are members of the Committee, and its meetings 
are serviced by the Commonwealth Secretariat. 

ECONOMIC AID 

Official financial aid and technical assistance from the 

United Kingdom to developing countries of the Common- 
wealth is made through the following agencies: 

Ministry of Overseas Development: Eland House, Stag 
Place, London, S.W.i; Establish 1964 to promote the 
progress of the developing countries. Both members and 
non-members of the Commonwealth are assisted. Mini- 
ster of Overseas Development: The Rt. Hon. Reginald 
Prentice. 

Commonwealth Development Corporation— GDC: 33 Hill 
Street, London, W.i. Established 1948 as the Colonial 
Development Corporation, to assist the British 
Colonies in the development of their economies (since 
expanded to cover independent Commonwealth 
countries). Chairman: Lord Howick. oe Glendale, 

G.C.M.G., K.C.V.O. 

Commonwealth Development Finance Company Ltd. — 
CDFC: x Union Court, Old Broad Street, London E.C.2. 
Established 1953 to assist in the finance by private 
funds of development projects in the Commonwealth. 
Co-operates with the UN International Bank for 
Reconstruction and Development and the International 
Finance Corporation. Chairman: The Lord Godber. 

Export Credits Guarantee Department— ECGD: P.O. Box 
272, Barrington House, 59-67 Gresham Street, London 
E.C.2. Provides loans to Commonwealth and other 
countries for the purchase of British goods and services. 
This function has now largely been assumed by the 
Ministry of Overseas Development. 

EDUCATION 

Education Conferences 
1959 Oxford 

1962 New Delhi 

1964 Ottawa 

Association of Commonwealth Universities: 36 Gordon 
Square, London, W.C.i. (Branch Office for Common- 
wealth Scholarships and Appointments: Marlborough 
House, Pall Mall, London, S.W.i); f. 1913 as the Univ- 
vcrsities Bureau of the British Empire; holds quin- 
quennial Congresses and other meetings in the inter- 
vening years; publishes factual information about 
universities and access to them; acts as a general infor- 
mation centre and provides an advisory service for the 
filling of university teaching staff appointments over- 
seas; supplies secretariats for the Committee of Vice- 
Chancellors and Principals of the Universities of the 
United Kingdom, the Commonwealth Scholarship 
Commission in the United Kingdom, the Marshall Aid 
Commemoration Commission and the Kennedy Mem- 
orial Trust; Mems.: 179 Universities and University 
Colleges; Chair. (1967-6S) Dr. J. A. L. Matheson; 
Vice-Chair. (1967-6S) Sir Charles Wilson; Hon. 
Trcas. (1967-6S) Sir Douglas Logan; Sec.-Gen. Dr. 
J. p. Foster; pubis, include Commonwealth Unversities 


Yearhooh, Higher Education in the United Kingdom: A 
Handbook for Students from Overseas (jointly with the 
British Council), United Kingdom Postgraduate Awards, 
Compendium of University Entrance Requirements for 
First Degree Courses in the United Kingdom, Reports of 
Commonwealth Universities Congresses, Reports of Home 
Unversities Conferences. 

Commonwealth Education Liaison Committee: Marlborough 
House, Pall Mall, London, S.W.i; f. 1959; provides a 
forum to consider schemes of educational aid agreed 
upon at the Commonwealth Education Conferences; 
Sec. Dr. H. W. Springer. 

Commonwealth Secretariat Education Division: Marl- 
borough House, Pall Mall, London, S.W.i; formerly the 
Commonwealth Education Liaison Unit which was 
integrated into the Commonwealth Secretariat in 
September 1966; the Unit was formed in i960 on the 
recommendation of the First Commonwealth Education 
Conference, July 1959, to assist the Commonwealth 
Education Liaison Committee in the task of matching 
educational needs and educational resources in Com- 
monwealth countries; Assistant Sec.-Gen. for Education 
Dr. H. W. Springer, c.b., Dir. L. M. Graham. 

League for the Exchange of Commonwealth Teachers: 

124 Belgrave Road, London, S.W.i; f. 1901, present 
title 1963 (formerly League of the British Common- 
wealth and Empire); promotes educational exchanges 
for a period of one year between Commonwealth 
teachers; Dir. Christopher Bell. 

AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY 

The Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux: Farnham House, 
Farnham Royal, Bucks.; f. 1929; three Institutes and 
eleven Bureaux, all of which except one Institute are 
in Great Britain and each of which is concerned with a 
particular branch of agricultural science. They deal 
respectively with entomology, mycology, biological 
control, agricultural economics, animal breeding and 
genetics, animal health, animal nutrition, dairy science 
and technology, forestry, helminthology, horticulture 
and plantation crops, pastures and field crops, plant 
breeding and genetics, and soils. The Institutes and 
Bureaux act as clearing houses for the interchange of 
information of value to research workers in agricultural 
science throughout the Commonwealth and increasingly 
throughout the world. Review Conferences and Special 
Conferences on entomology and plant pathology are 
held perodically. Chair. R. F. Turnbull (Australia); 
Vice-Chair. M. K. A. Agyeman (Ghana); Sec. Sir 
Thomas Scrivenor, c.m.g.; pubis. Abstract Journals, 
culled from other scientific journals (circ. 28,725); list 
of research workers in agriculture, animal health and 
forestry in the Commonwealth and the Republic of 
Ireland; monographs on particular subjects. 

Commonwealth Forestry Association: The Royal Common- 
wealth Society, Northumberland Avenue, London, 
W.C.2; f. 1921; collects and circulates information 
relating to forestry and the commercial utilisation of 
forest products, and provides a means of communica- 
tion between forestry organisations in the Common- 
wealth; Chair. Sir Arthur Gosling, k.b.e., c.b.; 
Vice-Chair. Prof. M. V. Laurie, o.b.e., m.a. 


124 



THE COMMONWEALTH 


Standing Committee on Commonwealth Forestry: 25 

Savilc Row, London, W.i; set up following the Second 
Empire Forestry Conference held in Canada in 1923, 
to maintain continuity of action between the periodic 
Commonwealth Forestry Conferences; it is responsible 
for the preparatory work in connection with the 
Conference and for talcing steps to give effect to the 
Conference resolutions; mems. about 50; Chair. Sir 
Henry Beresford-Peirse, Bt., c.b., f.r.s.e.; Sec. 
Miss M. J. Eden; pubis, reports and papers. 


CIVIL AVIATION 


Many pooling arrangements exist between Common- 
wealth airlines, notably to Australia, Africa and across the 
Atlantic. 

Conferences 


1946 Wellington 

1947 Montreal 

1948 London 

I95& 


1950 Montreal 

1951 London 
1953 London 

London 


Commonwealth Air Transport Council: Shell-Mex House, 
Strand, London, W.C.2, England; f. 1945 to keep under 
review the development of Commonwealth civil air 
communications. Mems.: governments of Common- 
wealth Countries; Sec. DIrs. V. Purnell. 

Commonwealth Advisory Aeronautical Research Council: 
National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex; 
f. 1946; encourages and co-ordinates aeronautical 
research throughout the Commonwealth; Sec R. W. G. 
Gandy. 


LAW 

English Common Law forms the basis of most of the 
judicial systems of the Commonwealth. Exceptions are the 
Canadian province of Quebec and the Island of Mauritius, 
where French law is the basis; Ceylon and Rhodesia, 
where Roman-Dutch lav/ is the basis; and the Moslem 
countries of South Asia and Africa, where the legal code 
is in part based on Moslem civil law. There is a right of 
appeal to the Privy Council from some countries, including 
Australia and New Zealand. 

There have been three Commonwealth and Empire Law 
Conferences, in London (1955), in Ottawa (i960), in 
Sydney (1965). At the 1965 Conference, major discussion 
centred on the possibility of establishing a Commonwealth 
Court of Appeal, to which all members of the Common- 
wealth, without exception, would have recourse. 

At a meeting of Law Ministers c i 20 Commonwealth 
countries in May 1966, agreement was reached on new 
laws to govern the extradition of fugitive offenders. 
At present, the Imperial Fugitive Offenders Act, iSSr, lays 
down that political asylum may not be granted by an 
independent member of the Commonwealth to a citizen of 
another independent member. This Act has been applied 
’he United Kingdom in the cases of Chief Enahoro 
(Nigeria) in 1963, and of Kwesi Artnah (Ghana) in i960. 


SCIENCE 

Confluences are held on specialised subjects. 
Scientific Conferences 

top> London 195S London (Telecommunications) 

<'152 Canberra' io.sS London (Nuclear Science) 

Melbourne 1962 London (Satellites) 

1 bind on 


1 

i 

i 


! 

1 


Commonwealth Scientific Committee: Africa House, Kings- 
way, London, W.C.2; f. 1946 by the British Common- 
wealth Scientific Official Conference to ensure the fullest 
collaboration between the civil science organisations of 
the Commonwealth; Chair. Dr. M. Shafqat H. 
Siddiqi; Sec. (vacant); Assistant Sec. E. D. A. Davies. 

Commonwealth Scientific Liaison Offices: Africa House, 
Kingswav, London, W.C.2; f. 194S; to keep member 
countries in touch with scientific developments in 
Britiain and stimulate the exchange of scientific 
information; See. E. D. A. Davies. 


ATOMIC ENERGY 


The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority co- 
operates with Commonwealth countries as follows: 

Australia: Extended collaboration through information 
exchanges and visits under an agreement 
signed in 1961. 

Canada: Annual meetings between British and Canadian 

nuclear scientists. 

India: Close contacts maintained, including exchange 

of information and materials. 


Pakistan: Co-operation in the building of new labora- 
tories at Rawalpindi. Collaboration through 
information exchanges and visits. 


MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH 

Conferences are held on specialised subjects. 

Medical Conferences 


1919 

Saskatoon 

1962 

Colombo 

1950 

Brisbane 

1964 

London 

1952 

Calcutta 

1965 

Edinburgh 

1955 

Toronto 

1966 

Karachi 

1959 

London 

106S 

Sydney 

1961 

Auckland 




Commonwealth Medical Association: c/o British Medical 
Association, Tavistock Square, London, W.C.i; f. 1062 
at the seventh British Commonwealth Medical Con- 
ference. to promote within the Commonwealth the 
interests of the medical and allied sciences; to maintain 
the honour and traditions of the profession; to cflect 
the closest possible links between its members; to 
disseminate news and information of interest. Mems.: 
medical associations in .Australia. Canada, Ceylon, 
Ghana, India, Ireland, Malaya, New Zealand, Pakistan. 
Singapore. South Africa, United Kingdom; Prow Dr. 
S. A. Iv. M. Haeizur Rahman (Pakistan); Yjcc-l’rc.s. 
Prof. D. E. C. Mr.iat: (U.K.); lion. Soc.-Trcav Dr. 
Diirek Stevenson (U.K.); pnbb. newsletters. 


RADIO, TV AND PRESS 



Confers: 

NCES 

1945 

London (Radio) 

i960 

New Delhi (Radio) 

1952 

London (Radio) 

1961 

I r.dia /Pakistan ( Pres.-A 

*955 

Australia (Press) 

io'C 

Montreal (Radio) 

1956 

1059 

Sydney (Radio) 
London (Radio) 

1965 

West iRdms (Prc } 



THE COMMONWEALTH 


Commonwealth Press Union: Bouverie House, 154 Fleet 
Street, London, E.C.4, England; f. 1909 to promote 
the welfare of the Commonwealth press; to give effect 
to the opinion of members on all matters affecting the 
freedom and interests of the press, by opposing 
measures likely to affect the freedom of the press, by 
seeking improved reporting and telecommunications 
facilities, by promoting training measures; to organise 
conferences; to promote understanding; to preserve the 
principles of the Union. Mems.: about 600 in 23 
countries; Pres. Col. The Lord Astor of Hever; Sec. 
Brig. L. L. Cross, c.b.e.; Pubis. Annual Report, 
Quarterly Bulletin. (See also chapter on Press, Radio 
and Television). 

Commonwealth Broadcasting Conference: Broadcasting 
House, London W.i, England; f. 1945; the Conference 
is a standing association of the national public service 
broadcasting organizations which are responsible for 
the planning and presentation of the broadcast pro- 
grammes of independent Commonwealth countries; 
it meets every two or three years to promote the 
pooling and sharing of experience and resources, and in 
1965 established a permanent Study Group on Training; 


the seventh Conference will meet in New Zealand in 
February 1968; Sec. M. W. Stephens. 

TELECOMMUNICATIONS 

A common-user system of cable and wireless connects 
most Commonwealth countries. The third link in a Com- 
monwealth telephone cable plan, between Malaysia/Singa- 
pore and Australia via Hong Kong and New Guinea, was 
opened during 1967. The first two links in this plan, across 
the Atlantic and the Pacific, were opened in 1956 and 1963 
respectively. 

Conferences 

1945 London 1962 London 

1958 London 1965-66 London 

Commonwealth Telecommunications Board: 28 Pall Mall, 
London, S.W.i; f. 1949 to advise Partner Governments 
and the nationalized telecommunications organizations 
on matters relating to external telecommunications 
systems. Mems.: 12 member states and a member 
representing other Commonwealth Territories, with an 
independent chairman; Sec. -Gen. C. A. G. Coi.eridge, 
o.b.e. 


COMMONWEALTH ORGANIZATIONS 


Association of Commonwealth Students (ACS) : f. April 1967 
at meeting of National Unions of Students of 27 
Commonwealth countries: aims "to assist participants 
to co-operate in promoting action on issues of common 
concern to their members and to assist in the exchange 
of students between these countries, provided that this 
will not limit the sovereignty of any participants; and 
to assist students in non-Commonwealth countries 
where appropriate”; activities devoted primarily to 
"issues of educational and welfare concern”; General 
Conference once every three years elects seven-member 
Consultative Committee and a President who is 
Executive Officer; Pres. A. K. P. Kludze (Ghana); 
Sec. George Foulkes (Scotland). 

British Council: 65 Davies St., London, W.i; f. 1934 to 
promote a wider knowledge of Britain and the English 
language abroad, particularly in the developing 
countries of the Commonwealth; Pres. Gen. Sir Ronald 
Adam, Bt., g.c.b., d.s.o., o.b.e.; Chair. Lord Fulton, 
ll.d. 

Commonwealth Arts Festival Society: c/o 122 Wigmore 
St., London W.i; f. rg6i to organize the first Festival 
in 1965; aims at revealing the importance and diversity 
of the cultural traditions which exist in Commonwealth 
countries; Chairman of the Board of Directors Lord 
Balfour of Inchrye; Dir.-Gcn. Ian Hunter; Admin. 
Sec. Katharine Drower. 

Commonwealth Association of Architects: 66 Portland 
Place, London W.x; f. 1964 in association with the 
Royal Institute of British Architects. Objects: to 
provide member societies with advice on education and 
to facilitate the reciprocal recognition of professional 
qualifications, through a Commonwealth Board of 
Architectural Education; to provide a clearing house 
for information on architectural practice, etc. and to 


encourage collaboration on research. A conference was 
held in Delhi in March 1967 on the role of architects in 
developing countries. 23 member societies. Pres. Prof. 
Sir Robert Matthew, c.b.e.; Vice-Pres. Oluwole 
Olumuyiawa; Sec. T. C. Colchester, c.m.g. 

Commonwealth Collections of Micro-organisms: Africa 
House, Kingsway, London, W.C.2; f. 1947; to foster 
maintenance and expansion of existing culture collec- 
tions in the Commonwealth, to make more fully available 
for general use the cultures contained in them and to 
encourage the establishment of such new collections as 
may be necessary; Chair. Dr. S. T. Cowan; Sec. Dr. 
J. M. Shewan. 

Commonwealth Committee on Mineral Processing: Warren 
Spring Laboratory, Stevenage, Herts.; f. i960; to effect 
close co-operation in mineral processing, especially the 
utilisation and beneficiation of low-grade ores; Chair. 
Dr. J. Convey; Sec. A. R. Tron, b.sc.,f.g.s., a.m.i.m.m.; 
publ. Commonwealth Mineral Processing News (annu- 
ally). 

Commonwealth Committee on Mineral Resources and 
Geology: c/o Commonwealth Geological Liaison Office, 
Africa House, Ivingsway, London, W.C.2; f. 1948 to 
promote collaboration and the exchange of information; 
Chair. Dr. S. H. Shaw; Sec. B. W. Collins. 

Commonwealth Consultative Space Research Committee: 

c/o The Royal Society, 6 Carlton Ho use Terrace, 
London, S.W.i; f. i960 to foster co-operation in space 
research and serve as a centre for information exchange; 
Chair. Sir Harrie Massey, f.r.s.; Exec. Sec. Dr. D. C. 
Martin, c.b.e., f.r.s.e. 

Commonwealth Council of Mining and Metallurgical Institu- 
tions: 44 Portland Place, London, W.i; convenes 
successive Mining and Metallurgical Congresses within 


126 


THE COMMONWEALTH 


the Commonwealth, or in the country of any Consti- 
tuent Body, as a means of promoting the development 
of the mineral resources of the Commonwealth and of 
fostering throughout the Commonwealth a high level 
of technical efficiency and professional status; to serve 
as an organ of intercommunication and co-operation 
between Constituent Bodies, and for the promotion 
and protection of their common interests; Chair. Sir 
Ronald Brain, o.b.e.; Hon. Sec. B. W. Kerrigan. 

Commonwealth Correspondents’ Association: 2-3 Salisbury 
Court, London, E.C.4; f. 1939 to safeguard rights and 
interests of Commonwealth press representatives in 
London; Pres. H. Morrison (Canada); Sec. P. G. 
Pends av (India). 

Commonwealth Countries League: women’s organisation 
f. 1925 to secure equality of liberties, status and oppor- 
tunites between women and men and to promote 
mutual understanding throughout the Commonwealth 
countries; Pres. Mrs. Alice Hemming; Gen. Sec. Mrs. 

G. Hirsh, 27 Harmsworth Way, London, id .20; Pubis. 
Quarterly Newsletter, Annual Conference Report. 

Commonwealth Foundation: Marlborough House, Pall 
Mall, London, S.W.i; f. 1965 to administer a fund 
for promoting interchanges between Commonwealth 
organisations in professional fields; the Foundation is 
an autonomous body and aims at achieving fuller 
representation at professional conferences, facilitating 
new meetings and professional visits, stimulating the 
flow of professional information, helping to set up 
national institutions where these do not exist, and 
promoting Commonwealth-wide associations to reduce 
tendencies to centralise on the United Kingdom; Com- 
monwealth Governments subscribe on an agreed scale 
to the fund, which is open to private contributions; 
Chair. Sir Macfarlane Burnet, o.m.; Dir. G. W. St. J. 
Chadwick, c.m.g. ! 

Commonwealth Friendship Movement: Corona House, 25 j 
Longliill Rd., Ovingdean, Brighton 7, Sussex, England; | 
f. 19G0 to disseminate among teachers, children and J 
young people a knowledge of the peoples of the Com- J 
momvealth and their affairs, without distinction of 
politics, race or religious beliefs; to promote links 
between schools in Commonwealth countries; Chair. 
Geoffrey Johnson Smith; Hon. Treas. J. H. Bram- 
lev; Dir. Miss Stella Monk, m.b.e. 

Commonwealth Industries Association: 9G-100 New 
Cavendish St., London W.i; f. 1926 as the Empire 
Industries Association, present title 1917: aims to 
strengthen the Commonwealth by means of mutual 
preferential trade, investment, migration and technical 
•uul scientific co-opcration; Chair. The Rt. Hon. ^ 
Roms Turton, m.c., m.i\; Hon. Treas. Sir Leslie ■ 
Damage, m.c.; Dir. Edward Holloway; Sec. Miss H. i 
Packer; Publ. The Monthly Bulletin. 

Commonwealth Institute: Kensington High Street, London, ■ 

W.S; f. iss- as t]ic imperial institute, present name 
* 95 S; a centre for public information and educational 
services, the Institute houses a permanent exhibition 
designed to express the modern Commonwealth in 
visual terms Dir. Sir Kenneth Bradley, c.m.g. 

Commonwealth Parliamentary Association: c/o Houses of j 
> •wliament, London, SAY. 1; f. ion to facilitate : 
exchange of visits and information between Common- i 

1"27 


wealth parliamentarians; organisation: General Council 
of members from independent and dependent countries, 
eighty-seven Branches throughout the Commonwealth; 
Chair. Hon. L. O. Pindling (Prime Minister of the 
Bahamas); Sec.-Gen. R. V. Vanderfelt, o.b.e.; Pubis. 
The Parliamentarian (quarterly). Report on World 
Affairs (quarterly). 

Commonwealth Producers’ Organization, 25 Victoria St.. 
London, SAV.i; f. 191G; promotes the interests of 
producers in the Commonwealth and the development 
of reciprocal trade. Members in iS countries. Chair. 
Sir Ronald Russell, m.p.; Exec. Dir. S. Stanlf.y- 
Smith; Pubis. Commonwealth Producer (bi-monthly). 

Commonwealth War Graves Commission: 32 Grosvcnor 
Gardens, London, S.W.i; f. 1917 (as Imperial War 
Graves Commission) ; provides for the permanent care 
and making of the graves of members of the Common- 
wealth Forces who died during 1914-18 and 1039-45 
wars; maintains over a million graves in some 140 
countries and commemorates by name on memorials 
more than 750,000 who have no known grave or who 
were cremated; members: Australia, Canada, India, 
New Zealand, Pakistan, South Africa, United King- 
dom; the Commission’s work is directed from the Head 
Office in London, to which 5 Regional Offices are 
responsible; a number of agencies have been established 
by agreements with the Governments of certain 
Commonwealth countries; Pres. H.R.H. The Duke of 
Gloucester; Dir.-Gcn. W. J. Chalmers, c.n.n. 
Conference of Engineering Institutions of the British Com- 
monwealth: c/o The Institution of Electrical Engineers, 
Savoy Place, London W.C.2, England; f. 19 jG; the 
Conference meets every four years to provide an 
opportunity for Presidents and Secretaries of Engin- 
eering Institutions of Commonwealth countries to 
exchange views on collaboration; last meeting held in 
London in 1966, the next being in India in 1970; Exec. 
Cttec. Sec. Dr. G. F. Gainsborough. 

Cotton Research Corporation, 12 Chantrcy House, Eccleston 
St., London, S.W.i, England; f. 1921. Function: to carry 
out research on cotton growing, mainly in African 
countries, whose contributions suppleme nt the Coqiorn- 
tion's own income from an initial British Government 
endowment. Chair. Sir Geoffrey Nye, k. c.m.g., o.u.n.; 
Dir. D. F. Ruston; Sec. M. H. White. Pubis. Cotton 
Growing Review (quarterly), Annual Report. 

Council for Volunteers Overseas: 20 Bedford Square, 
London, W.C.i; established 199.5 as an advisory body 
for overseas service, it assists in the promotion of the 
programme for sending volunteers to developing 
countries. Members: 21 invited members; 6 represen- 
tatives of voluntary bodies, 5 ex-volunteers and 3 
observers; Pres. 1 I.R. 11 . Prince Philip, Dube of 
Edinburgh; Sec. Phii.ii* Zkaley. 

Federation of Commonwealth Chambers 0! Commerce: 75 
Cannon Street, London. E.C..<; f. ion. reconstituted 
1900, to promote trade within the Commonwealth and 
with third parties, and to promote commercial training 
and information exchange; holds biennia! Congre 
and smaller bilateral trade conferences each year with 
individual countries or regions; nearly 300 in '-ins.; Pres. 
His Grace the Duke of Dr.voNsms'.r. r.c.. m.c.; Chair. 
F. II. Tate: Dir. W. J. Luxton. c.n.n. 



THE COMMONWEALTH 


Institute of Commonwealth Studies: 27 Russell Square, 
London, W.C.i, England; f. 1949 to promote advanced 
study of the Commonwealth; provides a library and 
meeting place for postgraduate students and academic 
staff engaged in research in this field. Dir. Prof. W. H. 
Morris-Jones b.sc. (econ.); Sec. T. E. Smith, o.b.e., 
m.a. Pubis. Annual Report, Reprint and Commonwealth 
series of papers. 

Joint Commonwealth Societies’ Council : c/o Royal Common- 
wealth Society, Northumberland Avenue, London, 
W.C.2 ; co-ordinates the activities of recognized societies 
promoting mutual understanding in the Commonwealth 
mems.: fourteen Commonwealth Societies; Chair. 
The Viscount Amoky, p.c., g.c.m.g., t.d.; Sec. D. K. 
Daniels, c.b.e. 

Royal Commonwealth Society: Northumberland Avenue, 
London, W.C.2; to promote knowledge and under- 
standing among the people of the Commonwealth; 
branches in principal Commonwealth countries; Chair. 
His Grace the Duke of Devonshire, p.c., m.c.; Sec.- 
Gen. A. S. H. Kemp; publ. Commonwealth Journal. 

Royal Commonwealth Society for the Blind: 39 Victoria St., 
London, S.W.i; f. 1950 to prevent blindness and to 
promote the education, employment and welfare of the 


four million blind people in the countries of the 
Commonwealth and in the Dependent Territories; 
Chair. Sir Peter Runge; Dir. J. F. Wilson, c.b.e.; 
publ. Annual Report. 

Royal Over*Seas League: Over-Seas House, Park Place. 
St. James's Street, London, S.W.i; f. 1910 to promote 
friendship and understanding in the Commonwealth; 
membership is open to all British subjects and Com- 
monwealth citizens; Pres. Sir Angus Gillan, k.b.e., 
c.m.g.; Dir.-Gen. Philip Crawshaw, c.b.e.; publ. 
Overseas (quarterly). 

Victoria League for Commonwealth Friendship: 38 Chesham 
Place, London, S.W.i; f. 1901 to further personal 
friendship among Commonwealth peoples; about 
30,000 mems.; Pres. H.R.H. Princess Alice; Chair. 
Viscountess Dunrossil; Gen. Sec. J. V. Shaw. 

Voluntary Service Overseas (VSO): 3 Hanover Street, 
London, W.i; f. 1958 to help the developing nations 
solve their economic, educational and technical prob- 
lems by providing young volunteers ’Killing to serve 
overseas for a year or more; by 1968 over 6,000 had 
been sent to more than 60 countries; Chair. Viscount 
Amory, p.c., g.c.m.g.; Dir. D. H. Whiting, o.b.e. 


CONFERENCE DES CHEFS D’ETAT DE L’AFRIQUE 

EQUATORIALE 


B.P. 970, Bangui, Central African Republic 

Telephone: 29.31, 29.32 


Founded June 1959. An association of self-governing states formerly comprising French Equatorial Africa. 



MEMBERS 

Central African Republic 
Chad 

Congo (Brazzaville) 
Gabon 


1 


MEETINGS OF HEADS OF STATE 


President (1907): Colonel Jean Bedel Bokaspa (Central African 


Republic). 


Brazzaville . . June 1959 

Libreville . . December 1959 

Bangui . . February 19O0 

Fort-Lamy . . May i960 

Brazzaville . . November i960 

Bangui . . June 1961 

Fort-Lamy . . December 1961 


Brazzaville . 

. April 

1962 

Brazzaville . 

December 

196; 

Bangui 

May 

1963 

Fort-Lamy . 

. February 

1961 

Brazzaville . 

. December 

196-! 

Bangui 

October 

1965 

Fort-Lamy . 

December 

1966 


FUNCTIONS 

1. Fixing of transport rates ami fuel prices. 

2. Running Inter-State organizations and services. 

OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL 

The Secretariat was merged with that of UDEAC {ttf 
separate chapter) in January 1096 . Connected with the 
Secretariat are the Service for the Control of the Condition 
of Products and the Mcc.tnogr.iphy Centre. 

Secretary-General: Jean Feancoip Oh.u:t. 

1 ‘h.i 




CONFERENCE DES CHEFS D’ETAT DE L’AFRIQUE EQUATORIALE 


FONDATION DE L’ENSEIGNEMENT SUPERIEUR 

President, Administrative Council (1967): M. Makany 
(Minister of National Education, Congo). 

Director: M. Schmitt. 

Established 1961, it is responsible for all public institu- 
tions of higher education in the four member countries. 


GONSEIL DE DEFENSE DE LA ZONE DE L’AFRIQUE EQUATORIALE 

A defence pact signed in August i960 by the Central 
African Republic, Congo (Brazzaville), Chad and France. 

Gabon adhered to the pact in 1961. 



CONSEIL DE L’ ENTENTE 


A political and economic association of self-governing States, formerly a part of French West Africa. The Council 

was founded in May 1959. Togo joined in June 1966. 



MEMBERS 

Dahomey 
Ivory Coast 
Niger 
Togo 

Upper Volta 


Dahomey 

Ivory Coast 

Niger 

Togo 

Upper Volta 

122,000 

322,000 

1,267,000 

56,000 

275,000 


POPULATION 


Dahomey 

Porto- 

Novo 

(Capital) 

Ivory 

Coast 

Abidjan 

(Capital) 

Niger 

Niamey 

(Capital) 

Togo 

Lom6 

(Capital) 

Upper 

Volta 

Ouaga- 

dougou 

(Capital) 

2,250,000 

65,000 

3,797,000 

247,000 

3,150,000 

42,000 

1,539,000 

87,000 

4,650,000 

80,000 


ORGANISATION 


THE COUNCIL 
President: Diori Hamani (Niger). 

The Council consists of the Heads of State and the 
President and Vice-President of the Legislative Assemblies 
of each member country, and the Ministers responsible for 
negotiations between the states. It is an executive body 
and members who fail to implement the decisions of the 
Council may be brought before a Court of Arbitration. 

The Council meets twice a year, the place rotating 
annually between the capitals of the member states. The 


Head of State of the host country acts as President. 
Extraordinary meetings may be held at the request of two 
or more members. 

COMMISSIONS 

Commissions on Foreign Affairs, Justice, Labour, Public 
Administration, Public Works and Telecommunications, 
Posts and Telecommunications and on Epidemics and 
Epizootics have been set up. 

Secretary-General: Mile Mauri cette Landeroin. 

B.P. 1878, Abidjan, Ivory Coast. 


131 




CONSEIL DE L’ENTENTE 


TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT 

There is complete freedom of trade and a unified system of external tariffs and fiscal schedules. A single system of 
administration for ports and harbours, railways and road traffic and a unified quarantine organization will be set up. 

FONDS DE GARANTIE 

Central Guarantee Fund originally conceived as the Fonds de Solidarity to support development projects, transformed 
in June 1966 into a mutual aid and loan guaranty fund designed to encourage outside lenders to finance development projects 
in member countries. Total to be provided annually by member states equals 650 million C.F.A., of which 500 million will 
be contributed by fvory Coast, 42 million each by Niger, Upper Volta and Dahomey, and 24 million by Togo. 

FUNCTIONS 

In August i960 it was agreed that there should be: 

1. An identical constitutional and electoral procedure in each State. Elections are to be held 
at the same time. 

2. Each State shall have an identical organisation of its Armed Forces. 

3. Identical administrative organisation. 

4. Identical taxation and tariff policies. 

5. Common Bank of Amortisation. 

6. A common Diplomatic Corps. 

Commissions have been set up to study how these measures may be implemented. 


AGREEMENTS WITH FRANCE 

In April 1961 the member states signed agreements with France, covering defence, economic affairs, judicial matters, 
higher education, cultural relations, civil aviation and postal and telecommunications. Upper Volta did not sign the defence 
agreement. 



COUNCIL FOR INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 
OF MEDICAL SCIENCES— CIOMS 

Unesco House, 6 rue Franklin, Paris I6e, France 


Founded 1949 under the joint auspices of the World Health Organization and UNESCO to facilitate the exchange 
of views and information in medical sciences, to further co-ordination between international organisations in this 

field and to provide material aid where necessary. 


MEMBERS 

International: 57 International Associations. 

National: Academies and Research Councils in thirteen 
countries. 

Associate: Seven medical societies. 


ORGANISATION 


GENERAL ASSEMBLY 

Consists of representatives of international and national 
members. Meets every three years to lay down general 
policy. Last meeting: Paris, October 1967. 


EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

Consists of eight international members and four 
national members elected by the General Assembly. 
Directs the affairs of CIOMS between meetings of the 
General Assembly. 

President (1964-1970): Prof. M. Flokkin (Belgium). 


SECRETARIAT 

Carries out the day-to-day administration of CIOMS. 
Executive Secretary: Dr. V. Fattorusso (Italy). 


ACTIVITIES 

The main activities of CIOMS are: 

Co-ordination of congress and technical aid to 
organisers of medical meetings. 

Convening of multi-disciplinary symposia and their 
publications. 

Establishing of medical nomenclatures. 

FINANCE 

CIOMS is financed by members’ dues and by grants from 
sponsoring bodies. 

PUBLICATIONS 

Newsletter. 

Calendar of International Congresses of Medical Sciences 
(annual). 

Calendar of Regional Congresses of Medical Sciences 
(annual). 

Proceedings of international Symposia. 


133 



THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE 


Place Lendtre, Strasbourg, France 

Founded in May 1949 to safeguard and realise the ideals and principles shared by Member States, and to 
facilitate their economic and social progress. The ten founding Member States were joined by Greece and Turkey 
(August 1949), Iceland (1950), the Federal Republic of Germany (1951). Austria (1956), Cyprus (1961), Switzerland 



(1963) and Malta (1965). 



MEMBERS 


Austria 

Greece 

Netherlands 

Belgium 

Iceland 

Norway 

Cyprus 

Ireland 

Sweden 

Denmark 

Italy 

Switzerland 

France 

Luxembourg 

Turkey 

Federal Republic of Germany Malta 

United Kingdom 


ORGANIZATION 

COMMITTEE OF MINISTERS 

Consists of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of each state. 


Austria: Will fried Gredler-Oxenbauer. 
Belgium: Louis Couvreur. 

Cyprus: C. Pilavachi. 

Denmark: Mogens Warberg. 

Federal Republic of Germany: Heinrich Northe. 
France: Charles Bonfils. 

Greece: Basile Vitsaxis. 

Iceland: Peter Eggerz. 

Irish Republic: (vacant). 


MINISTERS’ DEPUTIES 
(Permanent Representatives) 

Italy: Augusto Assetati D’amelia. 
Luxembourg: Jean Wagner. 

Malta: Joseph Mamo Dingli. 
Netherlands: J. Vixseboxse. 
Norway: Leif Edwardsen. 

Sweden: Sten Lindh. 

Switzerland: Daniel Gagnebin. 
Turkey: Metin Karaca. 

United Kingdom: E. B. Boothby. 


CONSULTATIVE ASSEMBLY 


President: Sir Geoffrey de Freitas (United Kingdom, 
Labour). 

Vice-Presidents: Lokovico Montini (Italy, Christian 
Democrat), Eduard Wahl (German Federal Republic, 
C.D.U./C.S.U.), Rent! Radius (France, U.N.R ./ 
U.D.T.), Georges Bohy (Belgium, Socialist), Sven 
Gustafson (Sweden, Liberal), Otto Kranzlmayr 
(Austria, O.V.P.), Anthony Buttigieg (Malta, 
Labour), Yuksel Menderes (Turkey, Justice), 


Chairman of the Christian Democratic Group: Etienne de 
la VallLe Poussin (Belgium). 

Chairman of the Socialist Group: Karl Czernetz (Austria). 

Chairman of the Liberal Group: Per Federspiel (Den- 
mark). 

Chairman of the Independent Group: Erling Petersen 

(Norway). 


134 



THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE 


COMMITTEE OF MINISTERS 
Decides with binding effect all matters of internal 
organization, and may also conclude conventions and 
agreements. Usually meets in May and December. 

MINISTERS’ DEPUTIES 
Comprise senior diplomats accredited to the Council 
as permanent representatives of their governments, 
who deal with most of the routine work at monthly 
meetings. Any decision reached by the Deputies has 
the same force as one adopted by the Ministers. 

CONSULTATIVE ASSEMBLY 
Members arc elected by their national parliaments 
or appointed. Most members arc also members of 
their own parliaments, and political parties in each 
delegation follow the proportion of their strength in 
die national parliament. Members do not represent 
their governments; they are spokesmen for public 
opinion. 


The Assembly has 147 members; 
France, German Federal Repub- 
lic, Italy, United Kingdom 

iS each 

Turkey • 

10 

Belgium, Greece, Netherlands • 

7 each 

Austria, Sweden, Switzerland 

6 each 

Denmark, Norway • 

5 each 

Irish Republic* 

-1 

Cyprus, Iceland, Luxembourg, 
Malta • 

3 each 


The Assembly meets in ordinary session once a year 
for not more than a month. The session is usually 
divided into three parts held in January, May and 


September. The Assembly may submit recommenda- 
tions to the Committee of Ministers, pass resolutions, 
discuss reports and any matters of common European 
interest, 

COMMITTEES 

Standing Committee. Represents the Assembly when 
it is not in session. Consists of the President, Vice- 
Presidents, Chairmen of the Ordinary Committees and 
a number of ordinary members. Meets at least four 
times a year. 

Ordinary CommitUes: politics, economics, social, 
legal, cultural and scientific, procedure, agriculture, 
local authorities, non-represented nations, population 
and refugees, budget, parliamentary and public 
relations. 

SECRETARIAT 

Secretary-General: Peter Smithers (United Kingdom). 
Deputy Secretary-General: Polys Mod: nos (Greece). 

Clerk to the Assembly: Gerhart Sciioesseu (German 
Federal Republic). 

Political Director: Robert Luc (France). 

Director of Economic and Social Affairs: Fauil Sue 
(Turkey). 

Director of Administration: Akmasd Daussin (Belgium). 
Director of Press and Information: Niels Borch-Jacoumn 
(Denmark). 

Director of Education, Cultural and Scientific Affairs: 

Anthony Haigh (United Kingdom). 

Director of Legal Affairs: Heru.ert C.olsong (German 
Federal Republic). 

Head of Human Rights Dirccforafe: A. H. Romms on 
(U nited Kingdom). 


ACTIVITIES 

HUMAN RIGHTS 


EUROPEAN COMMISSION 


President: Professor Man Sorensen (Denmark). 
Vice-President: Professor C. Tit. EusTATmAnr.s (Greece). 
Secretary: Anthony McNulty (United Kingdom). 
Members: Taiisin Bekiu Balt a (Turkey). Theodor 
Lindal (Iceland), Edwin Busuttil (Malta i. Frede 
Casthuko (Norway), Professor!'. Ermacoka {Austria). 
J. E. S. Fawcett (United Kingdom), Pedro Delahayi: 
(Belgium), Stvre Pktken (Sweden), Sioritr.Eii: 
Stcmr.jONSsoN (Iceland;, Giuseite. Srkrpvti (Italy). 
Prnfes’or A. Susteejie.nn (German Federal Republic). 
M, A. Tin ani.m vi.i.ides (Cyprus), Felix \V» etee. 
(Luxembourg!, Phiui* 1'. O'Pir.ouiut. (Ireland 1 
V. I', in: Gaav Fort.man (Netherlands;. 


I lie Commission is competent to examine com 
plaints made either bv governments or. in cert.ii 
'■-■p-A, by individuals, that the European Convcntm 
for the protection of human rights am! fundament: 
freedom.'; ha*,- l>een violated bv any of the signati r 
states. After examination the Commie-ton transmit 
findings to the Committee of Minister::, and. : 
appropriate m:-**-. to tin- Court. 


EUROPEAN COURT 
President: Rene Cap si:; (France). 

Registrar: Herihert Go:. song (German Fob-; 
Judges: KenC C \ssin (France*. Henri Koi.i 
Am. E. \V. 1 {olni'avk (Sweden:, Aleri 
(Austria). Georges S. Marjimms {Gre— 
RoiiENnoi'Ri: {Luxemlwir:':, Are N. C. 
j mark), Terji: Wold iNurw.y, ;. Gu.-ja.i'i 

Palmer: (Italy). Heevann Mo it MTdr 
of Germany;, M'.H’iek fiNpru 1 

j Fav::e fe-Aii/er! iml'-, Conor A. M \ 

John Ceeuona (M:dt:u, Sir Hviijuv 
! Unit' d fvinei.’-.rn;. Srar tin i 1 urk-.-j 

1 WtARDA sN-ll-.-rl. S:uv:<n Sn-t'Ri' 

| The Court may only dr ad v, jth a ■ 

> Cunra; : :<>.•! I n-; neS.r;-.- 1 .-. h dtp-.! t: - f.oh: rr t 



'a! Repiibh 
N (B-h'iei 
i> V>.R:*iu 


:e‘. Hum. 



■ml Rrje.d 


ffraO:; 

* * At V 



1 


< 

(l 


J- 



THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE 


or Parties concerned: the Commission, a High Con- 
tracting Party whose national is alleged to be a 
victim, a High Contracting Party which referred the 
case to the Commission, and a High Contracting Party 
against which the complaint has been lodged. In the 
event of dispute as to whether the Court has jurisdic- 
tion, the matter is settled by the decision of the Court. 
The judgement of the Court is final. 

INTERGOVERNMENTAL WORK 

In May 1967 the Committee of Ministers approved 
the second programme of work for the intergovern- 
mental activities of the Council of Europe. The 
programme sets out current and future projects for 
co-operation between member governments in econo- 
mic, legal, social, public health, environmental, and 
educational and scientific matters. Approximate dates 
have been fixed for the completion of each scheme. 
The programme, which is designed to streamline the 
activities of the organization, is to be revised each year. 

EUROPEAN SOCIAL CHARTER 

The Council’s objectives in the social sphere are: 
to establish equality of treatment in each member 
country between nations and citizens of the other 
member states in such matters as social security and 
social and medical assistance; to pool skills and re- 
sources; and to raise the living conditions of the 
populations. The European Social Charter, signed on 
October 18th, 1961, and in force since February 26th, 
1965, with regard at present to Denmark, German 
Federal Republic, Ireland, Italy, Norway, Sweden 
and the United Kingdom, lays down the rights and 
principles which are the basis of the Council’s social 
policy, and guarantees a number of social and 
economic rights to the citizen. It thus complements 
the European Convention on Human Rights, which 
guarantees certain civil and political rights. A 
European Social Security Code has also been signed. 

HEALTH 

The Council is working towards the pooling of 
medical techniques and equipment between member 
states. A programme of medical fellowships has been 
launched, designed to enable members of the medical 
profession and personnel of public health departments 
to become acquainted with new methods and tech- 
niques practised in other European countries and to 
participate in research of common European interest. 

European Agreements provide for special facilities 
for the medical treatment of war cripples and other 
injured, for a “European Blood Bank”, and for the 
duty-free importation on loan of medical and surgical 
equipment. The Council has also taken over and ex- 
tended arrangements between some European coun- 
tries for "free sanitary areas” (health control at ports, 
etc.). Eight countries are participating in the estab- 
lishment of a European Pharmacopoeia. 

POPULATION 

The Council has concerned itself with refugee 
problems since 1950, and in 1953 appointed M. Pierre 
Schneiter its Special Representative for national 
refugees and over-population in Europe. M. Schneiter’s 


plan, for a European resettlement fund to make loans 
to governments for the resettlements of refugees, was 
duly put into effect, eight countries contributing. The 
fund has so far granted loans totalling over $22 million. 
M. Schneiter is now engaged on the planning of 
vocational training schemes, and on improving the 
material, legal and psychological situation of migrant 
workers. Furthermore, a major Conference on Euro- 
pean Population was held by the Council in September 
1966. 

LEGAL CO-OPERATION 

The importance of this branch of the Council’s 
activities has recently been acknowledged by the 
creation of a European Committee on Legal Co- 
operation, grouping representatives of all member 
states and of the Assembly. This committee has 
general responsibility for the preparation and imple- 
mentation of the Council’s legal programme. It 
normally meets twice a year. Most of the specialized 
committees of legal experts work under its direction. 

In addition, the Ministers of Justice of member 
countries of the Council of Europe meet from time to 
time for the purpose of stimulating co-operation in the 
legal field. The fourth Conference of Ministers of 
Justice took place in Berlin in May 1966 and the fifth 
conference will be held in London in May 1968. 

Among the more important legal conventions con- 
cluded under Council of Europe auspices are those on 
establishment, the peaceful settlement of disputes, 
patents (application, classification, unification of 
substantive law), extradition, commercial arbitration, 
compulsory motor insurance and mutual assistance 
in criminal matters. An Agreement entered into force 
on October 19th, 1967, bans “pirate” broadcasts. 

CRIMINOLOGY 

The European Committee on Crime Problems is the 
main bod}'’ of the Council of Europe working on 
penal law, penology and criminology. It is assisted 
by a Criminological Scientific Council composed of 
specialists in law, psychology, sociology and related 
sciences. It organises every year a conference of 
Directors of Criminological Research Institutes. 

The activities of the European Committee on 
Crime Problems have in recent years resulted in two 
Conventions (not yet in force) on the Punishment of 
Road Traffic Offences and on the Supervision of 
Conditionally Sentenced and Conditionally Released 
Offenders and in two Resolutions adopted in 1965 by 
the Committee of Ministers and concerning Remand 
in Custody and Suspended Sentence, Probation and 
other Alternatives to Imprisonment. 

Various studies in criminal law and criminology are 
now being made by seven Expert Committees and by 
small committees of research workers. 

EDUCATION AND CULTURE 

The Council for Cultural Co-operation was founded 
in 1962 to draw up proposals for the cultural policy of 
the Council of Europe and to allocate the resources of 
the Cultural Fund, which finances the cultural pro- 
gramme of the Organization. It is assisted by three 


13G 


THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE 


Permanent Committees: Higher Education and Re- 
search, General and Technical Education and Out-of- 

School Education. All member states of the Council of 

Europe are represented on these bodies, together with 

Spain and the Holy See. Finland sends observers. 

The Educational and Cultural programme covers: 

Higher Education and Research: The work is centred 
on: university curricula with a view to the estab- 
lishment of material equivalences between univer- 
sity diplomas; co-operation between European 
universities and the collective study of educational 
problems. It is carried out in close co-operation 
with university authorities, who are represented 
with governments on the Committee. 

General and Technical Education : Inter-governmental 
co-operation in tackling educational problems 
common to European countries has led to an 
emphasis on comparative studies (history, geo- 
graphy, civics, school guidance, teacher training, 
etc.), as well as to the assembly of basic material 
on school systems and educational terminology. 
Particular projects include the training of teachers 
for Turkish teacher training establishments, a 
European Civics Campaign and a journal of 
educational research Pedagogica Europaea. 

Oui-of-School Education: The work is divided into 
three branches: youth; adult education; physical 
education and sport, in all of which educational 
aspects are uppermost. In the field of youth, 
priority is given to the training of youth leaders 
and an Experimental Youth Centre is in operation. 
In adult education the problems of education for 
leisure and for civic responsibility are prominent. 
In physical education and sport, the training of 
instructors has been undertaken in connection 
with the newly established European Athletics 
Diploma. Special assistance has been given to 
Greece (youth services) and Turkey (physical 
education) . 

Audio-visual Media: Great attention is paid in all 
three branches of education to the applications of 
audio-visual media, such as 8 mm. film, closed 
circuit television, etc. 

Modern Languages : A Major Project — Modern Langu- 
ages, covering all three branches of education, is 
being actively pursued in co-operation with the 
International Association for the Development of 
Applied Linguistics, with the aim of improving 
and accelerating language teaching throughout 
Europe. 

Cultural Activities: The programme has been re- 
grouped under the two main headings: the pro- 


tection and development of the European cultural 
heritage, and its adaptation to the needs of 
industrial civilization. A number of traditional 
projects are being continued: the European Art 
Exhibitions, which demonstrate the inter-depen- 
dence of national cultures, the Cultural Identity 
Card, which offers special facilities to research 
workers, etc. 

Documentation and Publications: A Documentation 
Centre for Education in Europe was established in 
1964. In 1967 it was linked with a new service for 
information on educational research. The main 
educational publications of the Council for Cul- 
tural Co-operation are published in the series Edu- 
cation in Europe. Other works, particularly on 
cultural questions, are also produced. 

ENVIRONMENTAL AND NATURAL RESOURCES 

A European Committee on Nature Conservation 
was recently set up to direct the Council of Europe's 
work for the protection of natural resources. This 
includes continued study of the problems of air and 
water pollution (a European Water Charter is to be 
produced in 1967), a campaign to protect natural sites 
(a diploma is awarded by the Council to sites of special 
interest) and studies on European flora and fauna and 
their conservation. 

LOCAL AFFAIRS 

The Council seeks to interest local authorities in the 
European idea by: 

European Prize: Awarded annually to the munici- 
pality ‘‘which has done most to propagate the 
ideal of European unity”. 

European Conference of Local Authorities : The Con- 
ference meets every second year, and brings 
together mayors, aldermen and councillors from 
member-countries, in the same numbers as they 
send parliamentary delegations to the Assembly. 

Inter-Municipal Exchanges : A scheme for promoting 
exchange visits between local government officials. 

FRONTIER FORMALITIES 

Since its earliest days the Council has sought to 
bring about the simplification of frontier formalities 
and the abolition of unnecessary restrictions in the 
way of freer travel within its area. All visas have been 
abolished between the member countries of the 
Council, the necessity of passports has been done away 
with by a considerable number of them, formalities 
for the temporary importation of motor vehicles have 
been reduced to a minimum and much has been done 
to speed up formalities at airports. 


137 



THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE 


CONVENTIONS AND AGREEMENTS 

In an effort to harmonize national laws, to put the citizens of member countries on an equal footing and to pool certain 
resources and facilities, the Council has concluded a large number of treaties covering particular aspects of European 
co-operation: 


European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights 
and Fundamental Freedoms. 

Convention on Social and Medical Assistance. 

Interim Agreement on Social Security other than Schemes 
for Old Age, Invalidity and Survivors. 

Interim Agreement on Social Security Schemes relating to 
Old Age, Invalidity and Survivors. 

European Social Charter. 

Convention on the elaboration of a European Pharma- 
copoeia. 

Agreement on the exchange of War Cripples with a view to 
medical treatment. 

Convention on the Equivalence of Diplomas. 

European Cultural Convention. 

Convention on the Academic Recognition of University 
Qualifications. 

Agreement on the Equivalence of Periods of Study. 

European Agreement on the Movement of Persons. 

European Agreement on Travel by Young Persons on 
Collective Passports. 

Convention relating to the Formalities required for Patent 
Applications. 

Convention on the International Classification of Patents 
for Invention. 

Convention on the unification of certain points of sub- 
stantive law on Patents for invention ( to come into force 
July 1968). 

Agreement on the Abolition of Visas for Refugees. 

Agreement on Regulations governing the movement of 
persons between Member States. 

European Convention for the Peaceful Settlement of 
Disputes. 

Establishment Convention. 

Extradition Convention. 


Agreement on the Exchange of Therapeutic Substances of 
human origin. 

Agreement on the Temporary Importation of Medical, 
Surgical and Laboratory Equipment for use on free 
loan for purposes of diagnosis or treatment. 

Agreement on the Issue to Civil and Military War Disabled 
of International Vouchers for the Repair of Prosthetic 
and Orthopedic Appliances. 

Agreement on Mutual Assistance in the matters of special 
medical treatments and climatic facilities. 

Agreement on the Exchange of Blood Grouping Reagents. 

Agreement on the Exchange of Television Programmes. 

Agreement on the Protection of Television Broadcasts. 

Agreement for the Prevention of Broadcasts transmitted 
from Stations outside National Territories. 

Convention on Compulsory' Insurance against civil 
liability in respect of motor vehicles ( not yet in force). 

Convention on Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters. 

Convention on the Liability of Hotel-Keepers concerning 
the Property of their Guests. 

Convention on the supervision of conditionally sentenced 
or conditionally released offenders (not yet in force). 

Convention on the Punishment of road traffic offences (not 
yet in force). 

Convention on the Reduction of Cases of Multiple Nation- 
ality and on Military Obligations in Cases of Multiple 
Nationality (not yet in force). 

Agreement on Application of the European Convention on 
International Commercial Arbitration (not yet in force). 

European Code of Social Security. 

European Convention on Establishment of Companies 
(not yet in force). 

European Convention on the Adoption of Children (not 
yet in force). 


EXTERNAL RELATIONS 


Agreements providing for co-operation and ex- 
change of documents and observers have been con- 
cluded with the United Nations and its Agencies, and 
with most of the European inter-governmental 
organisations. Particularly close relations exist with 
the European Communities, OECD and Western 
European Union. Members of the European Parlia- 


ment hold an annual joint meeting with members of 
the Consultative Assembly. 

Israel is represented in the Consultative Assembly 
by observers, and certain European non-member 
countries have been invited to participate, through 
observers, in meetings of technical committees. 


138 



THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE 


BUDGET 


INCOME 


EXPENDITURE 

France, Federal Republic of Ger- 

/O 

The expenses of the Secretariat and all other 

many, Italy, United Kingdom . 

17.01 each 

common expenses are shared by member 

Turkey ..... 

10.49 

states, who bear the cost of their own 

Netherlands .... 

3-97 

delegations. 

Belgium . . . . 

3 -iS 


Austria, Greece, Sweden 

2 . 60 each 


Denmark, Switzerland 

1 . 75 each 


Norway ..... 

I .27 


Ireland ..... 

o -95 


Cyprus ..... 

0.32 


Iceland, Luxembourg, Malta 

0.16 each 


1966 Total . . 30m. French francs 

‘ 



PUBLICATIONS 

Forward in Europe: Every other month; a regular account of Council activities. 

Man in a European Society, Intergovernmental Work Programme of the Council of Europe 1967-6S. 
Official Records of Consultative Assembly debates, documents of the Assembly, texts adopted. 


SUMMARY OF STATUTE 


The Statute of the Council of Europe tvas signed in 
London on May 5th, 1949. It defines the aim of the 
Council, the conditions of membership and the com- 
position and tasks of its institutions. (For an account 
of the latter, see the section on Organization above.) 

The aim of the Council of Europe is stated by the 
Statute to be the achievement of “a greater unity 
between its members for the purpose of safeguarding 
and realizing the ideals and principles which are their 
common heritage and facilitating their economic and 
social progress”. Collaboration with the United 
Nations and other international organizations are not 
to be affected by membership of the Council. 


Every member state must “accept the principles of 
the rule of law and of the enjoyment by all persons 
within its jurisdiction of human rights and funda- 
mental freedoms, and collaborate sincerely and 
effectively in the realization of the aims of the 
Council". It is further laid down that "any European 
state deemed able and willing to fulfil these provisions 
may be invited by the Committee of Ministers to 
become a member of the Council”. This has later been 
modified by the Committee of Ministers, who now 
undertake to consult the Assembly before issuing an 
invitation to join. 


139 



COUNCIL FOR MUTUAL ECONOMIC AID 
COMECON— CMEA 


ul. Petrovka 14, Moscow 

The Council was founded in 1949 to develop jointly the resources and trade of the U.S.S.R. and Eastern Europe. 

The Mongolian People’s Republic was admitted in 1962. 


MEMBERS 

Hungary Romania 

Mongolian People’s Republic U.S.S.R. 

Poland 

OBSERVERS 

Democratic People's Republic of Korea 
Democratic Republic of Viet-Nam 

Republic of Cuba 


Bulgaria 

Czechoslovakia 

German Democratic Republic 


People’s Republic of China 
Yugoslavia 


ORGANIZATION 


SESSION OF THE COUNCIL 

Supreme organ of COMECON. Meets at least once 
yearly, in the capital of each member state in turn, all 
members being represented. Considers proposals from mem- 
bers, from the Executive Committee, Permanent Com- 
missions and Secretariat. Lays down programme of 
action for COMECON. 

executive committee 

Created at the 16th (Extraordinary) Session of the 
Council held in Moscow in June 1962 to take the place of 
the Conference of Members’ Representatives. Composed of 
the representatives of the member states at the level of 
Deputy Prime Minister, their deputies and advisers. 
Meets at least once every two months to examine proposals 
from member states, co-ordinates the work of the Perman- 
ent Commissions and directs the Council’s work between 
Sessions. The Chair is taken by members in succession. 
Members: Todor Tsolov (Bulgaria), Otakar Simunek 
(Czechoslovakia), Heinrich Weiss (German Demo- 
cratic Republic), Antal Apro (Hungary), Piotr 
Jaroszewicz (Poland), Gheorghe RAdulesku 
(Romania), Dandinguiyn Gombozhav (Mongolian 
People’s Republic), Mikhail Lesechko (U.S.S.R.). 

There is also a Bureau of the Executive Committee, for 
Common Questions of Economic Planning. Each member 
state is represented by the Deputy Chairman of the State 
Planning Organization. 

SECRETARIAT 

ul. Petrovka 14, Moscow. 

Secretary of Council: N- V. Faddeyev (U.S.S.R.). 

Deputy Secretaries: D. Ostrovski (Hungary), H. Emme- 
rich (German Democratic Republic), G. Zhelev 
(Bulgaria), Z. Zborovsky (Poland), K. Martinka 
(Czechoslovakia), N. Tabakopol (Romania). 


PERMANENT COMMISSIONS 

The Commissions foster economic, scientific and tech- 
nical co-operation between members. Each Commission 
has its own committee and sub-committees, on each of 
which all member states are individually represented. 
Economic Questions: Moscow; Chair. A. Bachurin. 
Agriculture: Sofia; Chair. N. Palagachev. 

Power: Moscow; Chair. P. Neporozhny. 

Coal Industry: Warsaw; Chair. J. Mitrenga. 

Machine Building: Prague; Chair. K. Polachek. 

Chemical Industry: Berlin; Chair. G. Wyschofsky. 
Ferrous Metals: Moscow; Chair. I. Kazanets. 

Non-Ferrous Metals: Budapest; Chair. F. LfivARDi. 

Oil an '} Gas: Bucharest; Chair. A. Boaba. 

Eight Industry: Prague, Chair. B. Makhachova. 

Food Industry: Sofia; Chair. A. Dimitrov. 

Transport: Warsaw; Chair. P. Lewi^ski. 

Construction: Berlin; Chair. G. Kosel. 

Foreign Trade: Moscow; Chair. N. Patolichev. 

Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy: Moscow; Chair. A. 
Petrosyants. 

Co-ordination of Scientific and Technical Research, 
Moscow; Chair. D. Gvishiani. 

Standardization: Berlin; Chair. R. Gorbing. 

Statistics: Moscow; Chair. V. Stakovski. 

Finance and Currency: Moscow; Chair. V. Garbuzov. 
Radio and Electronics Industries: Budapest; Chair. D. 
Horgosz. 

Geology: Ulan-Bator; Chair. M. Ralzhaye. 


140 



COUNCIL FOR MUTUAL ECONOMIC AID 

IMPORTANT SESSIONS OF THE COUNCIL 


1956 Berlin Examined co-ordination of economies 

for 1956-60. Adopted recommendations 
for trade in key machinery and equip- 
ment, raw material, fuel and foodstuffs. 
A number of permanent commissions 
were set up. 

1957 Warsaw Discussed development of sources of raw 

materials and fuels. 


1958 Prague 


1959 Tirana 


Sofia 


1961 Warsaw 


1962 Moscow 


Decisions to specialize and co-operate 
in chemicals and ferrous metals. De- 
cided to build an oil pipeline from the 
U.S.S.R. to Hungary, German Demo- 
cratic Republic, Poland and Czecho- 
slovakia. 

Discussed proposals to unify power 
systems and for specialization in ore 
mining, rolled steel, oil drilling, chemi- 
cals and machine building. 

Constitution of COMECON approved. 
Decided to carry out preparatory work 
on economic planning up to 1980. • 

Approved project for the International 
Socialist Division of Labour. Adopted 
resolutions for collaboration in agricul- 
ture and transport. 

Decision to set up an Executive Com- 
mittee of COMECON composed of the 
Deputy Chairmen of the Councils of 


Ministers of member states. Decided 
to form a number of new Permanent 
Commissions. COMECON Institute on 
Standardization established. Approved 
amendments to the Constitution to 
allow the admission of extra-European 
countries. Mongolian People’s Republic 
accepted as a member. 

Bucharest Announcement of withdrawal of 
Albania. Joint measures to further the 
development of agriculture. Permanent 
Commission on finance and currency 
established. 

1963 Moscow Decided to set up Permanent Commis- 
sion on radio and electronics industries 
and on geology. 

1965 Prague Co-ordination of development plans for 
1966-70. Ratification of agreement of 
September 1964 that Yugoslavia should 
participate in certain spheres of 
COMECON. 

1967 Budapest Proposals adopted for increasing speciali- 
zation and integration of production. 
Preparatory work on co-ordination of 
development plans for 1971-75. The 
Session was attended by a Yugoslav 
delegation. 


COMECON TRADE 


COMECON plans trade between member countries 
largely through long-term bilateral and multilateral trade 
agreements linked to the development plans oi the mem- 
ber countries. These plans are flexibly interpreted and 
adjusted year by year. Co-ordination has resulted in 


countries specializing in the growth and manufacture of 
goods they are best fitted to produce and in an increase in 
inter-COMECON trade. Trade between member countries 
comprises more than 60 per cent of their total foreign 
trade which is wholly conducted through state monopolies. 


AREA AND POPULATION 


Area 

(sq. kms.) 

U.S.S.R. 

Czecho- 

slovakia 

German ! 
Democratic 
Republic 

Poland 

i 

Hungary 

Romania 

1 

Bulgaria 

Mongolian 

People's 

Republic 

22,402,200 

127,85s 

108,302 

312,500 

93.030 

237.500 


1,565,000 

Population 

(1966) 

234,401, 000* 

14.239.s39 

1 

i 7 .° 79.654 

I 



19 , 030,000 

1 

S,’56,Soo 

1 

1.100,000 


* 1967 total. 


Ml 


















COUNCIL FOR MUTUAL- ECONOMIC AID 


TRADE BY COUNTRIES 


BULGARIA 

(Five-Year Plan 1961-65*) 


Fifteen years ago agriculture dominated the Bulgarian 
economy, whereas now heavy and light industry have a 
sizeable share. Industries showing the greatest increase 
are: chemicals and engineering, rubber and metals, build- 
ing and electricity. 

* Subsequently extended to 


Industrial production rose by 78 per cent between 1958 
and 1962. 

The U.S.S.R. gives Bulgaria massive economic aid. 
Bulgaria has trade agreements with East Germany, 
Romania and the U.S.S.R. 

1980 as Twenty-Year Plan. 


Trade within COMECON 

(million leva) 



Imports 

Exports 


1965 

1966 

1965 

1966 

Czechoslovakia 

German Democratic 

89-5 

91.2 

106.9 

73-5 

Republic 

99.0 

121 .7 

126.8 

125.9 

Hungary .... 
Mongolian People's 

23.0 

33-8 

25.6 

3° -9 

Republic 

n.a. 

n.a. 

n.a. 

n.a. 

Poland .... 

53-6 

50.0 

46.1 

51.6 

Romania 

xo.8 

1S.9 

16. 1 

17.4 

U.S.S.R. 

688.7 

826.6 

717.9 

776.4 


CZECHOSLOVAKIA 
(Five-Year Plan 1966-70) 


The Fourth Five-Year Plan aims to strike a balance 
between industry and agriculture; power and chemical 
industries are to be developed, machinery building 
modernized and consumer services improved. 

Czech industrial effort is concentrated on engineering 
and building products, fuel, power and metallurgy, as it 


has been for several years past. Industrial production rose 
by 43 per cent between 1958 and 1962. 

Czechoslovakia trades with over 25 countries on a 
substantial scale, but over a third of her trade is with the 
Soviet Union. There are trade agreements with Eastern 
Germany, Hungary, Poland and the Soviet Union. 


Trade within COMECON 


(million Czech crowns) 



Impc 

•RTS 



Exports 


1965 

1966 

1965 

1966 

Bulgaria 

German Democratic 

642 

460 

445 

587 

Republic 

2,073 

2,291 

1,995 

2,141 

Hungary .... 
Mongolian People's 

1.234 

1.237 

952 

952 

Republic 

38 

45 

51 

63 

Poland .... 

1,502 

1,294 

1,791 

i,7°3 

Romania 

679 

664 

496 

5 °o 

U.S.S.R. 

6,874 

<3,585 

7,364 

6,627 


142 


COUNCIL FOR MUTUAL ECONOMIC AID 


GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC 
(Seven-Year Plan 1964-70) 


The previous Seven-Year Plan 1959-65 was abandoned 
in 1963, certain difficulties having arisen in its fulfilment. 
Nevertheless, between 1958 and 1962 industrial production 
increased by 37 per cent (the Plan provided for an increase 
of 80 per cent between 1958 and 1965). 

The new Seven-Year Plan aims to increase investment 


from MDN 17,000 million to 28,000 million and to increase 
industrial output by 60 per cent. 

The first year (1964) of the new Seven-Year Plan gave 
priority to the development of power and the production 
of primary materials. Consumer goods are to take second 
place. 


Trade within COMECON 

(million marks) 



Imports 

Exports 


1965 

rg 66 

1965 

1966 

Bulgaria 

393-6 

454-7 

40S.5 

442.1 

Czechoslovakia 

1,103.4 

1,233-7 

1,225.8 

1,301.1 

Hungary .... 
Mongolian People’s 

521.0 

637-3 

531-8 

592.1 

Republic 

II .2 

10.5 

33-2 

17.9 

Poland .... 

588. s 

649.4 

1,131.6 

1,174.6 

Romania 

305-5 

279.1 

282.1 

358.2 

U.S.S.R. 

5,064.2 

5,814.8 

5 , 505-4 

5 , 36 i.i 


HUNGARY 

(Five-Year Plan 1966-70) 


The third Five-Year Plan 1966-70 envisages an in- 
creased rate of development over the second Plan, and 
there will be concentrated development in those branches 
of engineering concerned with exports. A rise of 40-45 per 
cent in the output of the engineering industry as a whole 
and 50-55 per cent in engineering exports is aimed for. 
Particular emphasis is to be placed on transport equip- 
ment manufacturing, which should double, telecom- 


munications engineering, instruments and machine tools; 
in 1965 these four branches produced 46.8 per cent of 
Hungary’s engineering exports, but it is hoped to increase 
their share to 65 per cent by 1970. Development will be 
stressed in the foundry and forging industries. 

There is a general trend for international co-operation 
in production, with component imports coming main!}' 
from socialist countries. 


Trade within COMECON 


(million foreign exchange forints) 



Imports 

Exports 


1965 

1966 

1965 

1966 

Bulgaria 

259.8 

333-6 

23 S - 5 

345 -o 

Czechoslovakia 

German Democratic 

1.57S.9 

1,561.5 

2,105.0 

2,011 .Q 

Republic 

Mongolian People's 

1,540.0 

i,7So.2 

T , 585-5 

1 ,848.6 

Republic 

3 i -4 

29-9 

33 - 1 

39-9 

Poland .... 

1,037 - 1 

1,076.2 

!.233-2 

1,233.6 

Romania 

456.0 

3S7.3 

337-3 

352. s 

U.S.S.R. 

6 , 495-9 

6,072 .9 

6,167.9 j 

6,184.5 


143 

















COUNCIL FOR MUTUAL ECONOMIC AID 


MONGOLIAN PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC 


(Five-Year 

The fourth Five-Year Plan 1966-70 lays ever-increasing 
emphasis on industry, but is dependent on foreign aid, 
mainly from the U.S.S.R., whose loans are to be 43 per cent 
higher than in the third Plan. Emphasis is placed on 
developing industry, particularly setting up a reliable fuel 


Plan 1966-70) 

and power basis, but there are also a number of schemes 
to improve communications and the rural economy. 
Mongolia’s trade is mainly with the Soviet Union and 
Eastern Europe. Until 1962 she took part in COMECON 
only as an observer. 


Trade within COMECON 

(million roubles) 



Imports 

Exp< 

)RTS 


i960 

1961 

i960 

1961 

Bulgaria 


0.8 

1. 1 

0.9 

Czechoslovakia 

German Democratic 


4.1 

5 -° 

4-7 

Republic 


i-7 

2.4 

3-7 

Hungary .... 


i-7 

1.4 

i-5 

Poland .... 


2 . I 

i-7 

2.1 

Romania 


o-3 

o-3 

0.4 

U.S.S.R. 


7 2 -5 

49.4 

49-9 


POLAND 

(Five-Year Plan 1966-70) 


The new Five-Year Plan 1966-70 aims to increase 
industrial production by more than 40 per cent by 1970, 
and to increase the flow of foodstuffs and consumer goods. 

Emphasis is being placed on raising the standard of 
living, modernizing the country’s economic structure, 
developing production capacity and securing employment 
for young people. 

The Plan envisages further expansion of foreign trade 


with non-socialist countries, but trade with other Com- 
munist countries continues to be of prime importance. 
Trade with the Soviet Union is likely to expand; some 70 
per cent of Polish engineering products go to the Soviet 
Union. There are trade agreements with Czechoslovakia, 
Hungary, the U.S.S.R. and the Democratic Republic of 
Germany. 


Trade within COMECON 


(million zlotys) 



Imports 

. 

Exports 


1965 

1966 

1965 

1966 

Bulgaria 

159. 1 

175.2 

179.7 

178.2 

Czechoslovakia 

German Democratic 

976.4 

932.5 

833.8 

713.2 

Republic 

1,085.4 

1,121 .2 

612.6 

642 . 4 

Hungary .... 
Mongolian People's 

422.8 

416.3 

343-7 

366.1 

Republic 

13.8 

9-9 

20.8 

11 - I 

Romania 

178.7 

164.1 

143-2 

184.9 

U.S.S.R. 

2,913.7 

3,166.8 

3.125.5 

2,964.7 


144 














COUNCIL FOR MUTUAL ECONOMIC AID 


ROMANIA 


(Five-Year Plan 1966-70) 


The Five-Year Plan (1966-70) envisages an annual 
industrial development rate of 10.5 per cent. Largest 
increases are in electric power, coalmining, fertilizers and 
motor vehicles. 

By the end of 1962 industrial output had increased eight- 
fold since 1948 and the increase is continuing. Hitherto a 
primarily farming and oil-producing country’, by i960 
two-thirds of Romania's national income accrued from 
industry. Nearly half her trade is with the U.S.S.R. and 
about 30 per cent with East Europe, Czechoslovakia and 


the German Democratic Republic being her best customers 
Although Romania still co-operates with the other mem- 
bers of COMECON, the economy moved sharply towards 
self-sufficiency’ during 1962 and 1963 and this movement 
has been continued with the signing of a number of trade 
agreements with western countries. 

Chief imports: iron and steel, machinery, vehicles, 
chemicals. Chief exports: oil, farm produce, timber, paper, 
industrial products. 


Trade within COMECON 

(million lei) 




Imports 

Exports 



1965 

1966 

1965 

1966 

Bulgaria 


78.4 

90.0 

55-3 

104.4 

Czechoslovakia 

German Democratic 


4 I 7-5 

41S.0 

57 1 0 

553-6 

Republic 


375 -o 

506.2 

430-4 

400.3 

Hungary . 

Mongolian People's 


168.6 

185-6 

230.7 

197.6 

Republic 

• 

4 0 

5 -o 

5-2 

4.9 

Poland 


222.4 

261.8 

269.7 

247.9 

U.S.S.R. 


2,436.9 

2 , 364-5 

2,630.6 

2,458.7 


U. S. S. R. 


(Five-Year Plan 1966-70) 


The aim of the Plan is to increase industrial output by 
47-50 per cent, agricultural output by 25 per cent and the 
National Income by 38-41 per cent. Production of electric 
power will be 64-68 per cent larger in 1970 than in 1965, 
production of instruments and automation equipment will 
rise by 72-77 per cent and that of chemical equipment by 
100-1 10 per cent, and the increase in the machine-building 
and metal-working industries -will amount to 60-70 per 
cent. 

The Plan provides for further development of the 
U.S.S.R.’s trade with socialist countries, extension of 
economic co-operation with developing countries and 
expansion of trade with other countries on the basis of 
mutual advantage. 

During the five-year period trade turnover with socialist 


countries will amount to 50,000 million roubles. Rational 
economic co-operation with COMECON countries is en- 
visaged in industry’, transport and trade, as well as in the 
spheres of credits, financial operations and foreign currency 
settlements. COMECON countries play an increasingly im- 
portant role in Soviet international economic relations; in 
195S they accounted for slightly’ over 50 per cent of 
U.S.S.R. foreign trade, but in 1965 their share had risen 
to 60 per cent. The U.S.S.R. is vitally important to the 
countries of Eastern Europe as a supplier of raw materials, 
and as a market for industrial products and food. The 
U.S.S.R.'s main customers are German Democratic Re- 
public (2S per cent), Czechoslovakia (21 per cent) and 
Poland (16 per cent). 


Trade within COMECON 

(million roubles) 



Imports 

Exports 

1965 

1966 

1965 

1966 

Bulgaria 


55 -J-o 

5SS.7 

529.6 

627.4 

Czechoslovakia 


93 i -9 

827 . 5 

S32.0 

804 . 6 

German Democratic 






Republic 


1.156.2 

1,114.2 

1,226.7 

1,266. 1 

Hungary . 


463. S 

46 o -7 

49* -3 

454 * 

Mongolian People's 






Republic . 


55-7 

56.1 

114.1 

142.2 

Poland 


702.6 

059.0 

659-0 

722.0 

Romania 

• 

396.9 

364.0 

362.5 

347-7 


145 



COUNCIL FOR MUTUAL ECONOMIC AID 


SUMMARY OF CHARTER 


The Governments of the People’s Republic of Albania, 
the People’s Republic of Bulgaria, the Hungarian People's 
Republic, the German Democratic Republic, the Polish 
People’s Republic, the Romanian People’s Republic, the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Czechoslovak 
Republic, 

Bearing in mind that the policy of economic co-operation, 
which is being successfully carried out by their countries, 
is a means of promoting the most rational development of 
their national economies, increasing their standard of 
living and strengthening the unity and solidarity of their 
countries; 

Being henceforth determined to develop close economic 
co-operation on the basis of the logical application of 
socialist principles of international division of labour, in 
order to build up socialism and communism in their 
countries and ensure the peace and security of the whole 
world; 

Being convinced that the development of economic 
co-operation between their countries will assist in the 
achievement of the aims laid down by the UN Charter; 
emphasizing their readiness to develop economic links with 
all countries, regardless of their social and political 
structure, on principles of equality, mutual advantage and 
non-interference in internal affairs; 

Recognizing the ever increasing role of the C.M.E.A. in 
the organisation of economic co-operation between their 
countries; 

Have therefore agreed to adopt the following Charter. 
Article I 

AIMS AND PRINCIPLES 

1. The aim of the C.M.E.A. is to assist, by uniting and 
co-ordinating the efforts of the Council’s member countries, 
in the systematic development of their national economies, 
the rapid advance of their economic and technical progress, 
an increase in the level of industrialisation in the less 
industrialized countries, the consistent growth of labour 
productivity and the steady improvement in the well-being 
of the peoples of the Council’s member countries. 

2. The C.M.E.A. is based on the principles of sovereign 
equality of all its member countries. 

The policy of economic and scientific/technical co- 
operation between the member countries is to be pursued 
in accordance with the principles of full equality of rights, 
respect for sovereignty and national interests, mutual 
advantage and the spirit of comradeship and mutual 
assistance. 

Article II 
MEMBERSHIP 

1. The founder members of the C.M.E.A. are the coun- 
tries which sign and ratify the present Charter. 

2. Membership is open to any other countries which 
share the Council’s aims and principles and shall have 
agreed to accept the obligations of membership con- 
tained in the present Charter. 

3. Any member country may leave the council, provided 
notice has first been given to the Registrar of the present 
Charter. Such notice becomes effective six months after 
its receipt by the Registrar. On receipt of such notice the 
Registrar will inform the member countries of the 
Council. 


4. The member countries of the Council agree; 

(al to abide by and carry out all recommendations which 
they receive from the Council’s official organs; 

(b) to assist the Council and its officials in carrying out 
the tasks envisaged in the present Charter; 

(c) to provide the Council with the material and the 
information required to fulfil the tasks which it 
undertakes; 

(d) to keep the Council informed of progress in carrying 
out all recommendations accepted in the Council. 

Article III 

FUNCTIONS AND POWERS 

1. In accordance with the aims and principles laid down 
in Article I of the present Charter, the functions of the 
C.M.E.A. are as follows: 

(a) to organize: 

close economic and scientific/technical co-operation 
between the Council’s member countries with a view 
to the most rational use of their natural resources 
and the rapid development of their productive 
capacity; 

the preparation of recommendations concerning 
the most important questions of economic relations 
resulting from the member countries’ economic 
development plans, with a view to co-ordinating 
these plans; 

(b) the study of economic problems which are cur- 
rently of concern to the Council’s member countries; 
to assist the member countries in the development 
and achievement of joint enterprises in the following 
fields: 

industrial and agricultural development of the 
member countries on the basis of the logical applica- 
tion of the principle of international division of 
labour in accordance with socialist principles, and 
on the basis of specialization and co-operative 
effort in production; 

the development of transport 'with a view to 
providing basic facilities for the growing volume of 
member countries’ exports and imports and transit 
goods; 

the most effective use of the investment capital 
allotted by member countries to the fulfilment of 
projects which are being carried out on the basis of 
joint participation; 

the increase by member countries of the exchange 
of goods and services both among themselves and 
with other countries; 

exchange of information on scientific/technical 
achievements and advanced methods of production; 

(c) to undertake other measures, as may be required for 
the achievement of the Council’s objectives. 

2. The constituent bodies of the C.M.E.A., acting 
within the limits of their competence, are empowered to 
adopt recommendations and decisions in accordance with 
the present Charter. 

Article IV 

RECOMMENDATIONS AND DECISIONS 

1. Recommendations are adopted on questions of eco- 
nomic and scientific/technical co-operation. Recommenda- 
tions are communicated to member countries for considera- 
tion. 


146 


COUNCIL FOR MUTUAL ECONOMIC AID 


Member countries carry out the recommendations they 
receive by decisions oi their Governments or other compe- 
tent bodies in accordance with their legislative processes. 

2. Decisions relate to organizational and procedural 
matters. Unless otherwise provided for therein, decisions 
come into force on the day on which the minutes of the 
meeting of the appropriate body of the Council are signed. 

3. No recommendations or decisions can be adopted in 
the Council without the consent of interested member 
countries, and any country may declare an interest in any 
question under consideration by the Council. 

Recommendations and decisions do not apply to members 
who have declared themselves as having no interest in the 
question concerned. But any such member may sub- 
sequently associate itself with recommendations and 
decisions adopted by the other member countries of the 
Council. 

Article V 

CONSTITUENT BODIES 

1. For the purpose of carrying out the functions and 
exercising the powers laid down in Article III of this 
Charter the C.M.E.A. is divided into the following basic 
constituent bodies: 

Session of the Council; 

Conference of Members’ Representatives; 

Standing Committees; 

Secretariat. 

2. Other bodies, as may be necessary, may be consti- 
uted in accordance with the present Charter. 


Article VI 

SESSION OF THE COUNCIL 
Article VII 

CONFERENCE OF MEMBERS’ REPRESENTATIVES 
Article VIII 

PERMANENT COMMISSIONS 

Article IX 
SECRETARIAT 

Articles X and XI 

RELATIONS WITH OTHER COUNTRIES AND 
WITH INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 

Articles XII and XIII 

FINANCIAL QUESTIONS AND MISCELLANEOUS 
RESOLUTIONS 

Articles XIV and XV 

LANGUAGES, RATIFICATION, ENTRY INTO 
FORCE 

Article XVI 

PROCEDURE FOR AMENDING THE CHARTER 
Article XVII 

CONCLUDING RESOLUTIONS 


147 


DANUBE COMMISSION 

Benczur utca 25, Budapest, Hungary 

Telephone: 228-085. 

The Danube Commission Convention was signed in Belgrade in 1948. The Commission controls the flow of 

shipping on the Danube. 


MEMBERS 

Austria Czechoslovakia U.S.S.R. 

Bulgaria Hungary Yugoslavia 

Romania 


ORGANIZATION 


THE ANNUAL SESSION 
President (1966-69): V. Bogdanov (Bulgaria). 
Vice-President: D. Turcu? (Romania). 

Secretary: T. Lajti (Hungary). 

Sessions are held once a year. A Session may adopt a 
resolution by a simple majority with a quorum of five, but 
important decisions require the attendance of the full 
Session. The President, Vice-President and Secretary are 
elected for three years by a simple majority. Resolutions 
are in the form of recommendations and are passed to 
member states for internal legislation. The Session appoints 
Expert Groups which meet between two Sessions as 
required. 


SECRETARIAT AND SERVICES 

The Secretariat has two sections: correspondence, 
publications and archives, and administration and 
management. In addition the Commission has four 
services departments: technology, navigation, hydro- 
meteorology, and planning and statistics. A separate 
department is responsible for accounts. Staff is drawn 
from all the member countries. 

Director: L. J. Kapikraian (U.S.S.R.). 

Assistant Director (Secretariat): F. SvAtek (Czecho- 
slovakia) . 

Assistant Director (Services): S. Simeonov (Bulgaria). 
Assistant Director (Accounts) : Franz Feik (Austria). 


ACTIVITIES 


General Work Plans. Based on proposals of the Danubian 
States and the special river administrations. The Com- 
mission assesses total expenditure for any large plans and 
carries out the work if a single state cannot do so. It 
consults continually with member states and river adminis- 
trations while work is proceeding. 

Uniform Navigational System. Navigational rules have 
been unified and manuals of navigational procedure 
published. To secure observations of these rules a river 
inspection system has been set up, with functions laid 
down by the Commission. 

Manuals for River Users. Publications include pilots' 
charts covering most of the Danube, sailing directions, 
mileage charts and lists of temporary winter quarters. 

Co-ordination in Hydro-Meteorological Services. Liaison 
has been improved for the provision of hydro-meteoro- 
logical information and water-level forecasts. Assessing 
water-levels is carried out by a uniform method. 

Hydrotechnical Services. Steps are being taken to measure 
the minimum dimensions of locks and bridges and the 


minimum heights of high-tension cables and telephone 
lines. The Commission works out statistical surveys noting 
the appearance of sandbanks, and classifies the results. A 
similar analysis is being made of glacial activity. 

Customs, Sanitary, Veterinary and Phytosanitary Regula- 
tions. The Commission has undertaken to formulate 
uniformly applicable rules. 

Legal Problenis. The Secretariat of the Commission 
studies the most important legal questions connected with 
shipping on the Danube and submits its proposals to the 
Commission. 

International Co-operation. The Commission works 
closely with many international bodies, including the UN 
Economic Commission for Europe, the International 
Atomic Energy Agency, ITU and the World Health 
Organization. An agreement of collaboration and co-opera- 
tion was signed with the World Meteorological Organiza- 
tion in 1962. In 1965 the Commission became a member of 
the Permanent International Association of Navigation 
Congresses. 


148 



DANUBE COMMISSION 

BUDGET 

1:967 : 5,514,840 forints. 

Member countries pay an equal annual contribution to the costs of the Commission. 


LANGUAGES 

The official languages are Russian and French. 


Proceedings of the Sessions. 

Danube Uniform Marking System. 
Basic Regulations of Navigation. 
River Supervision. 

Pilots' Charts. 

Survey Map. 

Mileage Chart. 

Sailing Directions. 


PUBLICATIONS 

Hydro-meteorological Co-ordination. 
Installation of Buoys. 

Danube Signalling Stations. 

Winter Ports and Temporary Winter 
Quarters. 

Danubian Ships. 

Danube Profile. 

Control of Ice on the Danube. 


Danube Maintenance (annual). 
Statistical Bulletin (annual). 
Hydrological Bulletin (annual). 
Compilation of Inland Laws concerning 
Shipping on the Danube. 

Compilation of Agreements on Danube 
Navigation. 



EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY 


Established December 1967, the Community provides an institutional and legal framework to strengthen the 
Common Market between Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda and has absorbed the common services and research 
activities formerly controlled by the East African Common Sendees Organization. 


Kenya 


MEMBERS 

Tanzania Uganda 


ORGANIZATION 


EAST AFRICAN AUTHORITY 

Responsible for the general direction and control over 
the executive functions of the Community. Composed of 
the Presidents of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. Three 
East African Ministers assist the Authority in the exercise 
of its executive functions and advise it generally on the 
affairs of the Community. The East African Ministers have 
no national responsibilities but are able to attend and 
speak at meetings of the Cabinet of the country by which 
they were nominated. 

East African Ministers: A. Z. Nsilo Swai, Dr. I. K. 

Majugo, J. Odero-Jowi. 

EAST AFRICAN LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY 

Replaces the Central Legislative Assembly. Legislates 
for services provided by the Community, but does not 
debate the Estimates of the four Corporations. 

Members: nine from each state, the three East African 

Ministers and Deputy Ministers, Secretary-General, 

Counsel to tire Community, and a Chairman. 

COMMON MARKET COUNCIL 

Main organ for the supervision of the functioning and 
development of the Common Market; keeps its operation 
under review; settles problems and disputes arising from 
the implementation of the Treaty concerning the Common 
Market; considers methods of creating closer economic and 
commercial links with other States, associations of States 
and international organizations. 

Members: the three East African Ministers, three National 
Ministers from each country. 

Other Councils 

The following four Councils have also been established as 
consultative organs to advise Member States and the 


Community on planning and the co-ordination of policies, 

each is composed of the three East African Ministers and a 

varying number of national Ministers from each conntrj. 

Communications Council 

Economic Consultative and Planning Council 

Finance Council 

Research and Social Council 

COMMON MARKET TRIBUNAL 

Composed of a Judicial Chairman, three members (one 
from each country) and a fourth chosen by the other three, 
only member states are permitted to refer disputes to the 
Tribunal, although the Common Market Council may seek 
advisory opinions. Decisions, w'hich are binding on 
member states, are reached by a majority vote. 

CENTRAL SECRETARIAT 

Arusha, Tanzania 

Assists the Common Market Council by collecting 
facts and referring to it matters for examination. Specific 
projects under investigation include higher education, 
electric power, tourism, siting of research stations. 
Secretary-General : Baberi Hosea Kwamya Bigirwenkya. 
Counsel to the Community: B. C. W. Lutta 

COURT OF APPEAL FOR EAST AFRICA 

P.O.B. 30187, Nairobi 
Permanent Members: 

President: Mr. Justice C. D. Newbold, c.m.g. 

Vice-President: Sir Clement de Lestang. 

Justices of Appeal: S. A. Crabbe, W. a. H. Duffus, J. F. 

Spry, E.J.E. Law. 

Registrar: R. Gaffa. 

This Court, which was established in 1951, hears 
appeals from the Courts of Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya- 


150 



EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY 


EAST AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK 

Kampala, Uganda 


Established 1967, the Bank’s aims are as follows: 

To provide financial and technical assistance to pro- 
mote the industrial development of the member states; 
priority is given to industrial development in the 
relatively less developed countries and about 77 per 
cent of ordinary and special funds are to be invested in 
Tanzania and Uganda over consecutive five-year 
periods. 

To further the aims of the East African Community 
by financing, wherever possible, projects designed to 
make the economies of the member states increasingly 
complementary in the industrial field. 

To co-operate with national development agencies in 


the three countries in financing operations, and also with 
other institutions, both national and international, that 
are interested in the industrial development of member 
states. 

The Bank’s members are the three governments together 
with such other non-governmental bodies, enterprises and 
institutions whose membership is approved by the govern- 
ments. Total initial subscriptions by the governments 
totals Sh. 120 million and the total authorized capital 
is twice that amount. The Bank is administered by a 
Board of Directors appointed by the members. 

Directors: Charles Rvbia, S. Iv. Mukasa, K. H. Ameik. 


COMMUNITY CORPORATIONS 


The four Community Corporations are self-accounting, 
statutory bodies. The Railways, Habours, and Tele- 
communications Corporations are each controlled by a 
Board of Directors consisting of a Chairman, three 
members (one from each member state) appointed by the 
East African Authority, and a Director-General. Board of 
Directors of the Airway Corporation is composed of a 
Chairman, Director-General, two members appointed by 
the Authority and two by each member state. 

East African Railways Corporation: P.O.B. 30121, Nairobi; 
regional headquarters in each State; takes over the 
functions exercised by the East African Railways and 
Harbours; Director-General Dr. E. Njuguxa Gakuo. 
East African Harbours Corporation: Dar es Salaam, 
Tanzania; takes over the harbours functions formerly 
exercised by the East A fricav Railways and Harbours; 
Director-General C. Tamale. 


East African Posts and Telecommunications Corporation: 

P.O.B. 3031 1, Nairobi; formerly the East African Posts 
and Telecommunications, the service has been self- 
contained and self-financing since January' 1949; there 
are regional headquarters in each member state; 
Director-General J. Keto. 

East African Airways Corporation: Embasasi Airport, 
P.O.B. 19002, Embakasi, Kenya; Uganda Office: 
P.O.B. 523, Kampala; Tanzania Offices: Airway's 
Terminal, Tancot House, P.O.B. 543, Dar es Salaam, 
and P.O.B. 773, Zanzibar; operates extensive services 
throughout Keny'a, Tanzania and Uganda; also regular 
services to Europe and the United Kingdom, Aden, 
Pakistan and India, Zambia and Malawi; there is a 
Director of Civil Aviation in each member country 
under the authority of the Director-General; Director- 
General Wilson' Okumu Lutap.a. 


COMMUNITY SERVICES 


Community Service Commission: P.O.B. 30466, Nairobi; f. 
1957 as the Public Service Commission; establishment 
organization of the Community; no responsibilities in 
relation to the four Corporations. 

East African Common Services Organization Information 
Office: P.O. Box 30005, Nairobi; news and informa- 
tion service for press, radio, magazines, and for the 
public. Arranges visits, exhibitions, and lectures, and 
produces literature. 

East African Council for Industrial Research and Develop- 
ment: To be established and to control five specialized 
institutions in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Ethiopia and 
Zambia. 

The East African Directorate of Civil Aviation: P.O. Box 
3 °i 63, Nairobi; established under the Air Transport 


Authority' in 194S; to advise on all matters of major 
policy affecting Civil Aviation within the jurisdiction of 
the East African Common Services Organization, on 
annual estimates and on Civil Aviation legislation; the 
Area Control Centre and an Area Communications 
Centre are at East African Common Services Organiza- 
tion, Nairobi. Air traffic control is opciated at Nairobi, 
Dar es Salaam, Entebbe and Mombasa airports, at 
Wilson (Nairobi) Aerodrome and aerodromes at Arusha, 
Ki sumu, Mwanza, Malindi, Mbeya, Moshi, Mtwara, 
Tanga and Zanzibar; Dir. R. H. R. Davies. 

East African Industrial Council: P.O. Box 30019, Nairobi; 
grants licences for the scheduled class of products 
included under the East African Industrial Licensing 
Ordinance; Chair. P. B. MatkmUa. 


151 


EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY 


East African Industrial Research Organization: P.O. Box 
1578, Nairobi; f. 1942; research and advisory service in 
the technical problems of industrial development, Dir. 
M. G. Edwards. 

East African Institute of Malaria and Vector-Borne 
Diseases: P.O., Amani, Tanganyika: f. 1949; work is 
divided between fundamental research, the application 
of knowledge to East African problems and the 
dissemination of knowledge among those concerned 
with antimalarial operations in East Africa and else- 
where, research concerns chiefly malaria, onchocerci- 
asis and bilharziasis and their vectors; Dir. J. L. M. 
Lelijveld; publ. Annual Report. 

East African Institute for Medical Research: P.O.B. 1462, 
Mwanza, Tanzania: formerly the East African Medical 
Survey; Dir. V. M. Eyakuze; publ. Annual Report. 

East African Leprosy Research Centre: (The John Lowe 
Memorial); P.O.B. 1044, Busia, Tororo, Uganda; Dir. 
Dr. Y. Otsyula. 

East African Literature Bureau: P.O. Box 30022, Nairobi; 
f. 1948; to encourage the publication and sale of books 
and magazines. Runs travelling and postal library 
services; pubis, literacy teaching materials for adult 
education; Dir. N. M. L. Sempira. 

East African Marketing Research Institute: To be estab- 
lished; research in food and agriculture marketing. 

East African Meteorological Department: P.O. Box 
30259. Nairobi; headquarters and Central Forecasting 
Organization including synoptic analysis at Nairobi; 
Regional Headquarters, including international avia- 
tion forecast offices at Dar es Salaam, Entebbe and 
Nairobi international airports. Responsible for collec- 
tion and study of meteorological data for all parts of 
East Africa, pure and applied research, allied geo- 
physics, including seismology and geomagnetism, 
services to aviation; Dir. C. M. Taylor; publ. Annual 
Report. 

East African Natural Resources Research Council: P.O.B. 
30005, Nairobi; f. 1963; Chair. Chief A. S. Mkwawa; 
responsible for the co-ordination of research relating to 
the Natural Resources of East Africa, especially as 
regards: 

East African Fresh Water Fisheries Research Organi- 
zation: Jinja, Uganda; Dir. Dr. Watts. 

East African Marine Fisheries Research Organization: 

Zanzibar; Dir. B. E. Bell. 

The Tropical Pesticides Research Institute: Arusha, 

Tanzania; Dir. Dr. A. Smith. 

East African Agriculture and Forestry Research Organi- 
zation: P.O.B. 30148, Nairobi, Kenya; f. 1948; 
planning of research; soil science; plant genetics and 
breeding; forestry; systematic botany; animal 
industry; library of 20,000 vols.; Dir. O. Starnes; 
publ. Annual Report. 


The East African Veterinary Research Organization: 

Muguga, P.O. Kabete, Kenya; f. 1948; for research 
on diseases and conditions of importance to the 
East African territories and the production of 
vaccines against rinderpest and pleuropneumonia. 
Disease research includes virus infections of live- 
stock with special emphasis on rinderpest and 
rinderpest-like diseases, tick-borne diseases, especi- 
ally the Theilerias, Bovine pleuropneumonia and 
Helminthiasis. The physiology, metabolism and 
genetics of cattle, are aspects of animal production 
being studied; Dir. M. L. Burdin; publ. Annual 
Report. 

East African Statistical Department: P.O. Box 30462, 
Nairobi; to provide statistical data on an East African 
basis; publ. Economic and Statistical Review (quarterly); 
Dir. D. Mwiraria. 

East African Tax Board: Includes representatives of the 
Customs and Excise and the Income Tax Departments 
(see below), the Community and the three Governments; 
tasks include correlation of the taxation systems of the 
three countries, keeping under review the work of the 
two taxation departments and ensuring their co-ordina- 
tion, assisting in taxation planning. There are Com- 
missioners in each Member State under the authority 
of two Commissioners General. 

East African Customs and Excise Department: P.O.B. 
9061, Mombasa, Kenya; f. 1949; Commissioner- 
General I. Omolo. 

East African Income Tax Department: P.O.B. 30165, 
Nairobi; responsible for the assessment and collec- 
tion of Income Tax in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania, 
and for the assessment of Asian and European 
Hospital Tax in Kenya. Offices in Nairoi, Mombasa, 
Nakuru, Kampala, Dar es Salaam, Arusha, Tanga 
and Zanzibar Town 

East African Trypanosomiasis Research Organization: 

P.O. Box 96, Tororo, Uganda; the laboratories study 
sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in animals; 
main lines of research; immunology, entomology, 
epidemiology, biochemistry, treatment and prevention 
of diseases; Dir. Dr. R. J. Onyango; publ. Annual 
Report. 

East African Virus Research Institute: P.O. Box 49, 
Entebbe, Uganda; f. 1936 by the Rockefeller Founda- 
tion as the Yellow Fever Research Institute, it was 
taken over by the East African High Commission and 
by the East African Common Services Organization in 
1950. Work on yellow fever is now only one side of the 
general research on viruses especially those carried by 
arthropoda; Dir. G. W. Kavuko; publ. Annual Report. 

Office of the East African Council for Medical Research: 

P.O. Box 30005, Nairobi; to direct and co-ordinate the 
activities of the East African Institute for Medical Re- 
search. The East African Virus Research Institute, The 
East African Institute of Malaria and Vector-Borne 
Diseases and the East African Leprosy Research Centre. 


152 



EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY 


SUMMARY OF TREATY FOR EAST AFRICAN CO-OPERATION 


Signed at Kampala, Uganda, on June 6tli, 1967, by the Presidents of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. 


Preamble 

Refers among other points to the fact that Tanzania, 
Uganda and Kenya have enjoyed close commercial, 
industrial and other ties for many years, and to the 
determination of the three Partner States to strengthen 
these ties and their common services, by the establishment 
of an East African Community, and a Common Market as 
an integral part of the Community. 

Chapter i 
(Articles 1-4) 

Aims and institutions 

General undertaking included that the three countries 
shall make every effort to plan and direct their policies 
with a view to creating conditions favourable for the 
development of the Common Market and the achievement 
of the aims of the Community. 

Chapter 2 
(Articles 5-8) 

External Trade 

Three countries to maintain a Common External Tariff. 

Three countries will not enter agreements whereby 
tariff concessions negotiated with any country outside the 
Community are not available to all three countries. 

Three countries will take effective measures to counteract 
any deviation of trade, resulting from barter agreements, 
away from goods produced in East Africa to goods produced 
outside the Common Market. 


Chapter 3 
(Articles 9-16) 

Inter-Territorial Trade 

Guarantees freedom of transit across one State of goods 
destined for another country, subject to the normal customs 
and other rules. 

Customs duty collected on goods imported into one of 
the three countries, but in transit to another, shall go to 
the second country. 

Prohibits internal tariffs (except for the transfer tax; 
sec below), and quantitative import restrictions upon goods 
produced in East Africa. Exceptions made in respect of 
good covered by certain special obligations, certain 
agricultural goods, and for restrictions imposed for certain 
defined reasons (e.g. control of arms and munitions) or in 
defined circumstances (e.g. balance of payments difficul- 
ties). 

One country must not engage in discriminatory practices 
against goods from cither or both of the other countries. 


Chapter 4 
(Articles 17-1S) 

Excise Tariffs 


Removal of present differences in the excise tariff whicl 
the Common Market Council determines to be undesirable 


in the interests of the Common Market, and establishment 
of a generally common excise tariff. 

Excise duty collected on goods produced in one country, 
but transferred to another country, to be transferred to the 
second country'. 

Chapter 5 
(Articles 19-21) 

Measure to Promote Balanced Industrial Development 

1. Harmonization of fiscal incentives offered by each 
country towards industrial development. 

2. The Transfer Tax System: 

The Transfer Tax: States which are in deficit in their 
total trade in manufactured goods with the other two 
States may' impose transfer taxes upon such goods 
originating from the other two countries, up to a value of 
goods equivalent in each case to its deficit with that 
country'. A transfer tax can only' be imposed if goods of a 
similar description to those taxed are being manufactured, 
or are reasonably' expected to be manufactured within 
three months, in the tax-imposing country. The industry 
to be protected by the tax must have a productive capacity 
equivalent to at least 15 per cent of the total domestic 
consumption of such products in the tax-imposing country' 
or to a value of 2 million shillings E.A., whichever is the 
less. 

Rate of Transfer Tax: limited to 50 per cent of the 
equivalent external customs tariff imposed on such goods 
coming from outside East Africa. 

Collection: Customs and Excise Department of East 
Africa responsible for collection, administration and 
management of all transfer taxes; costs to be borne by the 
country' or countries which imposed transfer taxes. 

Limitations: No transfer tax can be imposed for longer 
than eight years, and all such taxes arc to be revoked 
fifteen years after the Treaty' comes into force. There will 
be an examination of the effectiveness of the system five 
years after the first tax is imposed. 1 f a significant deviation 
of trade takes place to goods produced outside the Common 
Market, as a result of the imposition of transfer taxes, 
measures shall be taken to counteract such a deviation. If a 
tax -protected industry' is able to export 30 per cent of its 
annual production to the other two countries, the transfer 
tax must be revoked, and if its exports to all countries 
reach 30 per cent, the situation can be considered by the 
Common Market Council. A country which comes into So 
per cent balance in its total trade in manufactured goods 
inside East Africa loses the right to impose new transfer 
taxes, although existing taxes will continue in force. 

Anti-Dumping Provisions: Prohibit the transfer of 
manufactured goods at a price lower than their true value, 
in such a way as to prejudice the production of similar 
goods in each Partner State, and prohibit export subsidies 
for such goods (other than tax incentives and refunds of a 
general and non-discriminatory kind). 

3. Establishment of the East African Development Dank 
(see above). 


158 



EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY 


Chapter 6 
(Article 23 

Industrial Licenses 

Present system of industrial licensing shall continue, in 
respect of articles now scheduled, until twenty years have 
expired since the commencement of the original legislation. 

Chapter 7 
(Articles 24-28) 

Currency and Banking 

Exchange of currency notes of the three countries (but 
not coin) at official par value without exchange commission 
and without undue delay (subject to exchange control laws 
and regulations not in conflict with the Treaty) . 

Bona Fide current account payments between the three 
countries permitted; all necessary permissions and 
authorities to be given without undue delay. 

Controls may be exercised on capital payments and 
transfers under certain conditions. Monetary policies to be 
harmonized; meetings of the three Central Bank Governors 
to be held at least four times a year. 

Reciprocal credits may be given by one Partner State 
to help another which is in need of balance of payments 
assistance, up to defined limits and for a period of not more 
than three years. 

Chapter 8 
(Article 29) 

Other Fields of Co-operation 

Harmonization of commercial laws in each State; co- 
ordination of surface transport policies. 

Chapter 9 
(Articles 30-31) 

Common Market Council 

(See above: Organization) 

Chapter 10 
(Articles 32-42) 

Common Market Tribunal 

( See above: Organization) 

Chapter ii 
(Articles 43-45) 

Functions of the Community 

The Community will operate the sendees formerly 
controlled by the East African Common Sendees Organiza- 
tion (EACSO); also to perform services on an agency 
basis, as agreed by the Authority, and pass laws on certain 
matters. 

Chapter 12 
(Articles 46-48) 

East African Authority 

(See above: Organization) 

Chapter 13 
(Articles 49-51) 

East African Ministers 

(See above: Organization) 


Chapter 14 

(Article 52) 

Deputy East African Ministers 

Allows the Authority, if at any time it considers it 
desirable, to appoint three Deputy East African Ministers 
to assist the Ministers. 

Chapter 15 
(Articles 53-55) 

Five Councils 

Establishes the following Councils: Common Market 
Council, Communications Council, Economic Consultative 
and Planning Council, Finance Council, Research and 
Social Council ( see above: Organization). 

Chapter 16 
(Articles 56-60) 

East African Legislative Assembly 

(See above: Organization) 

Chapter 17 
(Articles 61-64) 

Staff 

Provides for the senior staff of the Community, including 
a Secretary General and a Counsel to the Community, and 
for the establishment of a Community Service Commission, 
which will have no responsibilities in relation to staff of 
the new Corporations. 

Chapter 18 
(Articles 65-70) 

Finance 

Creation of a General Fund and special funds, and the 
authorization of Community expenditure. 

General Fund: to be financed by customs and excise 
revenue and the tax on gains or profits of companies 
engaged in manufacturing or finance. 

Distributable Pool Fund: had been operated under the 
East African Common Services Organization (EACSO) to 
maintain those common services which are not self- 
supporting; the remainder of the Pool was distributed to 
Uganda and Tanzania. The Fund is to be retained, but to 
be distributed equally to the three countries. It is to cease 
altogether after the Partner States have paid the second 
instalment of their full initial subscriptions to the paid-in 
capital of the Development Bank. 

Chapter 19 
(Articles 71-79) 

Four Corporations within the Community 

(See above: Regional Corporations) 

Chapter 20 
(Articles 80-81) 

Court of Appeal for East Africa 

Court of Appeal for Eastern Africa to continue as Court 
of Appeal for East Africa. 


154 



EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY 


Chapter 22 
(Articles 83-86) 

Decentralization 

Location of headquarters and the new East African Tax 
Board. 

Chapter 23 

Auditor-General 

Provides for audit and the functions of the Community 
Auditor-General. 

Chapter 24 
(Article 88) 

Transitional Provisions 


Chapter 25 
(Articles 89-96) 

General Provisions 

Treaty to come into force on 1st December 1967; parts of 
Treaty dealing with Common Market to remain in force for 
fifteen years and then to be reviewed; other countries may 
negotiate for association with the Community or for 
participation in its activities; modification of the Treaty 
by common agreement; implementation measures by way 
of national legislation in the three countries; abrogation 
of the EACSO Agreements and past agreements on the 
Common Market. 


STATISTICS 

FINANCE 

Exchange Rates 
1 shilling E.A. = 100 cents 

£ 1 sterling=i7 shillings 17 cents $1 = 7 shillings 15 cents 

BUDGET* 

{£) 


Revenue 

1967-6S 

Government of the United Kingdom 

S95.949 

Government of Tanganyika 

698,383 

Government of Uganda .... 

53®, 573 

Government of Kenya .... 

1,064,179 

Government of Zanzibar 

49.582 

General Fund Resources 

3.47°. S 3 I 

General Fund Reserve .... 

1,045,682 

Reimbursements ..... 

784,607 

Rents and Sundry Revenue 

Sn.279 

Other Contributions .... 

507.419 

Total ..... 

9,864,484 


Expenditure 

1967-6S 

Court of Appeal for Eastern Africa . 

6S,6g8 

Central Legislative Assembly . 

47.262 

Public Service Commission 

29,928 

Office of the Secretary General 

315,24s 

Office of the Legal Secretary . 

50,469 

Treasury ...... 

338,922 

Miscellaneous Services .... 

1.807,335 

E.A. Customs and Excise 

1,498,784 

E.A, Income Tax ..... 

IA 72,739 

Industrial Research .... 

75,358 

Natural Resources Research . 

I ,000,521 

Medical Research ..... 

418,970 

E.A. Literature Bureau .... 

54-22S 

E.A. Directorate of Civil Aviation . 

1,309,100 

E.A. Meteorological Department 

595,918 

Higher Education ..... 

965,226 

Audit Department .... 

115,778 

Total ..... 

9,864,484 


* Refers to East African Common Services Organization (EACSO). 



EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY 


INTER-TERRITORIAL TRADE 

(£‘ooo) 

KENYA 


Countries 

Imports 

Exports 

1963 

1964 

1965 

1966 

1963 

1964 

1965 

1966 

Tanzania 4 

Uganda . 

2,915 1 

6,24s 

4,110 

7»344 

4.569 

7.135 

3,806 

7 . 3 W 

10,365 

9.425 

13.299 

12,581 

14,087 

15,339 

13,282 

15.619 

Total 

9 , 163 

”.454 

n, 7°4 

mm 

19,790 

25,880 

29,426 

28,901 


TANZANIA 


Countries 

Imports 

Exports 

1963 j 

1964 

1965 

1966 

1963 

1964 

1965 

1966 

■ — 

Kenya 

Uganda . 

10,365 

i ,993 

13,299 ! 

2.442 

14,087 

2,592 

13,282 

3,120 

2.915 

508 

4,110 

1,021 

m 

■ 

Total 

12,358 

15.741 

16,679 

16,402 

3.423 

E2K 

5.915 

4,64s 


UGANDA 


Countries 

Imports 

I 

Exports 

1963 j 

1964 

1965 

1966 

1963 

1964 | 

1965 

1966 

Kenya 

9,425 

12,581 

1 

15.339 

15,619 

6,248 

7.344 

7,135 

7,317 

Tanzania 4 

50S 

1,021 

1.346 

i- 

842 

1,993 

2,442 

2,592 

3,120 

Total 

9,933 

13,602 

16,685 

16,461 

8,241 

9,786 

9,727 

io ,437 


* Excluding Zanzibar. 


TRANSPORT 


Rail, Road, and Water Transport- — Passenger, Livestock and Goods Traffic 


Item 

Unit 

1964 

1965 

196G 

Passenger Traffic: 

Number of Passenger Journeys including Season Tickets 

Total Passenger Receipts ...... 

Number of Passenger Train Miles ..... 

Goods Traffic: 

Public Tonnage Hauled ....... 

Railway Tonnage Hauled ....... 

Total Goods Traffic Tonnage Hauled ..... 

Total Goods Traffic Ton Miles ...... 

Revenue from Public and Railway Paying Traffic 

Livestock Carried — Revenue ...... 

Parcels and Luggage Carried — Revenue .... 

Mails Carried — Revenue ....... 

’000 

I'ooo 

*00 0 

'000 

'000 

'000 

'000 
£ 000 
£000 
,Tooo\ 
£’ooo J 

4,281 

1,719 

2,489 

4,252 

1.639 

2,496 

4,529 

1,716 

2,163 

4,224 

958 

4,400 

911 

5,032 

908 

5,182 

5,311 

5,940 

1,954,930 

18,269 

343 

586 

2,068,091 

19,915 

366 

565 

2,407,092 

22,898 

403 

637 


156 






































EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY 


EAST AFRICAN RAILWAYS 

Track Mileage 


| Main 

j Lines 

1 

Principal 

Lines 

Minor and 
Branch Lines 

Single Track 
Lines 

Worked but not 
owned by Administra- 
tion 

Total 

1963 . 

2,689 

754 

720 

HBjpf 

107 

— 

1964 . 

2,690 

845 

696 


98 


19G5 . 

2,697 

846 

723 


9S 

■HkI 

1966 . 

2,698 

850 

724 

■ 1 

98 

mm 


CIVIL AVIATION 

East African Airways Corporation 


Detail 

1963 

1964 

1965 

1966 

Aircraft Mileage 


7 , 745 .°°° 

8,162,000 

8,454,000 

8,800,000 

Passengers Carried 


229,670 

236,400 

242,000 

284,000 

Cargo Carried (Tons) 


3.594 

4.857 

4.°57 

4,2oS 

Mail Carried (Tons) . 


906 

I.I 34 

1,015 

1,019 

Capacity Ton Miles Offered 


46 , 55 2 .°°° 

53,882,000 

51,525,000 

59,481,000 

Load Ton Miles Carried . 

. 

25.879.°°° 

30,318,000 

27,312,000 

31,219,000 

Gross Revenue 


£7.623,000 

£8,281,000 

£8,853,000 

£10,412,000 
























THE EASTERN EUROPEAN 
MUTUAL ASSISTANCE TREATY— 
THE WARSAW PACT 

Headquarters of the Joint Command: Moscow 


The Eastern European Mutual Assistance Treaty (The Warsaw Pact) was signed in Warsaw in May 1955- The 
Treaty supplemented agreements already in existence between the U.S.S.R. and: Poland (1945), Bulgaria, 

Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland and Rumania (1948). 


Albania 

Bulgaria 

Czechoslovakia 


MEMBERS 

German Democratic Republic 
Hungary 


Poland 

Romania 

U.S.S.R. 



ORGANIZATION 


MEETINGS OF FOREIGN MINISTERS 

The first was held in Warsaw in April 1959, the latest 
in Warsaw in February 1967. 

POLITICAL CONSULTATIVE COMMITTEE 

The Committee was intended to meet not less than twice 
a year, but in fact there have been fewer meetings, the 
most recent being in July 1966 in Bucharest. The chairman- 


ship is the prerogative of the U.S.S.R. Delegations of 
member states normally include the First Secretary of the 
Party, the Chairman of the Council of Ministers, the 
Minister oi Defence and the Foreign Minister. 

JOINT COMMAND OF THE ARMED FORCES 

Set up in 1955 under the general supervision of the 
Political Consultative Committee. 


158 


THE WARSAW PACT 


Commander-in-Chief: Marshal Ivan Yakubovsky 

(U.S.S.R.). 

Chief Of Staff: Gen. Mikhail Kazakov (U.S.S.R.). 

Deputies: The military commanders of the member states 
Albania: Beqiur Balluku. 

Bulgaria: Gen. of the Army Dobri Dzhurov. 
Czechoslovakia: Gen. of the Army Bohumil Lomsky. 
German Democratic Republic: Gen. of the Army Karl 
Heinz Hoffmann. 


Hungary: Lt.-Gen. Karoly Csemi. 

Poland: Marshal Marian Spychalski. 

Romania: Col. -Gen. Ion Ionita. 

U.S.S.R.: (Vacant). 

COMBINED GENERAL STAFF 

Composed of representatives of the eight member states 
with headquarters in Moscow. 


WARSAW PACT FORCES 

(July 1967) 



Total 

Army 

Navy 

Air Force 

Strategic 
Rocket Force 

U.S.S.R 


3,190,000 

2,000,000 

465,000 

500,000 

225,000 

Poland ..... 

- 

270 , 00D 

185,0 00 

15,000 

70,000 

— 

Romania .... 


198,000 

M 

vl 

b 

0 

0 

S.ooo 

15,000 


Czechoslovakia 


225,000 

175,000 

— 

50,000 

— 

Bulgaria ..... 


154,000 

125,000 

7,000 

22,000 

— 

German Democratic Republic 


127,000 

85,000 

I 7,000 

25,000 

— 

Hungary ..... 


107,000 

100,000 

— 

7,000 

— 

Albania ..... 


38,000 

30,000 

3,000 

5.000 



IMPORTANT EVENTS 


1955 May. Warsaw Pact signed. 

June. Pact came into force. 

Joint Command set up. 

1956 January. Political Consultative Committee 
meeting in Prague. Decision to add units of 
the new East Germany army to the Joint 
Command. 

October. Soviet troops called in to Hungary 
under the Warsaw Pact. 

1958 May. Political Consultative Committee meeting 
in Moscow. 

Decisions to: 

Reduce the armed forces of Eastern Europe 
by 119,000. 

Withdraw Soviet forces in Romania in the 
near future. 

Reduce in 1958 the number of Soviet troops 
in Hungary. 

Propose a non-aggression pact between the 
Warsaw Treaty' Organization and NATO. 

*959 April. Meeting of Foreign Ministers in Warsaw. 
The future of Germany was the main subject 
of discussion. 

1960 February. Political Consultative Committee 
meeting in Moscow. No further reductions in 
the armed forces announced, but members : 
agreed on common policy at the coming 
Disarmament and Summit Conferences. 

1961 March-April, Political Consultative Committee j 
meeting in Moscow. Discussion of NATO, 
Germany, and the future of Berlin. 


August. Meeting of First Secretaries of Warsaw 
Pact countries in Moscow. Preparations for a 
German Peace Treaty. 

September. Meeting of Defence Ministers and 
Chiefs of Staff in Moscow. 

December. Diplomatic relations between the 
U.S.S.R. and Albania severed, since when 
Albania has played virtually no part in War- 
saw Pact activities. 

1962 January-February. Conference of Ministers of 
Defence held in Prague. 

June. Meeting of Political Consultative Com- 
mittee held in Moscow. 

1963 February. Conference of Ministers of Defence 
held in Warsaw. 

July. Meeting of Political Consultative Com- 
mittee held in Moscow. 

1965 January. Meeting of Political Consultative 
Committee held in Warsaw. 

May. Meeting of senior staff officers in the 
Carpathians. 

June. Meeting of Foreign Ministers in Moscow. 

1966 July. Meeting of Political Consultative Com- 
mittee in Bucharest. 

1967 Jnlf- Marshal Yakubovsky appointed Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the Warsaw Pact forces. 
December. Meeting of Foreign Ministers held in 
Warsaw to discuss aid to Arab countries and to 
issue an ultimatum to Israel. Yugoslavia repre- 
sented. 


159 




THE WARSAW PACT 


THE WARSAW TREATY 


Article One 

The contracting parties pledge themselves in conformity 
with the Charter of the UN to refrain in their international 
relations from a threat or use of force, and to resolve their 
international disputes by peaceful means in such a way 
so as not to threaten international peace and security. 

Article Two 

The contracting parties declare that they are ready to 
participate in the spirit of sincere co-operation in all inter- 
national actions aimed at safeguarding international peace 
and security and will fully dedicate their efforts to the 
realisation of these aims. The contracting parties will 
strive for the adoption by agreement with other States 
desiring to collaborate in this matter of effective measures 
for the general reduction of armaments and the prohibition 
of atomic, hydrogen and other weapons of mass destruction. 

Article Three 

The contracting parties shall consult each other on all 
important international questions affecting their common 
interests, being guided by the requirements of strengthen- 
ing international peace and security. They shall consult 
with each other without delay at any time when in the 
opinion of any one of them a threat arises of armed attack 
on one or several States signatory to the Treaty, in the 
interests of ensuring joint defence and the maintenance of 
peace and security. 

Article Four 

In case of armed attack in Europe on one or several 
States signatory to the Treaty, by any State or group of 
States, each State signatory to the Treaty, by way of 
exercising the right to individual or collective defence, in 
conformity with Article 5 1 of the UN Charter, shall render 
the State or States subjected to such attack immediate aid 
individually and by agreement with other States signatory 
to the Treaty, with all the means which it shall deem 
necessary, including the use of armed force. The States 
signatory to the Treaty shall immediately consult each 
other as to the joint measures which must be taken to 
secure and maintain international peace and security. The 
measures adopted on the basis of this Article will be 
reported to the Security Council in conformity with the 
Articles of the UN Charter. These measures will be 
terminated as soon as the Security Council launches 
measures necessary for the restoration and maintenance of 
international peace and security. 

Article Five 

The contracting parties have agreed to set up a Joint 
Command of their armed forces to be placed, by agreement 
between the Powers, at the disposal of this Command 
acting on the basis of jointly established principles. They 
shall also take other co-ordinated measures necessary for 
the strengthening of their defensive capacity in order to 
protect the peaceful labour of their peoples, guarantee the 
integrity of their frontiers and territories and ensure 
defence against possible aggression. 

Article Six 

With the object of carrying out consultations provided 


by the present Treaty between the States participating in 
the Treaty and for the examination of questions arising in 
connection with the realisation of this Treaty, a Political 
Consultative Committee is being set up in which each State 
participating in the Treaty will be represented by a member 
of its Government or another specially appointed rep- 
resentative. The Committee may set up any auxiliary 
organs it considers necessaiy. 


Article Seven 

The contracting parties pledge themselves to refrain 
from taking part in coalitions or alliances of any kind and 
from concluding any agreements the aims of which conflict 
with the aims of this Treaty. The contracting parties 
declare that their commitments under existing inter- 
national Treaties are in no way contradictory to the 
provisions of this Treaty. 


Article Eight 

The contracting parties declare that they will act in the 
spirit of friendship and co-operation with the aim of further 
developing and strengthening economic and cultural rela- 
tions between them, following the principles of mutual 
respect for their independence and sovereignty and non- 
interference in domestic affairs. 

Article Nine 

The Treaty is open for accession to other States, irre- 
spective of their social and State systems which may 
express their readiness by means of participating in this 
Treaty to promote the unification of the efforts of the 
peace-loving countries for the purpose of ensuring peace 
and the security of the peoples. Accession to the Treaty 
shall enter into force by agreement with the States par- 
ticipating in the Treaty after the document of accession 
has been deposited with the Government of the Polish 
People’s Republic. 

Article Ten 

The present Treaty is subject to ratification, and the 
ratification instruments shall be deposited with the 
Government of the Polish People’s Republic. The Treaty 
shall enter into force on the day when the last ratification 
instrument has been deposited. The Government of the 
Polish People’s Republic shall inform the other States 
signatory to the Treaty of the depositing of each ratifica- 
tion instrument. 

Article Eleven 

The present Treaty shall remain in force for 20 years. 
For the contracting parties who do not hand to the 
Government of the Polish People's Republic a declaration 
denouncing the Treaty one year before the expiration of 
this term it shall remain in force for the following 10 years. 
Should a system of collective security be set up in Europe 
and an all-European treaty of collective security concluded 
for this purpose, towards which the contracting Powers 
will continue to aspire, the present Treaty is to lose its 
validity on the day on which an all-European treaty comes 
into force. 


160 



EUROPEAN ASSOCIATION OF MUSIC FESTIVALS* 

122 rue de Lausanne, Geneva, Switzerland 


Aix-en-Provence . 

Athens 
Bath . 

Bayreuth . 

Bergen 

Berlin 

Besanjon . 

Bordeaux . 

Copenhagen 

Dubrovnik . 
Edinburgh . 

Flanders 

Florence 

Granada 

Helsinki 


MEMBERS 


Casino d'Aix-en-Provence, a bis boule- 
vard de la Republique, Aix-en- 
Provence. Tel: 26 30 33. 

4 Philhellinon Street, Athens. Tel: 
230-049. 

Bath Festival Office, Linley House, 
Pierrepont Place, Bath. Tel: Bath 
2531 - 

Bayreuther Festspiele, Postfach 2320, 
8580, Bayreuth 2. Tel: 57 22. 

Sverres gate 11, Bergen. Tel: 30 010. 
Bundesallee 1-12, 1 Berlin 15. Tel: 
8 81 04 41. 

Syndicat d'lnitiative, 19 rue de la 
Republique, Besanyon. Tel: 

82 52 35- 

Commissariat du Festival, 252 Fau- 
bourg St.-Honore, Paris 8e. Tel: 
924 97 2S. 

Festival Ticket Office, Kongens 
Nytorv 21, Copenhagen K, Tel: 
Byen 648. 

Ul. Od Sigurate x, Dubrovnik. Tel: 

26 17, 23 39, 23 45. 

Edinburgh International Festival of 
Music and Drama, 29 St. James’s 
St., London, S.W.X. Tel: 839 2611. 
Studio Ghent, St-Margrietstraat 26, 
Ghent. Tel: 09 259740, 09 254749- 
Maggio Musicale Fiorentino, Tcatro 
Comunale, Corso Italia 16, Florence. 
Tel: 262 S41. 

Direccibn General de Bellas Artes, 
Alcala 34, Madrid. 

Sibelius Festival Foundation. Union- 
inkatu, Helsinki zo. 


Holland 

Lucerne 

Munich 

Perugia 

Portugal 

Prague 


Santander . 

Spoleto 
Stocldiolm . 
Strasbourg 
Vienna 

Wiesbaden 

Warsaw 

Zurich 


Holland Festival Office, Gevers Dey- 
nootweg 134. Schcveningen. Tel: 
The Hague 55 87 00. 

Internationale Musikfestwochen, 
Schweizerhofquai 4, Lucerne. Tel: 
041-2 52 22. 

Intendanz der Baycrischen Staats- 
oper, Munich. Tel: 2 IS 51 (ext. 
21S5). 

Ufficio C.I.T., Corso Vannucci 2, 
Perugia. Tel: 56 xoi, 30 147. 

Fundagao Calouste Gulbcnldan, Ser- 
vico de INIusica, Lisbon. Tel: 
76 21 46. 

International Music Festival, “Prague 
Spring”, Dum Umelcu, Alesovo 
Nabrezi 12, Prague 1. Tel: 635-82. 

Direccion del Festival, Plaza de 
Velarde, Apartado 258, Santander. 
Tel: 22 425-27 3S2. 

Festival of Two Worlds, Via Margutta 
17, Rome. Tel: 671 863. 

Stockholm Festival, Norra Smcdjc- 
gatan 13, Stockholm. Tel: 20 31 27. 

Festival de Strasbourg, 24 rue de la 
Mesange, Strasbourg. Tel: 32 43 10. 

Osterreichisches Verkehrsburo, Fried- 
richstrasse 7, 1010 Vienna. Tel: 
57 23 15-57 57- 

Intemationale Maifeslspiclc, Staats- 
theater, Wiesbaden. Tel: 3 93 31. 

International Festival of Contempor- 
ary Music, "Warsaw Autumn”, 27 
Rynek Starego Miasta, Warsaw. 
Tel: 31 16 34. 

Internationale Juni-Fcstwochen, Por-t- 
fnch S023, Zurich. Tel: 051/25 67 00. 


CORRESPONDING MEMBERS 

Israel . . Israel Festival, Migdal Shalom, o 

Ahad I-Iaam St., Tel- Aviv. Tel: 
51602. 

Osaka . . Osaka International Festival Society, 

2-22 Nakanosbima, Ivitaku Osaka, 
Japan. Tel: 231-60S5, 953 1 ( cxt - 
403-5)- 

In November 1906 it was decided to include gcographic- 
allv non-European festivals in the Association, since thcsc- 
fcstivals contribute to the diffusion of European culture. 


The Salzburg Festival is not a member of the Association. 



EUROPEAN ASSOCIATION OF MUSIC FESTIVALS 


FESTIVALS 1968 


Osaka 


April i ith-April 30th 

Dubrovnik 

July ioth-August 25th 

Flanders . 


May 6th-June 8th 

Munich 

. July i6th-August 10th 

Prague 


. May iath-June 4th 

Bayreuth . 

. July 25th-August 28th 

Portugal . 


. May i6th-June 7th 

Israel 

July 3oth-Septembor 1st 

Bordeaux . 


. May iyth-June 2nd 

Athens 

. July-September 

Vienna 


. May 1 8 th- June 16 th 

Santander 

August ist-August 31st 

Bergen 


. May 22nd-June 5th 

Lucerne . 

. August i4th-September 8th 

Zurich 


. End of May-Early July 

Flanders . 

August I5th-September 15th 

Florence . 


. May-J une 

Edinburgh 

. August i8th-September 7th 

Strasbourg 


. June yth-June 23rd 

Copenhagen 

August 

Holland . 


. June I5th-July 9th 

Besangon . 

September 3rd-September 15th 

Bath 


. June 2oth-June 30th 

Perugia 

. September I5th-September 29th 

Spoleto 


, June 2ist-July 14th 

Warsaw . 

September 2ist-September 29th 

Granada . 


. June 23rd-July 6th 

Berlin 

. September 22nd-October iotli 

Aix-en-Provence 

. July yth-July 28th 

Stockholm 

. September 


162 



EUROPEAN BROADCASTING UNION— EBU 

Founded 1950 in succession to the International Broadcasting Union to promote the development of radio and 
television, to assist the study of broadcasting and to exchange information. 

Seat, Secretariat-General, Administrative Office and Department of Legal Affairs: 

1 rue de Varembi, 1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland. 

Technical Centre: 32 avenue Albert Lancaster, Brussels 18, Belgium. 


MEMBERS 


Austria . . Osterreichischer Rundfunk Ges.m.b.H. 

— ORF. 

Belgium . . Radiodiffusion-Television Beige — RTB. 

Denmark . . Danmarks Radio — DSR. 

Finland . . Oy. Yleisradio Ab. — YLE. 

France . . Office de Radiodiffusion-Tdlevision Fran- 

9aise — ORTF. 

German Federal . Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Offentlich- 
Republic Rechtlichen Rundfunkanstalten der 

Bundesrepublik Deutschland — ARD. 

Zweites Deutsches Femsehen — ZDF. 

Greece . . Hellenic National Broadcasting Insti- 

tute. 

Iceland . . Rikisutvarpid. 

Ireland . . Radio Telefis Eireann. 

Israel . . Israel Broadcasting Authority — Kol 

Yisrael. 

Italy . . Radiotelevisione Italiana — RAI. 

Lebanon . . Ministere de l’Orientation et de 

l'lnformation. 

Luxembourg . Radio-Tele-Luxembourg. 

Monaco . . Radio Monte-Carlo — RMC. 


Netherlands . Sticliting Nederlandsche Radio-Unie — 
NRU. 

Nonvav . . Norsk Rikskringkasting — NRK. 

Portugal . . Enu'ssora Nacional de Radiodifusao 

— ENR. 

Radiotelevisao Portuguesa — RTP. 

Spain . . Direccion General de Radiodifusidn y 

Television. 

Sweden . . Sveriges Radio — SRT. 

Switzerland . Societe Suisse de Radiodiffusion et Tc-ld- 
vision — SSR. 

Tunisia . . Radiodiffusion-Teldvisiou Tunisienne 

— RTT. 

Turkev . . Radiodiffusion-Teldvision Turque — 

TRT. 

United Kingdom British Broadcasting Corporation — BBC. 

Independent Television Authority and 
Independent Television Companies 

Association Ltd. — ITA/ITCA. 

Vatican State . Radio Vaticana. 

Yugoslavia . Jugoslovenska Radiotclcvizija. 


ASSOCIATE 

Algeria . . Radiodiffusion-Television Algerienne. 

Australia . . Australian Broadcasting Commission. 

Federation of Australian Commercial 
Television Stations. 

Brazil . . Associasao Brasileira de Emissoras de 

Radio e Tclevisao. 

Diarios Associados Ltda. 

Emissoras Unidas de Radio e Tclevisao. 
Canada . . Canadian Broadcasting Corporation — 

La Societe Radio-Canada. 

Ceylon . . Ceylon Broadcasting Corporation. 

Chad . . Radiodiffusion Rationale Tchadienne. 

Congo . . Radiodiffusion Rationale Congolaise. 

Cyprus . . Cyprus Broadcasting Corporation. 

Dahomey . . Radiodiffusion du Dahomey. 

Galxm . . Radiodiffusion-T£levision Gabonaise. 

Ghana . . Ghana Broadcasting Corporation. 

I Initi . . Service dcs Telecommunications. 

' rnn ■ . National Iranian Television and National 

Iranian Radio. 

Ivory Coast . Radiodiffusion Television Ivoirienne. 

Japan . , Nippon Hoso Kvokai. 

National Association of Commercial 
Broadcasters in Japan. 

Tokyo Broadcasting System, Inc. 

Nippon Educational Television Com- 
pany. Ltd. 


MEMBERS 


Kenya 

. The Voice of Kenya. 

Liberia 

. Liberian Broadcasting Corporation. 

Malawi 

. Malawi Broadcasting Corporation. 

Malta 

. Broadcasting Authority — Malta, and 
Malta Television Service Ltd. 

Mexico 

. Telesistcma Mexicano S.A. 

Morocco . 

. Radiodiffusion-Television Marocaine. 

New Zealand 

. New Zealand Broadcasting Corporation. 

Niger 

. Radio-Niger. 

Nigeria 

. Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation. 

Pakistan . 
Republic of 

. Radio Pakistan. 


South Africa . South African Broadcasting Corporation. 


Rhodesia . . Rhodesia Broadcasting Corporation. 

Tanzania . . Tanzania Broadcasting Corporation. 

United States . American Broadcasting Companies, Inc. 

Broadcasting Foundation of America. 
Columbia Broadcasting System, Inc. 
National Association of Educational 
Broadcasters. 

National Broadcasting Company, Inc. 
National Educational Television. 
Time-Life Broadcast, Inc. 

U.S. Information Agency. 

Upper Volta . TlndiodifTusion-Ti-lcvFion Voltavpu-. 



EUROPEAN BROADCASTING UNION 


ORGANIZATION 


GENERAL ASSEMBLY 

The supreme body of EBU. Composed of representatives 
of member organizations. Meets annually. 

ADMINISTRATIVE COUNCIL 

Elected by the General Assembly and is responsible for 
the general policy of EBU. Members: representatives of 
broadcasting organizations in Denmark, Finland, France, 
German Federal Republic, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, 
Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and Yugoslavia. 
President (1967-68): J. B. Broeksz (Netherlands). 
Vice-Presidents (1967-68): Sir Hugh Greene (U.K.), J. B. 
Dupont (France). 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

Legal Committee: Chair. H. Brack (German Federal 
Republic). 

Technical Committee: Chair. E. L. E. Pawley (U.K.). 
Television Programme Committee: Chair. M. Bezen^on 
(Switzerland). 

Sound Broadcasting Programme Committee: Chair. R. 
Wangermee (Belgium). 


ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE 

Carries on general administration of EBU. 

Director: H. Hahr (Sweden). 

Head, Eurovision Section and Television Programme Com- 
mittee Secretariat: M. Vilcek. 

Head, Radio Section and Radio Programme Committee 
Secretariat: A. Dean. 

TECHNICAL CENTRE 

Comprises the Technical Directorate, the International 
Television Co-ordination Centre (Eurovision), the Receiv- 
ing and Measuring Centre, and the Technical Committee 
Secretariat. 

Director: G. Hansen (Belgium). 

DEPARTMENT OF LEGAL AFFAIRS 

Legal assistance to member broadcasting organizations 
and permanent secretariat of the Legal Committee. 
Director: G. Straschnov (France). 


ACTIVITIES 


Television: Examples of the work of the EBU Television 
Programme Committee and its permanent staff in Geneva 
may be found in the planning and organization involved 
in transmitting the World Football Championships over 
Eurovision from the United Kingdom in 1966, or the 
Olympic Games from Mexico in 1968. An important daily 
operation is the multilateral exchange of news between 
television services via the Eurovision network. This some- 
times includes satellite transmissions to and from North 
America. The Committee and its Study Groups also assist 
systematic co-operation among EBU members. This 
includes co-production and exchange of programmes, and 
the study of specialized material, e.g. education by 
television, agricultural programmes, and programmes for 
children and young people. The Committee organizes staff 
training courses, and programme screening sessions. It 
also supports approved international festivals. 

Eurovision: At the beginning of 1967 the Eurovision 
network linked 23 television services in 18 European 
countries (Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia can also be linked 
by special arrangement). The total number of connected 
transmitting stations was approximately- 3,468, serving 
over 53 million licensed television sets. 

Radio: The activities of the Radio Programme Com- 
mittee include the widespread exchange of EBU members’ 
radio programmes and musical materials, the organization 
of international concerts, choral competitions, etc., joint 
productions, and the commissioning of dramatic works. 
The Committee and its permanent staff in Geneva also 
co-ordinate the planning and organization involved in the 
radio coverage of sports and news events, the commemora- 
tion of important anniversaries, etc. 


Legal: The nature of broadcast programming involves 
words, texts, music, singing, dancing, performance, 
recording, etc. All this involves legal and contracted rights 
(copyright, performers’, phonographic and others) whose 
use is as a rule controlled internationally. This is exempli" 
fied in the Universal Copyright Convention, the Berne 
Convention, the Rome Convention, the international 
performers’ federations, etc. It is the purpose of the EBU 
Legal Committee and its permanent secretariat, Study 
Groups and various negotiating delegations to look after 
the interests of the broadcaster in this complex situation. 
The Legal Committee seeks to advance development by 
co-operating at the international level with such bodies as 
BIRPI (United International Bureaux for the Protection 
of Intellectual Property) and Unesco in drafting model 
legislation on copyright, and in individual situations 
expert advice is provided on request such as the drafting 
of national copyright legislation, contracts, etc. 

Technical: Eurovision, the technical co-ordination of 
which is carried out by the Technical Centre, is a well- 
known example of EBU collaboration, but the member- 
organizations co-operate in many other matters within the 
framework of the Technical Committee and its Working 
Parties, to contribute to the general development of 
broadcasting. Their work includes, inter alia, the study of 
satellite transmission, standardization (e.g. in colour 
television, stereophony, recording of sound and television 
programmes), the study of wave propagation, frequency 
planning and the quality and protection of broadcast 
transmissions. As in other spheres, the EBU Technical 
Committee and permanent staff in Brussels work closely- 



EUROPEAN BROADCASTING UNION 


with many other international organizations, including the 
International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and its 
consultative committees (CCIR and CCITT), its Inter- 
national Frequency Registration Board (IFRB), its con- 


ferences on frequency assignment, the International 
Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and its International 
Special Committee on Radio Interference (CISPR), and 
the International Standards Organization (ISO). 


TELEVISION LICENCES 


Country 

1962 

1963 

1964 

1965 


Austria .... 

375.909 

450,292 

571,746 

708,636 

S34.999 

Belgium .... 

1,017,503 

1,206,322 

1,382,409 

1,138,736 

481,149 

Denmark 

851,482 

927,373 

1,020,233 

1,083,875 

1,140,371 

Finland .... 

336,129 

475,847 

622,693 

732,321 

822,691 

France .... 

3,426,839 

4,400,278 

5.414.276 

6,399,014 

7,471,192 

German Federal Republic . 

7,213,486 

8,538,570 

10,023,988 

11,379,049 

12,719,599 

Irish Republic . 

127,448 

201,095 

258,988 

296,572 

320,061 

Italy .... 

3,465,087 

4,296,797 

5,229,772 

6,059,384 

6,874,543 

Luxembourg . 

13,011 

17,168 

24,526 

30,960 

36.297 

Netherlands 

1,275,000 

1,574.395 

1,836,474 

2,109,620 

2,369,997 

Norway .... 

204,018 

291,798 

407,190 

489,579 

573.757 

Portugal .... 

89,642 

118,512 

151.464 

181,759 

210,913 

Spain .... 

360,000 

1,000,000 

1,250,000 

1,750,000 

2,325,000 

Sweden .... 

1,630,598 

1,820,765 

1,963,682 

2,084,880 

2 160 435 

Switzerland 

274,010 

366,938 

492,868 

662,108 

754.161 

United Kingdom 

12,230,987 

12,789,483 

13,154,682 

13.515,894 

13.919,191 

Yugoslavia 

125.845 

205,270 

393.572 

577,227 

777.299 

Total 

33,0x6,994 

38,680,903 

44,197.563 

49,596,614 

53.791.655 


PUBLICATIONS 

EBU Review (monthly in English and French editions). 
The Review, which publishes authoritative and up-to- 
date statistics on licence fees, radio and television 
licences, Eurovision programming, etc., is divided into 
two parts: Technical (Brussels), General and Legal 
(Geneva). 

Monographs, reports, brochures, pamphlets on broad- 
casting. 

Lists of European broadcasting stations. 















THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES . 

THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY— EEC 
(The Common Market) 

THE EUROPEAN COAL AND STEEL COMMUNITY- ECSC 
THE EUROPEAN ATOMIC ENERGY COMMUNITY— EURATOM 


lie three European Communities are legally separate but share a common European Parliament and Court of 
ustice. There are common legal, statistical and information services. A treaty merging the Councils of Ministers 
f the three Communities into a single Council and the Commissions into a single Commission was signed in 

April 1965; the joint merger took place in July 1967. 



MEMBERS AND ASSOCIATES 

MEMBERS 

Belgium 

France 

German Federal Republic 
Italy 

Luxembourg 

Netherlands 

ASSOCIATED EUROPEAN STATES 

Greece 

Turkey 


Burundi 

Cameroon 

Central African Republic 
Chad 

Congo (Brazzaville) 

Congo (Democratic Republic) 


ASSOCIATED STATES 
(under Yaound6 Convention) 

Dahomey 
Gabon 
Ivory Coast 
Madagascar 
Mali 

Mauritania 


Niger 

Rwanda 

Senegal 

Somalia 

Togo 

Upper Volta 


ASSOCIATED OVERSEAS TERRITORIES 
(under Yaound6 Convention) 

Comoro Islands Guadeloupe Reunion 

Djibouti (French Somaliland) Martinique St. Pierre et Miquelon 

French Austral Lands Netherlands Antilles Surinam 

French Guinea New Caledonia Wallis and Futuna Islands 

French Polynesia 


1 GG 




THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


CHRONOLOGY 


1950 May 


1951 April 


1952 July 

1953 Feb. 

May 

1954 Dec. 


1955 June 

1957 Mar. 

1958 Jan. 

1959 Jan. 


i960 July 


Robert Schuman proposed that the 
French and Federal German coal and 
steel industries be placed under a com- 
mon authority'' in a community open to 
other European nations. 

European Coal and Steel Community 
(ECSC) Treaty signed in Paris. 

ECSC Treaty came into force. 

Introduction of ECSC Common Market 
for coal, iron ore and scrap. 
Introduction of ECSC Common Market 
for steel. 

Agreement of Association between 
ECSC and U.K. 

Messina Conference. 

EEC & Euratom Treaties signed, Rome. 

EEC and Euratom Treaties came into 
force. 

First 10 per cent reduction of EEC 
internal tariffs. 

Introduction of Euratom Common 
Market. 

Second 10 per cent reduction of EEC 
internal tariffs. 


July ECSC Council examines common energy 

policy. 

Aug. Agricultural Common Market starts for 
grains. 


Dec. EEC Council of Ministers offers new 
form of Association to countries covered 
by the Association Convention and 
now independent. 

1963 Feb. Breakdown of negotiations between 
United Kingdom and EEC. 


July Internal tariffs reduced by xo percent. 
Second movement of 30 per cent to- 
wards a common external tariff. 
Signature of Yaounde Convention 
associating seventeen African states 
and Madagascar with EEC. 

Sept. Agreement of Association with Turkey. 


Dec. Trade agreement with Iran into force. 

EEC Council takes basic decisions ex- 
tending common farm policy to rice, 
dairy produce and beef. 


1964 June Trade Agreement signed with Israel. 

Convention of Association with Associ- 
ated States and with Associated Over- 
seas Territories ratified. 


Dec. 


1961 Aug. 
Sept. 


Nov. 


Common Market time-table accelera- 
ted. Internal tariffs reduced by further j 
10 per cent. j 

First 30 per cent alignment towards a j 
common external tariff. j 

Applications for membership of EEC 
received from U.K., Denmark, Ireland. | 

Conclusion of Agreement of Association J 
with Greece. 

i 

Talks open between EEC and U.K. 


Dec. Applications for Association received ! 
from Austria, Sweden and Switzerland. ! 
Further 10 per cent reduction of EEC 
internal tariffs. I 


Dec. 
1962 Jan. 
Feb. 

April 

June 


Abolition of industrial quotas. 

End first stage EEC transition period. 

Agreement with U.S.A. on reciprocal 
tariff cuts for industrial goods. 

EEC Council takes decisions on basic 
common agricultural policy for grains, 
pigment, fruit and vegetables. 

Norway applies to join EEC. 

Further 10 per cent reduction in EEC 
internal tariffs. 


1 


1 

i 


Sept. Common policy for rice came into oper- 
ation. 

Nov. Common policy for dairy produce and 
beef came into operation. 

Dec. Council decision to apply common 
grain prices from July 1st, 1967. 
Agreement of Association with Turkey 
ratified. 

1965 Jan. Internal tariffs reduced by 10 per cent. 

March Trade agreement with Lebanon. 

April Commission proposal for financing 
common agricultural policy, indepen- 
dent Community revenues, increased 
budgetary powers for European Parlia- 
ment. 

Treaty for merging the Community 
institutions signed. 

June Council of Ministers takes basic de- 
cisions on common transport policy. 
Council fails to agree on farm policy 
financing. 

July France starts boycott of Council of 
Ministers. Seeks revision of majority 
voting rule and limitation of role of 
Commission. 



THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


1966 Jan. 


May 


July 


Dec. 


1967 Feb. 


Beginning of third stage of transitional 
period. Qualified majority voting be- 
comes possible in Council of Ministers 
on most questions. 

France returns to Council of Ministers 
at special session in Luxembourg. 
Agreement to differ about application 
of majority voting in cases of vital 
national interests. 

Council agrees on financing of common 
agricultural policy up to end of transi- 
tional period. July 1st, 1968, set for 
implementation of common farm prices, 
removal of final internal customs duties 
and full application of common ex- 
ternal tariff. 

Council agrees common policies for 
sugar, vegetable fats and oils and fruit 
and vegetables, and sets remaining 
common price levels. 

Association agreement signed between 
Nigeria and EEC. 

Council completes Commission’s negoti- 
ating directives for Kennedy Round 
trade negotiations. 

Five-year medium term economic pro- 
gramme adopted by Council of Minis- 
ters and agreement reached on a 
common system of added value taxa- 
tion. 


March Tenth anniversary of the signature of 
the Rome Treaties instituting Euratom 
and the European Economic Com- 
munity. 

May Conclusion of the Kennedy Round of 
Tariff Negotiations under GATT. 
Applications for Community member- 
ship lodged by U.K., Denmark and 
Ireland . 

July Following ratification in June of the 
April 1965 Treaty for the merger of the 
Community institutions, a single execu- 
tive Commission and a single Council 
of Ministers for the three Communities 
were established. 

A common Community price instituted 
for intra-Community trade in cereals, 
poultry, eggs and pigmeat. 

Norway requests membership of the 
Community. Sweden requests negotia- 
tions to establish a link with the 
Community. 

Sept. The Commission delivers to the Council 
its written opinion on the membership 
requests of U.K., Denmark, Ireland 
and Norway. 


ORGANS COMMON TO THE THREE COMMUNITIES 


European Parliament 


19 rue Beaumont, Luxembourg 


OFFICERS AND MEMBERS 
President: Alain Pohier (France). 

Members: 142 members nominated by the Parliaments of 
the six states. 


Mems. 

Belgium . . -14 

France . . -36 

Fed. German Republic 36 
Members sit in the Chamber in 
groups. 


Mems. 

Italy . . 36 

Luxembourg . 6 

Netherlands . 14 

political, not national, 


STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. Political affairs 

2. External economic relations. 

3. Agriculture 


4. Social affairs. 

5. Energy, Research and Atomic affairs. 

6. Relations with African and Malagasy Associates. 

7. Transport. 

8. Economic affairs. 

9. Finance and Budget. 

10. Legal affairs 

11. Association with Greece 

12. Association with Turkey. 

The task of the European Parliament is to supervise the 
executive organs of the three Communities, and to debate 
the Annual General Reports of the three Communities and 
all other matters of interest to them. It has powers, by a 
vote of censure of a two-thirds majority, to dismiss the 
executives of the Communities. It meets seven or eight 
times a year in Strasbourg for sessions of up to one week. 
The annual opening session is in October. 


THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


Court of Justice 

12 rue de la C6te d’Eich, Luxembourg 


President of the Court: Robert Lecourt. 

First Chamber: 

President: A. M. Donner. 

Members: MM. Monaco, Mertexs de Wilmars. 
Advocate General: K. L. Roemer. 

Second Chamber: 

President: W. Strauss. 

Advocate General: J. Gan d. 

Members: MM. Trabucchi, Pescatore. 

Clerk of Court: Van Houtte. 

The primary task of the Court of Justice is to ensure 
the observance of law and justice in the interpretation and 
application of the Treaties setting up the three Communi- 
ties. The President of the Court is appointed by the Judges 
from among their members for a renewable term of three 
years. The Judges and Advocates-Gcneral are appointed 
for renewable six-year terms by the Governments of the 
member states. A partial renewal of the Court takes place 
every three years, aSecting three and four Judges alter- 
nately as well as one of the two Advocates-General. 
The Court has full jurisdiction to settle all disputes within 
the Communities and to award penalties. It may review 


the legal validity of acts (other than recommendations or 
opinions) of the executives and is competent to give 
judgment on appeals by a member state or the executives 
on grounds of incompetence, of errors of substantial form, 
of infringement of the Treaties or of any legal provision 
relating to their application, or of abuse of power. Any 
natural or legal person may, under the same conditions, 
appeal against a decision addressed to him or against a 
decision which, although in the form of a regulation or 
decision addressed to another person, is of direct and 
specific concern to him. 

The Court is also empowered to hear cases concerning 
compensation for damage, disputes between the Communi- 
ties and their employees, fulfilment by member states of 
the obligations arising under the Statute of the European 
Investment Bank, arbitration clauses contained in any 
contract concluded, under public or private law, by or on 
behalf of the Communities and disputes between member 
states in connection with the objects of the Treaties, where 
such disputes are submitted to it under the terms of a 
compromise. It also gives pre-judicial rulings at the request 
of national courts on the interpretation of the Treaties 
or of Community legislation. 


Council of Ministers of the European Communities 

2 rue Ravenstein, Brussels 


Secretary-General: Christian Calmes (Luxembourg). 

The Council of Ministers has the double responsibility of 
ensuring the co-ordination of the general economic policies 
of the member states and of taking the decisions necessary' 
for carrying out the Treaties. 

The Council is composed of representatives of the mem- 
ber states, each Government delegating to it one of its 
members. The office of President is exercised for a term of 
six months by each member of the Council in rotation 
according to the alphabetical order of the member states. 
Meetings of the Council are called by the President acting 
on his own initiative or at the request of a member or of 
the Commission. 

The conclusions of the Council can usually be taken by a 
majority vote; where conclusions require a qualified 
majority, the votes of its members are weighted as follows: 
Belgium and the Netherlands 2, the German Federal 
Republic, France and Italy 4 and Luxembourg 1. Majori- 


ties are required for the adoption of any conclusions as 
follows: twelve votes in cases where the Treaty requires a 
previous proposal of the Commission, or twelve votes in- 
cluding a favourable vote by at least four members in all 
other cases. This system of voting has applied for most 
decisions on internal Community affairs since Junaary 1st, 
1966. Abstentions by members either present or represented 
do not prevent the adoption by the Council of conclusions 
requiring unanimity. When the Council acts on a proposal 
of the Commission, it must, where the amendment of such 
a proposal is involved, act only by means of a unanimous 
vote; as long as the Council has not so acted, the Commis- 
sion may amend its original proposal particularly in cases 
where the European Parliament has been consulted. The 
Council may request the Commission to undertake any 
studies which the Council considers desirable for the 
achievement of the common objectives, and to submit to 
it any appropriate proposals. 


Commission of the European Communities 

23 Avenue do la Joyouse Entrtfc, Brussels 


President: Jean Rey (Belgium). 1 

Vice-Presidents: Sicco Lef.ndert Mansholt (Nether- j 
lands), Raymond Barre (France), Fritz IIellwig j 
(Germany), Lioni.li.o Lkvi-Sandri (Italy). I 

Members: Albert Court: (Belgium). Hans von der 


Groebi'.n (Germany), Emmanuel Sassen (Nether- 
lands), Henri Rochkeau (France). Guido Colon::.*, m 
Paliano (Italy), Victor Bodson (LtixemMun;), 
Epoardo Martino (Italy), Wilhelm HauerKamp 
(Germany). Jr.AN-I-RANgois Dr.NiAV (France). 


lOf* 



THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


Special responsibilities : 

External relations: Edoardo Martino. 

External Trade: Jean-Fran?ois Deniau. 

Economic and Financial Affairs: Raymond Barre. 

Industry: Guido Colonna di Paliano. 

Internal Market, fiscal and regional policy: Hans von 
der Groeben. 

Competition: Emmanuel Sassen. 

Budget: Albert Coi>p£. 

Agriculture: Sicco Mansholt. 

Energy: Wilhelm Haferkamp. 

Social Affairs: Lionello Levi-Sandri. 

Transport: Victor Bodson. 

Research and Technology: Fritz Hellwig. 

Development aid: Henri Rocherau. 

The Commission works on the principle of collegiate 
responsibility but with each member having responsibility 
for a particular sector. 

The functions of the Commission are fourfold: to ensure 
the application of the provisions of the Treaties and of the 
provisions enacted by the institutions of the Communities 
in pursuance thereof; to formulate recommendations or 
opinions in matters which are the subject of the Treaties, 
where the latter expressly so provides or where the Com- 
mission considers it necessary; to dispose, under the con- 
ditions laid down in the Treaties of a power of decision of 
its own and to participate in the preparation of acts of the 
Council of Ministers and of the European Parliament; and 
to exercise the competence conferred on it by the Council 
of Ministers for the implementation of the rules laid down 
by the latter. 


The Commission is bound to publish an Annua! General 
Report on the activities of the Community, not later than 
one month before the opening of the session of the 
European Parliament. 

The Commission may not include more than two mem- 
bers having the nationality of the same state; the number 
of members of the Commission may be amended by a 
unanimous vote of the Council of Ministers. In the per- 
formance of their duties, the members of the Commission 
are forbidden to seek or accept instructions from any 
Government or other body, or to engage in any other paid 
or unpaid professional activity. 

The members of the Commission are appointed by the 
Governments of the member states acting in common 
agreement for a renewable term of four years; the President 
and Vice-Presidents are similarly appointed for renewable 
terms of two years. Any member of the Commission, if he 
no longer fulfils the conditions required for the performance 
of his duties, or if he commits a serious offence, may be 
declared removed from office by the Court of Justice. The 
Court may furthermore, on the petition of the Council of 
Ministers or of the Commission itself, provisionally suspend 
any member of the Commission from his duties. 

Until the entry into force of a Treaty establishing a 
single European Community, and for a maximum period 
of three years starting from the date on which its members 
are nominated, the Commission is composed of fourteen 
members, who take over the responsibilities of the rhree 
former executive bodies. No more than tliree of these 
members may be of the same nationality. 


EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY— EEC 

THE COMMON MARKET 


The creation of the European Economic Community 
was decided upon at a Conference of Foreign Ministers 
of six European Coal and Steel Community nations at 
Messina in June 1955. 

Negotiations continued into 1957 a nd the treaties 
setting up the European Economic Communityand the 
European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) 
were signed in Rome on March 25th, 1957. These 
treaties were ratified by the parliaments of the mem- 
ber states during the summer and autumn of 1957 
and came into force on January 1st, 1958. 

The aim of the European Economic Community is, 
by establishing a Common Market and progressively 
approximating the economic policies of the member 
states, to promote harmonious development of 
economic activities, a continuous and balanced expan- 
sion, an increased stability, an accelerated raising of 
the standard of living of the peoples of the member 
states and closer relations between them. 

This aim is to be achieved by various measures, of 
which the following are the most significant: 


(a) the elimination of import and export duties and 
restrictions; 

(b) the establishment of a common tariff and com- 
mon commercial policy; 

(c) the establishment of free movement of persons, 
services and capital; 

(d) the inauguration of common agricultural and 
transport policies; 

(e) the establishment of a system of fair com- 
petition; 

(f) measures to co-ordinate economic policy and 
adjust balances of payments; 

(g) the approximation of municipal law in the 
member states; 

( h ) the creation of a Social Fund and a European 
Investment Bank; and 

(i) the association of overseas countries and terri- 
tories related to certain member states. 


170 


THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


ORGANIZATION 


Council of Association 

23 Avenue de la Joyeuso Entr§e, Brussels 


Members: The Council of Ministers, the Commission and 
one representative from each of the Associated 
Countries. The chair is held in rotation. 

The Council was set up under the Convention of Associa- 
tion with seventeen African countries and Madagascar and 
is responsible for its broad working. Following the ratifica- 


tion of the Convention, the Council held its first meeting 
in July 196.), and meets annually. Everyday administra- 
tion of the Convention is carried out by the Association 
Committee, composed of one representative from each of 
the Community countries and the Associated Countries. 


Economic and Social Committee 

3 Boulevard de I’Empereur, Brussels 


President: Louis Major (Belgium). 

Vice-Presidents: Otto Kramer (Germany), Manlio 
Germozzi (Italy). 

Members: 101 persons representing economic and social 
fields, 12 each from Belgium and the Netherlands, 24 
each from France, Federal Germany and Italy and 5 
from Luxembourg. One-third represent each side of 
industry and one-third the general economic interest. 
Appointed for a renewable term of four years by the 


unanimous vote of the Council of Ministers of the 
European Communities (Euratom is also represented 
in this Committee). Members are appointed in their 
personal capacity and are not bound by any mandatory 
instructions. 

The Committee is advisors' and is consulted by the 
Council of Ministers or by the Commission of the European 
Communities, particularly with regard to agriculture and 
transport. 


European Investment Bank 

85 Boulevard de Waterloo, Brussels 


Board of Governors: Generally the Finance Ministers of the 
six member States. 

Board of Directors: Franco Bobba, Sjoerd Boomstra, 
Andr£ de Lattre, Raymond Denuce, Roberto 
Ducci, Fritz Fechner, Herbert Martini, Alfred 
Mueller-Armack, Maurice P£rouse, Giuseppe di 
Nardi, Jean Saltes, Stefano Siglienti. 

Management Committee: 

Presidont: Paride Fokmentini (Italy). 

Vice-Presidents: Yves le Portz (France), Ulrich 
Muyer-Cording (German Federal Republic). 

Director General: Henri Lenaeut (Belgium). 
Members: The six Governments of the Community. 

The task of the European Investment Bank is to con- 
tribute, by calling on the capital markets and its own 
resources, to the balanced and smooth development of the 


Common Market in the interest of the Community. For this 
purpose, the Bank is to grant loans and guarantees on a 
non-profit-making basis to facilitate the financing of pro- 
jects for developing less-dcvcloped regions, for modernizing 
or converting enterprises or for creating new activities 
which are called for by the progressive establishment of the 
Common Market where such projects by their size or 
nature cannot be entirely financed by the various means 
available in each of the member states, and projects of 
common interest to several member states which similarly 
cannot be entirely financed by each of the member states. 

The members of the Bank are the Governments of the 
six member states of the Community. Its capital is 
1,000 million European Monetary Agreement Accounting 
Units, subscribed by the member states as follows'.Fiantc 
and the Federal German Republic 300 million each; 1 uly 
ejo million: Belgium S6.5 million; the Netherlands 71.5 
million; Luxembourg 2 million. 


171 



THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


European Social Fund 


The European Social Fund was established by the Treaty 
in order to improve opportunities of employment of 
workers in the Common Market and thus contribute to 
raising the standard of living. Its task is to promote within 
the Community employment facilities and the geographical 
and occupational mobility of workers. The Fund is 
administered by the Commission, assisted by a Committee 
presided over by the member of the Commission specially 
concerned with Social Affairs and composed of representa- 
tives of governments, trade unions and employers associa- 
tions. 

At the request of a member state, the Fund may cover 
50 per cent of expenses incurred by that state or by a body 


under public law for the purposes of ensuring productive 
re-employment of workers by means of occupational re- 
training and resettlement allowances, and of granting aids 
for the benefit of workers whose employment is temporarily 
reduced, or wholly or partly suspended, as the result of the 
conversion of their enterprise to other productions, in order 
that they may maintain the same wage-level pending their 
full re-employment, subject to certain detailed con- 
ditions. The rules of the Social Fund were adopted by the 
Council of Ministers in May i960. Total aid 1961-64: $24.5 
million. Aid 1964: $4.6 million (Italy $2.1 million; Germany 
§1.5 million; Belgium $0.6 million; France $0.3 million; 
the Netherlands $0.1 million; Luxembourg $0,008 million). 


The European Development Fund 


Under the association agreement concluded at the same 
time as the Rome Treaty (see below) a Development Fund 
for Associated Overseas Countries and Territories was set 
up for the purpose of promoting the social and economic 
development of these countries and territories, in particular 
the development of health, educational, research and 
professional activities of their populations, and economic 
investments of general interest directly connected with 
the implementation of a programme including productive 
and specific development projects. 


The Fund began operations in 1959 and was endowed 
with a total of $581 million contributed by the member 
countries. The second Association Convention, which came 
into effect on June 1st, 1964, provides for the continued 
operation of the Development Fund and the spending 
over a five -year period of a total sum of 5 800 million, 
on the same lines as before and also for promoting the 
diversification of the economies of the Associated States. 


Monetary Committee 

Avenue de la Joyeuse Entrde and 58 rue du Marais, Brussels 


President: Jonkheer E. VAN Lennep (Netherlands). 
Vice-Presidents: O. Emminger (Germany), B. Clappier 
(France). 

Members: Each of the six states nominates two members 
to the Committee. The Commission also is represented 
by two members. 

Promotes the co-ordination of national policies in 
monetary matters to the full extent necessary for the 
functioning of the Common Market. The Committee is con- 
sultative and is charged to keep under review the monetary 
and financial situation of member states and the general 
payments system and to report regularly to the Council 
and the Commission. The Committee may formulate 
opinions at the request of the Council or the Commission 
or on its own initiative for submission to the Council or 
Commission. 


In addition to the Monetary Committee a Business 
Cycle Policy Committee, a Budgetary Policy Committee 
and a Medium-Term Economic Policy Committee, all com- 
posed of representatives of national governments and of 
the Commission, and a Committee of Governors of Central 
Banks have been set up. 

The Medium-Term Economic Policy Committee pre- 
pared during 1965 and 1966 a draft five-year programme 
setting out foreseeable trends in the Community economy' 
and making general policy recommendations. This was 
submitted by the Commission to the Council in May 1966 
and was adopted in February 1967. The programme will 
be brought up to date and expanded each year. It will 
provide a framework for co-ordination of national economic 
policies, and for the various common policies to be worked 
out at the Community level. 


172 


THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


Transport Committee 


President: A. Stoltenhoff. 

Members: The Committee is composed of experts nomin- 
ated by the Member-States. 

The task of the Common Market Transport Committee is 
to assist the commission in working out the rules for the 
removal of transport discrimination within the Community. 


In June 1965, the Council of Ministers agreed to the 
organisation of the Common Transport Policy, which will 
come into effect in two stages prior to 1973. The first stage 
of three years will deal only with international transport. 
The second stage will include national transport. Before 
the end of the second stage the Council must establish 
common transport prices. 


SUMMARY OF EEC TREATY (TREATY OF ROME) 


Part I. PRINCIPLES 

The aim of the Community is, by establishing a Common 
Market and progressively approximating the economic 
policies of the member states, to promote throughout the 
Community a harmonious development of economic activi- 
ties, a continuous and balanced expansion, an increased 
stability, an accelerated raising of the standard of living 
and closer relations between its member states. With these 
aims in view, the activities of the Community will include: 

(a) the elimination between member states of customs 
duties and of quantitative restrictions in regard to 
the importation and exportation of goods, as well as 
of all other measures with equivalent effect; 

(b) the establishment of a common customs tariff and a 
common commercial policy towards third countries; 

(c) the abolition between member states of the obstacles 
to the free movement of persons, services and capital; 

(d) the inauguration of a common agricultural policy; 

(e) the inauguration of a common transport policy; 

(f) the establishment of a system ensuring that com- 
petition shall not be distorted in the Common 
Market; 

(g) the application of procedures that will make it 
possible to co-ordinate the economic policies of 
member states and to remedy disequilibria in their 
balance of payments; 

(h) the approximation of their respective municipal law 
to the extent necessary for the functioning of the 
Common Market; 

(i) the creation of a European Social Fund in order to 
improve the possibilities of employment for workers 
and to contribute to the raising of their standard of 
living; 

(j) the establishment of a European Investment Bank 
intended to facilitate the economic expansion of the 
Community through the creation of new resources; 
and 

(k) the association of overseas countries and territories 
with the Community with a view to increasing trade 
and to pursuing jointly their effort toward economic 
and social development. 

Member states, acting in close collaboration with the 

institutions of the Community, shall co-ordinate their 

respective economic policies to the extent that is necessary 

to attain the objectives of the Treaty; the institutions of 


the Community shall take care not to prejudice the internal 
and external financial stability of the member states. 
Within the field of application of the Treat}’ and without 
prejudice to certain special provisions which it contains, 
any discrimination on the grounds of nationality shall be 
hereby prohibited. 

The Common Market shall be progressively established 
in the course of a transitional period of twelve years. This 
transitional period shall be divided into three stages of four 
years each; the length of each stage may be modified in 
accordance with the provisions set out below. 

Transition from the first to the second stage shall be 
conditional upon a confirmatory statement to the effect 
that the essence of the objectives laid down in the Treaty 
for the first stage has been in fact achieved, and that ail 
obligations have been observed. Failing a unanimous vote 
by the Council of Ministers at the end of the fourth year, 
the first stage shall be automatically extended for a period 
of one year. A similar procedure may be followed at the end 
of the sixth year if the first stage has in fact been extended. 
If at the end of the seventh year a unanimous vote is not 
j forthcoming to proceed to the second stage, the Council of 
j Ministers shall appoint an Arbitration Board whose 
I decision shall bind both member states and Community 
institutions. The second and third stages may not be 
extended or curtailed except by a decision of the Council 
acting by means of a unanimous vote on a proposal of the 
Commission. These provisions shall not have the effect of 
| extending the transitional period beyond a total duration 
i of fifteen years after the date of entry into force of the 
j Treat}'. 

| Part II. BASES OF THE COMMUNITY 

| Free Movement of Goons 

1 

j Member states shall refrain from introducing between 
1 themselves any new import or export customs duties, or 
! charges with equivalent effect, and from increasing such 
' duties or charges as they apply in their commercial rcla- 
| tions with each other. Member states shall progressively 
j abolish between themselves all import and export customs 
duties, charges with an equivalent effect, and also customs 
, duties of a fiscal nature. Independently of these provisions, 
| any member state may, in the course of the transitional 
I period, suspend in whole or in part the collection of import 
i duties applied by it to products imported from other 
j member states, or may carry out the foreseen reduction* 
173 



THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


more rapidly than laid down in the Treaty if its general 
economic situation and the situation of the sector so 
concerned permit. 

A common customs tariff shall be established, which, 
subject to certain conditions (especially with regard to the 
Italian tariff), shall be at the level of the arithmetical 
average of the duties applied in the four customs territories 
(i.e. France, Germany, Italy and Benelux) covered by the 
Community. This customs tariff shall be applied in its 
entirety not later than at the date of the expiry of the 
transitional period. Member states may follow an in- 
dependent accelerating process similar to that allowed for 
reduction of inter-Community customs duties. 

Member states shall refrain from introducing between 
themselves any new quantitative restrictions or measures 
with equivalent effect, and existing restrictions and 
measures shall be abolished not later than at the end of the 
first stage of the transitional period. These provisions shall 
not be an obstacle to prohibitions or restrictions in respect 
of importation, exportation or transit which are justified 
on grounds of public morality, health or safety, the pro- 
tection of human or animal life or health, the preservation 
of plant life, the protection of national treasures of artistic, 
historic or archaeological value or the protection of 
industrial and commercial property. Such prohibitions or 
restrictions shall not, however, constitute either a means 
of arbitrary discrimination or a disguised restriction on 
trade between member states. Member states shall pro- 
gressively adjust any state monopolies of a commercial 
character in such a manner as will ensure the exclusion, at 
the end of the transitional period, of all discrimination 
between the nationals of member states in regard to con- 
ditions of supply and marketing of goods. These provisions 
shall apply to any body by means of which a member state 
shall de jure or de facto either directly or indirectly, control 
or appreciably influence importation or exportation be- 
tween member states, and also to monopolies assigned by 
the state. In the case of a commercial monopoly which is 
accompanied by regulations designed to facilitate the 
marketing or the valorisation of agricultural products, it 
should be ensured that in the application of these provisions 
equivalent guarantees are provided in respect of the 
employment and standard of living of the producers 
concerned. 

The obligations incumbent on member states shall be 
binding only to such extent as they are compatible with 
existing international agreements. 

Agriculture 

The Common Market shall extend to agriculture and 
trade in agricultural products. The common agricultural 
policy shall have as its objectives: 

(a) the increase of agricultural productivity by develop- 
ing technical progress and by ensuring the rational 
development of agricultural production and the 
optimum utilisation of the factors of production, 
particularly labour; 

(b) the ensurance thereby of a fair standard of living for 
the agricultural population; 

(c) the stabilisation of markets; 

(d) regular supplies; 

(e) reasonable prices in supplies to consumers. 


Due account must be taken of the particular character 
of agricultural activities, arising from the social structure of 
agriculture and from structural and natural disparities 
between the various agricultural regions; of the need to 
make the appropriate adjustments gradually; and of the 
fact that in member states agriculture constitutes a sector 
which is closely linked with the economy as a whole. With 
a view to developing a common agricultural policy during 
the transitional period and the establishment of it not later 
than at the end of the period, a common organisation of 
agricultural markets shall be effected. 

Free Movement of Persons, Services and 
Capital 

Workers: The free movement of workers shall be ensured 
within the Community not later than at the date of the 
expiry of the transitional period, involving the abolition 
of any discrimination based on nationality between workers 
of the member states as regards employment, remuneration 
and other working conditions. This shall include the right 
to accept offers of employment actually made, to move 
about freely for this purpose within the territory of the 
member states, to stay in any member state in order to 
carry on an employment in conformity with the legislative 
and administrative provisions governing the employment 
of the workers of that state, and to live, on conditions 
which shall be the subject of implementing regulations laid 
down by the Commission, in the territory of a member 
state after having been employed there. (These provisions 
do not apply to employment in the public administration). 

In the field of social security, the Council shall adopt the 
measures necessary to effect the free movement of workers, 
in particular, by introducing a system which permits an 
assurance to be given to migrant workers and their bene- 
ficiaries that, for the purposes of qualifying for and retain- 
ing the rights to benefits and of the calculation of these 
benefits, all periods taken into consideration by the re- 
spective municipal law of the countries concerned shall be 
added together, and that these benefits will be paid to- 
persons resident in the territories of the member states. 

Right of Establishment: Restrictions on the freedom of 
establishment of nationals of a member state in the- 
territory of another member state shall be progressively 
abolished during the transitional period, nor may any new- 
restrictions of a similar character be introduced. Such 
progressive abolition shall also extend to restrictions on the- 
setting up of agencies, branches or subsidiaries. Freedom 
of establishment shall include the right to engage in and. 
carry on non-wage-earning activities, and also to set up- 
end manage enterprises and companies under the con- 
ditions laid down by the law of the country of establish- 
ment for its own nationals, subject to the provisions of this. 
Treaty relating to capital. 

Services: Restrictions on the free supply of services, 
within the Community shall be progressively abolished in 
the course of the transitional period in respect of nationals- 
of member states who are established in a state of the 
Community other than that of the person to whom the- 
services are supplied; no new restrictions of a similar- 
character may be introduced. The Council, acting by a. 
unanimous vote on a proposal of the Commission, may 
extend the benefit of these provisions to cover services, 
supplied by nationals of any third country who are estab- 
ished within the Community. 


174 



THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


Particular services involved are activities of an industrial 
or artisan character and those of the liberal professions. 

Capital: Member states shall during the transitional 
period progressively abolish between themselves restric- 
tions on the movement of capital belonging to persons 
resident in the member states, and also any discriminatory 
treatment based on the nationality or place of residence of 
the parties or on the place in which such capital is invested. 
Current payments connected with movements of capital 
between member states shall be freed from all restrictions 
not later than at the end of the first stage of the transitional 
period. 

Member states shall endeavour to avoid introducing 
within the Community any new exchange restrictions 
which affect the movement of capital and current payments 
connected with such movements, and making existing 
rules more restrictive. 

Transport 

With a view to establishing a common transport policy, 
the Council of Ministers shall, acting on a proposal of the 
Commission and after consulting the Economic and Social 
Committee and the European Parliament, lay down 
common rules applicable to international transport effected 
from or to the territory of a member state or crossing the 
territory of one or more member states, conditions for the 
admission of non-resident carriers to national transport 
services within a member state and any other appropriate 
provisions. Until these have been enacted and unless the 
Council of Ministers gives its unanimous consent, no 
member state shall apply the various provisions governing 
this subject at the date of the entry into force of this 
Treaty in such a way as to make them less favourable, in 
their direct or indirect effect, for carriers of other member 
states by comparison with its own national carriers. 

Any discrimination which consists in the application by 
a carrier, in respect of the same goods conveyed in the same 
circumstances, of transport rates and conditions which 
differ on the ground of the country of origin or destination 
of the goods carried, shall be abolished in the traffic of the 
Community not later than at the end of the second stage 
of the transitional period. 

A Committee with consultative status, composed of 
experts appointed by the governments of the member 
states, shall be established and attached to the Commission, 
without prejudice to the competence of the transport 
section of the Economic and Social Committee. 

Part III. POLICY OF THE COMMUNITY 
Common Rules 

Enterprises: The following practices by enterprises are 
prohibited: tlic direct or indirect fixing of purchase or 
selling prices or of any other trading conditions: the limita- 
tion or control of production, markets, technical develop- 
ment of investment; market-sharing or the sharing of 
sources of supply; the application to parties to transactions 
of unequal terms in respect of equivalent supplies, thereby 
placing them at a competitive disadvantage; the subjection 
of the conclusion of a contract to the acceptance by a party 
of additional supplies which, cither by their nature or 
according to commercial usage, have no connection with 
the subject of such contract. The provisions may be 


declared inapplicable if the agreements neither impose on 
the enterprises concerned any restrictions not indispensable 
to the attainment of improved production, distribution or 
technical progress, nor enable enterprises to eliminate 
competition in respect of a substantial proportion of the 
goods concerned. 

Dumping: If, in the course of the transitional period, the 
Commission, at the request of a member state or of any 
other interested party, finds that dumping practices exist 
within the Common Market, it shall issue recommendations 
to the originator of such practices with a view to bringing 
them to an end. Where such practices continue, the Com- 
mission shall authorise the member state injured to take 
protective measures of which the Commission shall deter- 
mine the conditions and particulars. 

Re-importation within the Community shall be free of 
all customs duties, quantitative restrictions or measures 
with equivalent effect. 

Aid granted by States: Any aid granted by a member 
State or granted by means of state resources which is 
contrary to the purposes of the treaty is forbidden. The 
following shall be deemed to be compatible with the 
Common Market: 

(a) aids of a social character granted without discrimina- 
tion to individual consumers; 

(b) aids intended to remedy damage caused by natural 
calamities or other extraordinary events; 

(c) aids granted to the economy of certain regions of the 
Federal German Republic affected by the division oi 
Germany, to the extent that they are necessary to 
compensate for the economic disadvantages caused 
by the division. 

The following may be deemed to be compatible with the 
Common Market: 

(a) aids intended to promote the economic development 
of regions where the standard of living is abnormally 
low or where there exists serious under-employment; 

(b) aids intended to promote the execution of important 
projects of common European interest or to remedy 
a serious economic disturbance of the economy of a 
member state; 

(c) aids intended to facilitate the development of certain 
activities or of certain economic regions, provided 
that such aids do not change trading conditions to 
such a degree as would be contrary to the common 
interest; 

(d) such other categories of aids as may be specified by 
a decision of the Council of Ministers acting on a 
proposal of the Commission. 

The Commission is charged to examine constantly all 
systems of aids existing in the member states, and may 
require any member state to abolish or modify any aid 
which it finds to be in conflict with the principles of the 
Common Market. 

Fiscal Provisions: A member state shall not impose, 
directly or indirectly, on the products of other memlver 
states, any internal charges of any kind in rxce- s of three 
applied directly or indirectly to like domestic products. 
Furthermore, a member state shall not impose on the 
product of other member states any internal charjps of 



THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


such a nature as to afford indirect protection to other pro- 
ductions. Member states shall, not later than at the begin- 
ning of the second stage of the transitional period, abolish 
or amend any provisions existing at the date of the entry 
into force of the Treaty which are contrary to these rules. 
Products exported to any member state may not benefit 
from any drawback on internal charges in excess of those 
charges imposed directly or indirectly on them. Subject to 
these conditions, any member states which levy a turnover 
tax calculated by a cumulative multi-stage system may, in 
the case of internal charges imposed by them on imported 
products or of drawbacks granted by them on exported 
products, establish average rates for specific products or 
groups of products. 

Approximation ot Laws: The Council, acting by means of 
a unanimous vote on a proposal of the Commission, shall 
issue directives for the approximation of such legislative 
and administrative provisions of the member states as have 
a direct incidence on the establishment or functioning of 
the Common Market. The European Parliament and the 
Economic and Social Committee shall be consulted con- 
cerning any directives whose implementation in one or 
more of the member states would involve amendment of 
legislative provisions. 

Economic Policy 

Balance Of Payments: Member states are charged to 
co-ordinate their economic policies in order that each may 
ensure the equilibrium of their overallbalances of payments 
and maintain confidence in their currency, together with a 
high level of employment and stability of prices. In order 
to promote this co-ordination a Monetary Committee is 
established (see section on Organization, above). 

Each member state engages itself to treat its policy with 
regard to exchange rates as a matter of common interest. 
Where a member state is in difficulties or seriously 
threatened with difficulties as regards its balance of pay- 
ments as a result either of overall disequilibrium of the 
balance of payments or of the kinds of currency at its 
disposal, and where such difficulties are likely, in par- 
ticular, to prejudice the functioning of the Common Market 
or the progressive establishment of the common commercial 
policy, the Commission shall examine the situation and 
indicate the measures which it recommends to the state 
concerned to adopt; if this action proves insufficient to 
overcome the difficulties, the Commission shall, after con- 
sulting the Monetary Committee, recommend to the Council 
of Ministers the granting of mutual assistance. This mutual 
assistance may take the form of: 

(a) concerted action in regard to any other international 
organization to which the member states may have 
recourse; 

(b) any measures necessary to avoid diversions of com- 
mercial traffic where the state in difficulty maintains 
or re-establishes quantitative restrictions with 
regard to third countries; 

(c) the granting of limited credits by other member 
states, subject to their agreement. 

Furthermore, during the transitional period, mutual assist- 
ance may also take the form of special reductions in 
customs duties or enlargements of quotas. If the mutual 
assistance recommended by the Commission is not granted 


by the Council, or if the mutual assistance granted and the 
measures taken prove insufficient, the Commission shall 
authorise the state in difficulties to take measures of safe- 
guard, of which the Commission shall determine the 
conditions and particulars. In the case of a sudden balance- 
of-payments crisis, any member state may take immediate 
provisional measures of safeguard, which must be sub- 
mitted to the consideration of the Commission as soon as 
possible. On the basis of an opinion of the Commission and 
after consulting the Monetary Committee, the Council may 
decide that the state concerned shall amend, suspend or 
abolish such measures. 

Commercial Policy : Member states shall co-ordinate their 
commercial relations with third countries in such a way as 
to bring about, not later than at the expiry of the tran- 
sitional period, the conditions necessary to the implementa- 
tion of a common policy in the matter of external trade. 
After the expiry of the transitional period, the common 
commercial policy shall be based on uniform principles, 
particularly in regard to tariff amendments, the conclusion 
of tariff or trade agreements, the alignment of measures of 
liberalisation, export policy and protective commercial 
measures, including measures to be taken in cases of 
dumping or subsidies. The Commission will be authorised 
to conduct negotiations with third countries. As from the 
end of the transitional period, member states shall, in 
respect of all matters of particular interest in regard to the 
Common Market, within the framework of any inter- 
national organizations of an economic character, only 
proceed by way of common action. The Commission shall 
for this purpose submit to the Council of Ministers pro- 
posals concerning the scope and implementation of such 
common action. During the transitional period, member 
states shall consult with each other with a view to concert- 
ing their action and, as far as possible, adopting a uniform 
attitude. 

Social Policy 

Social Provisions: Without prejudice to the other pro- 
visions of the Treaty and in conformity with its general 
objectives, it shall be the aim of the Commission to promote 
close collaboration between member states in the social 
field, particularly in matters relating to employment, 
labour legislation and working conditions, occupational and 
continuation training, social security, protection against 
occupational accidents and diseases, industrial hygiene, the 
law as to trade unions and collective bargaining between 
employers and workers. 

Each member state shall in the course of the first stage 
of the transitional period ensure and subsequently maintain 
the application of the principle of equal pay for men and 
women. 

The European Social Fund: See the section on Organisa- 
tion above. 

The European Investment Bank: See the section on 
Organization above. 

Part IV. OVERSEAS COUNTRIES AND 
TERRITORIES 

The member states agree to bring into association with 
the Community the non-European countries and territories 
which have special relations with Belgium, France. Italy 
and the Netherlands in order to promote the economic and 


17G 



THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


social development o£ these countries and territories and to 
establish close economic relations between them and 
the Community as a whole. 

Member states shall, in their commercial exchanges with 
the countries and territories, apply the same rules which 
they apply among themselves pursuant to the Treaty. 
Each country or territory shall apply to its commercial 
exchanges with member states and with the other countries 
and territories the same rules which it applied in respect of 
the European state with which it has special relations. 
Member states shall contribute to the investments required 
by the progressive development of these countries and 
territories. 

Customs duties on trade between member states and the 
countries and territories are to be progressively abolished 
according to the same timetable as for trade between the 
member states themselves. The countries and territories 
may, however, levy customs duties which correspond to 
the needs of their development and to the requirements of 
their industrialisation or which, being of a fiscal nature, 
have the object of contributing to their budgets. 

(The Convention implementing these provisions is con- 
cluded for a period of five years only from the date of 
entry into force of the Treaty.) 

Part V. INSTITUTIONS OF THE COMMUNITY 
Provisions Governing Institutions 

For accounts of the European Parliament, the Council of 
Ministers, the Commission, the Economic and. Social Com- 
mittee, the Monetary Committee, the European Investment 
Bank, the European Social Fund and the Development 
Fund, see the section on Organization above. 

For the achievement of their aims and under the con- 
ditions provided for in the Treaty, the Council and the 
Commission shall adopt regulations and directives, make 
decisions and formulate recommendations or opinions. 
Regulations shall have a general application and shall be 
binding in every respect and directly applicable in each 
member state. Directives shall bind any member state to 
which they arc addressed, as to the result to be achieved, 
while leaving to domestic agencies a competence as to form 
and means. Decisions shall be binding in every respect for 
the addressees named therein. Recommendations and 
opinions shall have no binding force. 


The financial contributions of the member states which 
are intended to meet the expenses of the European Social 
Fund shall be fixed according to the following scale: 

% 


Belgium .... 

S.S 

France .... 

32-0 

Italy 7 ..... 

20.0 

German Federal Republic 

32.0 

Luxembourg 

0.2 

Netherlands 

7.0 


The Commission shall implement the budget on its own 
responsibility' and within the limits of the appropriations 
made. The Council of Ministers shall: 

(a) lay down the financial regulations specifying, in 
particular, the procedure to be adopted for estab- 
lishing and implementing the budget, and for 
rendering and auditing accounts; 

(b) determine the methods and procedure whereby the 
contributions by member states shall be made avail- 
able to the Commission; and 

(c) establish rules concerning the responsibility of pay- 
commissioners and accountants and arrange for the 
relevant supervision. 

Part VI. GENERAL AND FINAL PROVISIONS 

Member states shall, in so far as is necessary', engage in 
negotiations with each other with a view to ensuring for 
the benefit of their nationals: 

(a) the protection of persons as well as the enjoyment 
and protections of rights under the conditions 
granted by each state to its own nationals; 

(b) the elimination of double taxation within the 
Community; 

(c) the mutual recognition of companies, the main- 
tenance of their legal personality in cases where the 
registered office is transferred from one country to 
another, and the possibility' for companies subject to 
the municipal law of different member states to form 
mergers; and 

(d) the simplification of the formalities governing the 
reciprocal recognition and execution of judicial 
decisions and arbitral awards. 


Financial Provisions 

Estimates shall be drawn up for each financial year for 
all revenues and expenditures of the Community’, including 
those relating to the European Social Fund, and shall be 
shown in the budget. 

The revenues of the budget shall comprise (apart from 
those contributions which arc intended to meet the 
expenses of the European Social Fund, and apart from any 
other revenues) the financial contributions of member 
states fixed according to the following scale: 


Belgium .... 

O' 

/O 

7-9 

France .... 

2S.0 

Italy 

2S.0 

German Federal Republic 

2S.0 

Luxembourg 

0.2 

Netherlands 

7-9 


Within a period of three years after the date of the entry 
into force of the Treaty, member states shall treat nationals 
of other member states in the same manner, as regards 
financial participation by such nationals in the capital of 
companies, as they treat their own nationals, without 
i prejudice to the application of the other provisions of the 
i Treaty. 

; Tl;e Treaty shall in no way prejudice the system existing 
j in member states in respect of property. 

| The provisions of the Treaty' shall not detract from the 
j following rules: 

(a) no member state shall be obliged to supply informa- 
tion the disclosure of which it considers contrary to 
the essential interests of its security; 

(b) any member state may take the measures which it 

; considers necessary for the proteetbn of the c ' "nti.il 

i interests of its recur; tv. and which are connect"-.! 


ITT 



THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


with the production of or the trade in arms, ammu- 
nition and war material; such measures shall not, 
however, prejudice conditions of competition in the 
Common Market in respect of products not intended 
for specifically military purposes. 

The list of products to which (b) applies shall be determined 
by the Council in the course of the first year after the date 
of entry into force of the Treaty. The list may be subse- 
quently amended by the unanimous vote of the Council 
on a proposal of the Commission. 

Member states shall consult one another for the purpose 
of enacting in common the necessary provisions to prevent 
the functioning of the Common Market from being affected 
by measures which a member state may be called upon to 
take in case of serious internal disturbances affecting 
public order, in case of war or serious international tension 
constituting a threat of war or in order to carry out 
undertakings into which it has entered for the purpose of 
maintaining peace and international security. 

In the course of the transitional period, where there are 
serious difficulties which are likely to persist in any sector 
of economic activity or difficulties which may seriously 
impair the economic situation in any region, any member 


state may ask for authorisation to take measures of sait 
guard in order to restore the situation and adapt the sector 
concerned to the Common Market economy. 

The provisions of the Treaty shall not affect those of the 
Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Com- 
munity, nor those of the Treaty establishing the European 
Atomic Energy Community; nor shall they be an obstacle 
to the existence or completion of regional unions between 
Belgium and Luxembourg, and between Belgium, Luxem- 
bourg and the Netherlands, in so far as the objectives of 
these regional unions are not achieved by the application 
of this Treaty. 

The government of any member state of the Commission 
may submit to the Council proposals for the revision of the 
Treaty. 

Any European state may apply to become a member of 
the Community. 

The Community may conclude with a third country, a 
union of states or an international organisation agreements 
creating an association embodying reciprocal rights and 
obligations, joint actions and special procedures. 

The Treaty is concluded for an unlimited period. 


SUMMARY OF CONVENTION OF ASSOCIATION 
WITH SEVENTEEN AFRICAN STATES AND MADAGASCAR 

Signed at Yaoundd, Cameroon, July 1963 


I: TRADE 
Article 1 
Articles 2-10 

Article n 
Article 12 
Article 13 
Article 14 


Increased Trade 

Customs Duties and Quantitative Re- 
strictions 

Agricultural Products 
Commercial Policy 
Safeguard Clauses 
General Trade Provisions 


II: FINANCIAL 
Articles 15-17 
Articles 18-23 
Articles 24-28 


AND TECHNICAL CO-OPERATION 
Economic and Social Development 
Grants and Loans 
Purposes and Recipients 


III: RIGHT OF ESTABLISHMENT, SERVICES, 
PAYMENT AND CAPITAL 
Articles 29-38 General Provisions 

IV: INSTITUTIONS 
Articles 39-49 The Association Council 
Article 50 Parliamentary Conference 
Article 51 Court of Arbitration 
Articles 52-53 Administration 

V: GENERAL AND FINAL PROVISIONS 
Articles 54-55 Implementation 
Articles 56-57 Ratification 
Articles 5S-61 Accession, Expiry, Renewal 
Articles 62-64 Protocols, Abrogation, Languages and 
Deposition 


178 



THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


STATISTICS 


AREA AND POPULATION 



Area 

(’ooo sq. km.) 

Population 

(million) 

(1966) 

German Federal Republic . 

2qS. 5 

59- -19 

Belgium .... 

30.5 

0 . 49* 

France .... 

55 1 - 2 

-49-65 

Italy .... 

301 .2 

52.07 

Luxembourg . 

2.6 

°- 33 * 

Netherlands 

33-5 

12.53 

European Community . 

1,167.5 

1S1 .Co 


* 1965. 


EMPLOYMENT 

(1966 average — '000) 



Agriculture, 





Forestry 

Mining 

Manufac- 

CONSTRUC- 


AND 

TURING 

TION 


Fishing 




German Federal Republic (including Saar) 

360 

590 

9.416 

1,05° 

Belgium (1965) ..... 

21 

95 

j,iSi 

240 

France ...... 

730 

276 

5,114 

1,672 

Italy ....... 

1.435 

n.a. 

4.344 

1,665 

Luxembourg ..... 

1.2 

n.a. 

n.a. 

n.a. 

Netherlands (1965) .... 

93 

50 

1,287 

397 


Power, 
Water and 
Sanitation 

Trade and 
Finance 

Transport 

Services 

German Federal Republic (including Saar) 

221 

2.S94 

1, 4°6 

4-55- 

Belgium (1965) ..... 

32 

35 ° 

2 31 

713 

France ...... 

195 

2,1 iS 

1.09S 

3.287 

Italy ....... 

n.a. 

n.a. 

S32 

n.a. 

Luxembourg ..... 

n.a. 

n.a. 

n.a. 

n.a. 

Netherlands (1965) .... 

4 9 

*r “ 

532 

- 77 

931 


Italy: Mining, Power, Water and Sanitation 27 3; Trade and Finance, Services 3,.|.;r. 
Luxembourg: Mining. Manufacturing, Construction. Power, Water and Sanitation 5S.7; 
Trade and Finance, Transport, Sendees .53.9. 


AGRICULTURE 

PRINCIPAL CROPS 


(1065-66 — '000 metric tons) 


Wheat 

Rye . 

Parley 
Oats ; 

Make . 

Potatoes . 

Sugar 

'Vine (1963— -ooo hectolitres) 


Federal, j 


German 
Republic 
(inch Saar) 

1 Belgium/ 
Luxembourg 

France 

J 

j 

Italy 

Netherlands EEC Total 

.; . 2 1 8 

1 9 1 1 

14.760 | 

9.776 

704 

30.360 

2.S0S 

1 ’4 1 

•(09 i 

52? 

250 

, 3.720 

3.26.5 

I 55 r > 

7 * 37 * s ] 

285 

; 373 

I I.Sso 

3.027 

3(10 


527 

452 

tt A s . 

93 

1 


3.317 

i •— 

6.S32 

1 6.6-1 7 

; i .?92 

II.223 

3.550 

3.500 

30.215 

’.442 

i 395 

2. \y> \ 

’.’36 

5 4 s 

5 . 6 'io 

5.200 

i 1 5 5 


66.006 

a. 

’ 37.-00 


















THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


LIVESTOCK 
(1966 — ’000) 



Federal 
German 
Republic 
(incl. Saar) 

Belgium/ 

Luxembourg 

France 

Italy 

Netherlands 

EEC Total 

Horses .... 

312 

96 

1,071 

34° 

IOO 

1,919 

Cattle .... 

13.973 

2,770 

21,039 

9,821 

3,556 

51T59 

Pigs 

17,682 

2,244 

9,53i 

3,370 

4,°79 

38,906 

Sheep .... 

812 

72 

9,096 

8,050 

37° 

18,400 

Poultry .... 

89,128 

12,373 

108,000 

110,000 

44,500 

364,000 


INDUSTRY 

1966 Indices 


(1958=100) 



General 

Mining 

Manu- 

factures 

Metals 

Chemicals 

Textiles 

Paper 

German Federal Republic (ex- 








eluding Saar) . 

163 

98 

169 

162 

217 

146 

155 

Belgium .... 

153 

77 

167 

176 

162 

1 44 

182 

France .... 

151 

hi 

154 

147 

212 

11S 

159 

Italy ..... 

207 

130 

212 

184 

289 

127 

223 

Luxembourg 

120 

92 

121 

86 

IOO 

25 



Netherlands 

180 

124 

1S1 

174 

— 

137 

i 95 

Community (including the 





169 

Saar) .... 

167 

104 

172 

162 

— 

134 


EXTERNAL TRADE 

(million U.S. dollars) 



1962 

1963 

1964 

1965 

1966 

Imports 

Exports 

22,353 

20,636 

24,677 

21,629 

26,826 

24,15s 

27.875 ' 
26,729 

30,735 

29,412 


TRADE WITH MEMBERS 


OF EUROPEAN FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION 



1963 

1964 

1965 

1966 

Imports . 

6,166 

6,588 

6,893 

7.242 

Exports 

7,942 

8,832 

9,604 

9,999 


TRADE WITH UNITED KINGDOM 



1963 

I964 

1965 

1966 

Imports 

Exports 

2,450 
U 978 j 

! 1 

2.585 

2,275 

2,605 

2,367 

2,782 

2 . 54 1 


180 



















THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


EUROPEAN DEVELOPMENT FUND ! 

UNDER FIRST CONVENTION OF ASSOCIATION 

(June 1967) 


Territories 

Number 

of 

Projects 

Total 

Amount 

($’000) 

Algeria .... 

9 

20,427 

Burundi .... 

11 

4 - 4 I 3 

Cameroon .... 

27 

44.832 

Central African Republic 

27 

15.776 

Chad 

18 

28,837 

Comores .... 

7 

2,788 

Congo (Brazzaville) 

18 

20,120 

Congo (Democratic Republic) . 

l6 

17.991 

Dahomey .... 

18 

20,379 

French Somaliland (Djibouti) . 

2 

1.367 

Gabon ..... 

15 

15.078 

Guadeloupe .... 

4 

5.143 

Guiana (French) . 

I 

2,005 

Ivory Coast .... 

19 

36.446 

Madagascar .... 

40 

53.528 

Mali 

23 

30,805 

Martinique .... 

3 

6,644 

Mauritania .... 

II 

12,540 

Netherlands Antilles 

9 

11,258 

New Caledonia 

5 

1,560 

New Guinea .... 

4 

7.458 

Niger 

6 

27.935 

Polynesia .... 

I 

2,474 

Reunion .... 

5 

7 - 5 16 

Rwanda .... 

11 

4.844 

St. Pierre et Miquelon . 

1 

3.545 

Senegal .... 

23 

40.833 

Somalia .... 

6 

8,482 

Surinam .... 

9 

16,982 

Togo 

18 

13.995 

Upper Volta 

12 

27.387 

Total 

379 

512,046 


EUROPEAN DEVELOPMENT FUND 
UNDER SECOND CONVENTION OF ASSOCIATION 

(June 1967) 


Territories 

Number 

of 

Projects 

Total 

Amount 

($’000) 

Burundi .... 

19 

13.963 

Cameroon .... 

19 

25 U 55 

Central African Republic 

23 

iS .453 

Chad ..... 

26 

29.756 

Comores .... 

4 

0S2 

Congo (Brazzaville) 

15 

14.093 

Congo (Democratic Republic) . 

23 

38.S55 

Dahomey .... 

15 

18,036 

French Somaliland 

n 

641 

Gabon ..... 

3 

2,437 

Guadeloupe .... 

I 

4°9 

Ivory Coast .... 

14 

4 S .371 

Madagascar .... 

27 

48,396 

Mali 

O T 

14.410 

Mauritania .... 

s 

13.017 

Netherlands Antilles 

1 

6.SS7 

New Caledonia 

I 

2.455 

Niger ..... 

IS 

13.480 

Polynesia .... 

T 

1.904 

Reunion .... 

■-> 

S .305 

Rwanda .... 

27 

10,031 

Senegal .... 

12 

37.300 

Somalia .... 

19 

14.635 

Surinam .... 

5 

1.205 

Togo 

7 

4 .H 5 

Upper Volta 

19 

1 6,2 II 

Total 

289 

417.663 


1 S 1 


THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 

EUROPEAN GOAL AND STEEL COMMUNITY— ECSG 


The European Coal and Steel Community is the 
eldest of the three “sisters” of the European Com- 
munity. It arose from a declaration made by M. 
Robert Schuman on May 9th, 1950, urging the 
necessity of a united Europe. This union could not be 
achieved all at once, or according to a single, general 
plan; concrete achievements, stage by stage, and 
above all the elimination of hostility and suspicion 
between France and Germany, were the solution. 
Accordingly he proposed, as a first step, the placing 
of the coal and steel industries of France and Ger- 
many under a common "higher authority”, within 
the framework of an organization open to the partici- 
pation of the other countries of Europe. Direct 
political action towards European federation would, 
at this stage, be doomed to failure, but economic 
co-operation could be achieved and once gained, 
would provide a firm foundation for the political 
federation to come. 

Less than a month later, on June 3rd, 1950, the 
German Federal Republic and four other nations — 
Belgium, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands — 
issued a joint communique welcoming the Schuman 
declaration, and on June 20th the delegations of the 
six countries met in Paris to begin work on drawing 
up a treaty. Negotiations continued throughout the 
next ten months and the ECSC Treaty was signed in 
Paris on April 18th, 1951. The Treaty was ratified by 
substantial majorities in the parliaments of The Six 
and came into force on July 25th, 1952. The High 
Authority began its work on August 10th, 1952. 


Seven distinct aims may be ascribed to the Com- 
munity: 

(a) to stimulate vigorous and smooth economic 
expansion; 

(b) to promote the most rational distribution of 
production; 

(c) to achieve the highest possible level of pro- 
ductivity; 

(d) to increase the total employment available; 

(e) to give greater security of employment; 

(f) to raise living and working standards; and 

(g) to take a decisive step towards the creation of a 
united Europe. 

The means by which these aims are to be achieved 
are fourfold: 

(a) the abolition of customs duties, quantitative 
and currency restrictions; 

(b) the abolition of all discrimination based on 
national origin; 

(c) the establishment of a system of fair com- 
petition, particularly with regard to the forma- 
tion and functioning of cartels and mergers; and 

(d) the introduction of a harmonised external tariff 
covering the Community as a whole, and thus 
doing away with national tariffs. 

These measures were to be introduced during a 
transition period of five years, which ended in Feb- 
ruary 1958, when the ECSC Common Market came 
into full operation. 


ORGANIZATION 

High Authority* 

2 Place de Metz, Luxembourg 


The High Authority is responsible for assuring the 
achievement of the purposes of the Treaty. Eight members 
of the High Authority are appointed by the governments 
of the member states by agreement among themselves: the 
ninth is elected by the eight appointed members, and is 
deemed elected if he receives at least five votes. All mem- 
bers serve for a renewable term of six years. They exercise 
their functions in complete independence, in the general 
interest of the Community. In the fulfilment of their 
duties, they are forbidden to solicit or accept instructions 
from any government or any other organisation or to act 
in any way incompatible with the supranational character 
of their functions. Each member state undertakes to respect 
this supranational character and not to seek to influence 
the members of the High Authority in their work. 

The President and Vice-Presidents of the High Authority 
are appointed for renewable two-year terms by the govern- 
ments of the member states by agreement among them- 
selves. Members who no longer fulfil the requirements for 


the exercise of their functions or who have committed a 
serious offence may be removed from office by the Court 
of Justice on petition by the High Authority or the 
Council. 

The High Authority acts by majority vote, and is 
responsible, in the execution of the tasks entrusted to it by 
the Treaty, for taking decisions, formulating recommenda- 
tions and issuing opinions. Decisions are binding in every 
respect. Recommendations are binding with respect to the 
objectives which they specify but leave to those to whom 
they are directed the choice of appropriate means for 
attaining these objectives. Opinions are not binding. When 
the High Authority is empowered to take a decision, it may 
limit itself to formulating a recommendation. 

The High Authority is bound to publish an Annual 
General Report on the activities and administrative 
expenses of the Community at least one month before the 
session of the European Parliament. 


* See note under Council of Ministers, opposite. 


182 



THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


Council of Ministers* 

3 rue Auguste Lumffcre, Luxembourg 


The general task of the Council of Ministers is to 
harmonise the action of the High Authority and that of the 
governments which are responsible for the economic policy 
of their countries. The Council and the High Authority are 
bound to exchange information and consult together to 
this end; the Council may request the High Authority to 
examine any proposals and measures which it may deem 
necessary or appropriate for the realisation of common 
objectives. 

The Council consists of representatives of the member 
states, each state appointing a member of its government. 
The Presidency of the Council is exercised for a term of 
three months by each member in rotation, in alphabetical 
order of the member states. Meetings of the Council are 
called by the President at the request of a member state or 
of the High Authority; when the Council is consulted by 
the High Authority, it may deliberate without necessarily 


proceeding to a vote, but the minutes of its meetings must 
be forwarded to the High Authority'. 

Whenever the Treaty requires the agreement of the 
Council, the agreement is deemed to have been given if the 
proposal submitted by the High Authority is approved by 
an absolute majority' of the representatives of the member 
states, including the votes of the representative of one of 
the states which produces at least 20 per cent of the total 
value of coal and steel in the Community’, or, in the case of 
an equal division of votes, and if the High Authority 
maintains its proposal after a second reading, by' the 
representatives of two member states, each of which pro- 
duces at least 20 per cent of the total value of coal and 
steel in the Community'. Decisions are taken by a vote of 
the majority of the total membership, except in those 
cases where the Treaty' requires a qualified majority or a 
unanimous vote. 


* The High Authority and the Council of Ministers of the European Coal and Steel Community’ were merged with the 
Commissions and Councils of Ministers of the Economic Community and EURATOM on July 1st, 1967- ECSC also shares 
with the other two Communities the following common organs: European Parliament and Court of Justice. 


Consultative Committee 


The Consultative Committee is attached to the High 
Authority, and consists of not less than thirty and not 
more than fifty-one members, including an equal number 
of producers, workers and consumers and dealers. They are 
appointed by the Council of Ministers for a period of two 


years, and arc not bound by any’ mandate or instructions. 

The High Authority' may consult the Committee on all 
matters it deems proper, and is required to do so under 
certain provisions of the Treaty', particularly with regard 
to economic and social provisions. 


SUMMARY OF ECSC TREATY 


THE EUROPEAN COAL AND STEEL 
COMMUNITY 

The European Coal and Steel Community is based on a 
common market, common objectives and common institu- 
tions. The aims of the Community are to contribute to the 
expansion of the economy, the development of employ- 
ment and the improvement of the standard of living in the 
participating countries through the creation, in harmony 
with the general economy of the member states, of a 
common market. With these aims in view, the institutions 
of the Community' are to ensure that the common market 
is regularly supplied, while taking into account the needs 
of third countries; to assure to all consumers in comparable 
positions within the common market equal access to the 
sources of production; to seek the establishment of the 
lowest possible prices without involving any corresponding 
rise either in the prices charged by’ the same enterprise in 
other transactions or in the price-level as a whole in another 
period, while at the same time permitting necessary 
amortisation and providing the possibility of normal 
returns on invested capital; to ensure that conditions arc 
maintained which will encourage enterprises to expand and 


improve their ability' to produce and to promote a policy 
of rational development of natural resources, while avoid- 
ing undue exhaustion of such resources; to promote the 
improvement of the living and working conditions of the 
labour force in each of the industries under its jurisdiction 
so as to harmonise those conditions in an upward direction; 
to foster the development of international trade and ensure 
that equitable limits arc observed in prices charged in 
foreign markets; and to promote the regular expansion and 
the modernisation of production as well as the improve- 
ment of quality, under conditions which preclude any pro- 
tection against competing industries except where justified 
by illegitimate action on the part of such industries or in 
their favour. 

The following arc considered incompatible with the com- 
mon market and arc therefore abolished and prohibited: 

(a) import and export duties, or taxes with an equivalent 
effect, and quantitative restrictions upon the move- 
ment of coal and steel; 

(b) measures or practices discriminating among pit- 
ducers, buyers or consumers, especially as concern 


THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


prices, delivery terms and transport rates, as well as 
practices or measures which hamper the buyer in the 
free choice of his supplier; 

(c) subsidies or state assistance, or special charges 
imposed by the state, in any form whatsoever; 

(d) restrictive practices tending towards the division or 
the exploitation of the market. 

The Community binds itself to assist the interested 
parties to take action by collecting information, organising 
consultations and defining general objectives; to place 
financial means at the disposal of enterprises for their 
investments and participate in the expenses of readapta- 
tion; to assure the establishment, the maintenance and the 
observance of the normal conditions of competition, and 
take direct action with respect to production and the co- 
operation of the market only when circumstances make it 
absolutely necessary; and to publish the reasons for its 
action and take the necessary measures to ensure observ- 
ance of the rules set forth in the Treaty. 

THE. INSTITUTIONS OE THE. COMMUNITY 
See section on Organisation, above. 

ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL PROVISIONS 

The High Authority is empowered to consult govern- 
ments and various interested parties such as enterprises, 
workers, consumers and dealers and their associations, as 
well as experts, and to gather such information as may be 
necessary to the accomplishment of its mission. It is not 
permitted to divulge information which by its nature is 
considered a trade secret, and in particular information 
pertaining to the commercial relations or the breakdown 
of the costs of production of enterprises. With this reserva- 
tion, it must publish such data as may be useful to 
governments or to any other interested parties. 

The High Authority may impose fines and daily penalty 
payments upon enterprises which evade their obligations 
under this title. 

Financial Provisions: The High Authority is empowered 
to procure its funds by imposing a levy on the production 
of coal and steel, by borrowing, and by receiving grants. 
The levies are intended to cover administrative expenses, 
non-repayable assistance relating to readaptation, invest- 
ments and financial assistance and expenditure devoted to 
encouraging technical and economic research. Funds 
obtained by borrowing may only be used to grant loans. 

Investments and Financial Assistance: The High Author- 
ity may facilitate the carrying out of investment pro- 
grammes by granting loans to enterprises or by giving its 
guarantee to other loans which they obtain. With the 
unanimous agreement of the Council, the High Authority 
may by the same means assist the financing of works and 
installations which contribute directly or mainly to an 
increase of production, to lower production costs, or which 
facilitate the marketing of products subject to its jurisdic- 
tion. The High Authority may require enterprises to submit 
individual projects in advance, and, having given the 
interested parties an opportunity to express their views, 
issue a reasoned opinion on any such projects. If the High 
Authority finds that the financing of a project or the 
operation of any proposed installation would require 


subsidies, assistance, protection or discrimination contrary 
to the present Treaty, it may issue a binding prohibition to 
the enterprise in question, forbidding it to use resources 
other than its own funds to carry out such a project. 

The High Authority is obliged to encourage technical 
and economic research concerning the production and the 
development of consumption of coal and steel, as well as 
workers’ safety in these industries. If the introduction oi 
technical processes or new equipment, within the frame- 
work of the general objectives laid down by the High 
Authority, should lead to an exceptionally large reduction 
in labour requirements in the coal or steel industries, 
making it especially difficult in one or more areas to re- 
employ the workers discharged, the High Authority, on 
the request of the interested governments, may facilitate 
the financing of such programmes as it may approve for 
the creation, either in the industries subject to its jurisdic- 
tion or, with the agreement of the Council, in any other 
industry, of new and economically sound activities capable 
of assuring productive employment to the workers thus 
discharged, and shall grant non-repayable assistance as a 
contribution to payment oi compensation, granting of 
re-settlement allowances and the financing of technical 
retraining of workers. 

Production: The High Authority is to give preference to 
the indirect means of action at its disposal, such as co- 
operation with governments to stabilise or influence 
general consumption, particularly that of public services, 
and intervention on prices and commercial policy. 

If, in the case of a decline in demand, it considers that 
the Community is faced with a manifest crisis, it must, 
after consulting the Consultative Committee and with the 
agreement of the Council, establish a system of production 
quotas. Failing this, any member state may bring the 
matter to the attention of the Council, which, by unani- 
mous vote, may oblige the High Authority to establish a 
quota system. The High Authority may in particular 
regulate the rate of operation of enterprises by appropriate 
levies on tonnages exceeding a reference level defined by a 
general decision. The sums thus obtained will be earmarked 
for the support of those enterprises whose rate of produc- 
tion has fallen below the reference level. 

If the Community is faced with a serious shortage of 
certain or of all the products subject to the jurisdiction of 
the High Authority, the latter must propose appropriate 
measures to the Council, unless the Council decides to the 
contrary by unanimous vote. On the basis of these pro- 
posals, the Council must establish consumption priorities 
and determine the allocation of the coal and steel resources 
of the Community among the industries subject to its 
jurisdiction, exports and other consumption. On the basis 
of the consumption priorities thus established, the High 
Authority is empowered, after consulting the enterprises 
concerned, to draw up production programmes which the 
enterprises are obliged to carry out. 

Prices: Pricing practices contrary to the provision of 
Title x are prohibited and in particular unfair competitive 
practices, especially purely temporary or local price 
reductions, the purpose of which is to acquire a monopoly 
within the common market and discriminatory practices 
involving within the common market the application by a 
seller of unequal conditions to comparable transactions, 
especially according to the nationality of the buyer. In 



THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


certain cases, the High Authority may fix maximum and/or 
minimum prices for one or more products subject to its 
jurisdiction, both within the common market and with 
regard to export. 

Agreements and Concentrations: All agreements among 
enterprises, all decisions of associations of enterprises, and 
all concerted practices, tending, directly or indirectly, to 
prevent, restrict or distort the normal operation of com- 
petition within the common market are forbidden, and in 
particular those tending to fix or determine prices, to 
restrict or control production, technical development or 
investments, or to allocate markets, products, customers 
or sources of supply. However, the High Authority may 
authorise agreements to specialise in the production of, or 
to engage in the joint buying or selling of specified products, 
if it finds that this will contribute to a substantial 
improvement in production or distribution, or that the 
agreement in question is essential to achieve these results 
and is not more restrictive than is necessary, or that it is 
not capable of giving the interested enterprises any dis- 
criminatory powers or advantages. Similar regulations 
apply to concentrations. 

impairment of tho Conditions of Competition: If any 

action of any member state is liable to provoke a serious 
disequilibrium by substantially increasing differences in 
costs of production otherwise than through variations in 
productivity, the High Authority, after consulting the 
Consultative Committee and the Council, may take the 
following steps: 

If the action of the state produces harmful effects for 
coal or steel enterprises falling under the jurisdiction of the 
said state, the High Authority may authorise that state to 
grant assistance to such enterprises, the amount, conditions 
and duration of which shall be determined in agreement 
with the High Authority. The same provisions arc to apply 
in the case of a variation in wages and in working con- 
ditions which would have the same effects, even if such 
variation is not the result of an action by that state. 

If the action of that state produces harmful effects for 
coal and steel enterprises subject to the jurisdiction of 
other member states, the High Authority may address a 
recommendation to the said state with a view to remedying 
these effects by such measures as that state may consider 
most compatible with its own economic equilibrium. 

If the action of the said state reduces differences in costs 
of production by granting a special advantage to, or by 
imposing special burdens on, coal or steel enterprises falling 
under its jurisdiction in comparison with the other indus- 
tries in the same country, the High Authority is empowered 
to address the necessary recommendations to the state in 
question, after consulting the Consultative Committee and 
the Council. 

Wages and Movement of Labour: The methods of fixing 
wanes and social benefits in force in the various member 
states are not affected by the Treaty, subject to certain 

provisions. 

If the High Authority finds that any wage levels arc 
abnormally low. whether these levels arc fixed by enter- 
prise;: or by government decisions, it may address recom- 
mendations to the enterprises concerned or government 
interested. Similar action may be taken when a lowering of 
wages entail*, a drop in the standard of living of the labour 


force and at the same time is being used as a means of 
permanent economic adjustment by enterprises or as a 
means of competition between enterprises. This provision 
does not apply to 

(a) overall measures taken by a member state to re- 
establish its external equilibrium, without prejudice 
to the possible application of the provisions dealing 
with the impairment of the conditions of competition; 

(b) wage decreases resulting from the application of a 
sliding scale established by law or by contract; 

(c) wage decreases resulting from a decrease in the cost 
of living; 

(d) wage decreases intended to correct abnormal in- 
creases previously granted under exceptional cir- 
cumstances which no longer apply. 

With the exception of (a) and (b) above, any wage 
decrease affecting the whole labour force of an enterprise 
or a sizeable proportion thereof must be notified to the 
High Authority. 

The member states bind themselves to renounce any 
restriction, based on nationality, on the employment in 
the coal and steel industries of workers of recognised 
qualifications, subject to limitations imposed by the funda- 
mental needs of health and public order. In the case of 
other (non-qualified) workers and where the expansion of 
production in the coal and steel industries might be 
hampered by* a shortage of suitable labour, the member 
states agree to adapt their immigration regulations, and in 
particular, to facilitate the re-employment of workers from 
the coal and steel industries of other member states. Any 
discrimination in payment and working conditions as 
between national and foreign workers, without prejudice 
to special measures concerning frontier workers, arc pro- 
hibited. Social security' measures are not to impede the 
movement of labour. 

Transport: In order to implement the application of such 
transport rates for coal and steel as will make possible 
comparable price conditions to consumers in comparable 
positions, discriminations in transport rates and conditions 
of any* kind, which are based on the country of origin or of 
destination of the products in question arc forbidden. 

Commercial Policy: Unless otherwise provided in the 
Treaty, the responsibilities of the governments of the 
member states for commercial policy are not affected by 
its application. Minimum rates, below which the member 
states bind themselves not to lower their customs duties on 
coal and steel with regard to third countries, and maximum 
rates, above which they bind themselves not to raise such 
duties, may be fixed by unanimous decision of the Council 
upon the proposal of the High Authority, which may act 
on its own initiative or at the request of a member state. 
Between these limits, each government is to set its tariffs 
according to its own national procedure, upon the modifica- 
tion of which the High Authority may issue opinions. The 
High Authority is empowered to supervise the administra- 
tion of import and export licences with regard to third 
countries in the cases of coal and steel. The mcmler states 
bind themselves to keep the High Authority informed of 
proposed commercial agreements or similar arrangements 
as far as they relate to coal, steel or the importation cf the 
other raw materials and of special s*ed equipment necettary 
for the production of coal and steel in the memb'-r 


THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


GENERAL PROVISIONS 

Among the numerous provisions of this title, the follow- 
ing are significant: 

The establishment of the Community does not in any 
way prejudice the system of ownership of the enterprises 
subject to the provisions of this Treaty. 

As far as they are competent to do so, the member states 
shall take any appropriate measures to guarantee the 
settling of international accounts arising out of trade in 
coal and steel within the common market; they will lend 
each other assistance to facilitate such settlements. 

If the High Authority considers that a state has failed 
in any of the obligations incumbent upon it by virtue of 
the Treaty, it shall, after permitting the state in question 
to present its views, take note of the failure in a reasoned 
decision accompanied by a justification. It shall allow the 
state in question a period of time within which to provide 
for the execution of its obligation. Such a state may appeal 
to the Court’s general jurisdiction within a period of two 
months from the notification of the decision. If the state 
has not taken steps to fulfil its obligations within the 
period fixed by the High Authority, or if its appeal has 
been rejected, the High Authority may, with the agreement 
of the Council acting by a two-thirds majority: 

(a) suspend the payment of sums which the High 
Authority may owe to the state in question under 
the Treaty; 


(b) adopt measures or authorise the other member states 
to adopt measures which would otherwise be con- 
trary to certain provisions of Title i, so as to correct 
the effects of the failure in question. 

An appeal to the Court’s general jurisdiction may be 
lodged against these decisions within two months following 
their notification. Should these measures prove ineffective, 
the High Authority shall refer the matter to the Council. 

The decisions of the High Authority imposing financial 
obligations on enterprises shall have executive force. 

After the period of transition, the government of any 
member state and the High Authority may propose 
amendments to the Treaty. Such proposals shall be sub- 
mitted to the Council. If the Council, acting by a two-thirds 
majority', approves a conference of the representatives of 
the governments of the member states, such a conference 
shall be immediately called by the President of the Council, 
with a view to agreeing on any modifications to be made to 
the provisions of the Treaty. Such amendments shall come 
into force after ratification by all the member states. 

The Treaty is concluded for a period of fifty years from 
the date of its entry into force. 

Any European state may request to accede to this 
Treaty. It shall address its request to the Council, which 
shall act by unanimous vote after obtaining the opinion of 
the High Authority. Also by unanimous vote, the Council 
shall fix the terms of accession, which shall become 
effective on the day the instrument of accession is received 
by the government acting as depositary of the Treaty. 


STATISTICS 

FINANCE 

i EMA (European Monetary Agreement) Unit of Account=i U.S. 5 


THE LEVY 

ECSC is financed by a Levy of 0.25% on the value of production (until July 1965 the Levy had been 0.2%). 

($ million) 



1960-61 

1961-62 

1963 

1964 

1965 

1966 

German Federal Republic (including 
Saar) ..... 

Belgium ..... 

France ..... 

Italy ...... 

Luxembourg .... 

Netherlands .... 

Total .... 

17.17 

2.67 

7.46 

3-15 

1.02 

I .29 

14.29 

2.58 

6-35 

3-03 

0.89 

1 . 12 

9-54 

1 .62 

4-30 

2.13 

0.59 

0.79 

io -35 

1.77 

4-52 

2.05 

0.66 

0.84 

n.46 

2.06 

5 • 16 

2.83 

0.77 

1 .02 

12.70 

2.43 ' 
5-89 

3-65 

0.8S 

1.23 

32.76 

28.25 

I8.97 

20.22 

23-30 

26. 78 


ISO 



THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


EMPLOYMENT 


(February 1967 — ’000) 



Coal Industry 

Iron Ore 
Mining 

Iron and Steel 
Industry 

German Federal Republic 

(inc. Saar) 

259-7 

5 -i 

183.46 

Belgium 

. 

56. s 


47-55 

France . 

. . 

143. S 

14.0 

116.38 

Italy . 

. 

i -5 

I .1 

56.6 

Luxembourg . 


— 

1.4 

19-5 

Netherlands . 

- 

35-7 


11. 7 

Total . 

• 

- 197-4 

29.4 

435-77 


INDUSTRY 

ECSC HARD-COAL PRODUCTION 


(’000 metric tons) 



1938 

1954 j 

1959 

1963 ' 

1964 

t 

1965 

J 1966 

1967 

German Federal Republic 

I 5 L 345 

144.853 

141.S33 

142,1 16 

142,201 

140,600 

131.294 

1 16.403 

Belgium 

29,600 

29,249 

22,757 

21,41s 

21,287 

19,786 

17.500 

>0.413 

France .... 

46.500 

54.405 

57 . 6 o 6 

47.756 

53-02S 

51 . 3 -lS 

50.338 

47.650 

Italy .... 

600 

i ,074 

735 

585 

470 

3S9 

418 

399 

Netherlands . 

13.500 

12,071 

11.978 

11,509 

t 11,483 

j 11.739 

10,310 

8,252 

Total 

241,500 

241.653 

234,908 

223,384 

22S.434 

223,862 

200,869 j 
1 

189,213 


ECSC COKE-OVEN COKE PRODUCTION 


('000 metric tons) 



1938 

1959 

1962 

3963 

1964 

1065 

1966 

German Federal Republic (excl. Saar) 
Saar ...... 

Belgium ..... 

France ...... 

Italy ...... 

Netherlands ..... 

36,700 

3.100 

5.100 
7.600 
1,700 
3,200 

38.405 \ 
4.335/ 
7.217 
13.092 
3.045 
4.083 

42.S63 

7.195 

13.4S2 

4.330 

4.274 

41.585 

7.203 

13.413 

4.594 

4.270 

43.268 

7.39S 

13.397 

4.670 

4.521 

43,275 

7.334 

13.37 s 

5-737 

4,286 

39.891 

6,961 

1 2,022 
6.266 
3.828 

Total .... 

57.400 

70,196 

72,144 

71,066 

73-794 

74,009 

69,869 



THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


ECSC CRUDE IRON ORE PRODUCTION 


(’ooo metric tons) 



1952 

1960 

1963 

1964 

1965 

1966 

German Federal Republic 
Belgium . . . . 

France . 

Italy . 

Luxembourg 


■ 

18,872 

162 

67.713 

2,116 

6,977 

12,898 

96 

58,476 

i> 7°9 

6,990 

11,621 

61 

61,472 

1,570 

6,680 

10,847 

9 i 

60,126 

1,368 

6,315 

9,466 

W 5 

55,657 

1,2 52 
6,529 

Total 

• 

65,292 

95,840 

80,169 

8 i ,395 

78,747 

73,029 


ECSC CRUDE STEEL PRODUCTION 


('ooo metric tons) 



1938 

1954 

1959 

1963 

1964 

1965 

1966 

1967 

German Federal Repub- 
lic (excl. Saar) 

Saar .... 
Belgium 

France 

Italy 

Luxembourg 

Netherlands 

17,902 

2,557 

2,296 

6,221 

2,323 

1.437 

52 

17.4351 
2,805 J 
5,003 
10,627 
4,207 
2,828 
937 

29,400 

6,600 

15,200 

6,800 

3.700 

1.700 

31.597 

7.525 

17-550 

10,167 

4,032 

2,344 

37.339 

8,725 

19,781 

9.793 

4,559 

2,646 

36,821 

9.162 

19,599 

12,680 

4.585 

3 U 45 

35,316 

S,9ri 

19,594 

13,639 

4-390 

3-255 

36,745 

9,712 

19,655 

i 5. 8 92 

4,481 

3 > 4°4 

Total 

32,788 

43.842 

63,400 

73,215 

82,884 

85,991 

85,105 

89,889 


ECSC PIG-IRON AND FERRO-ALLOYS PRODUCTION 


(’ooo metric tons) 



1952 

i960 

1963 

1964 

1965 

1966 

German Federal Republic (excl. Saar) 
Saar ...... 

Belgium ...... 

France ...... 

Italy ...... 

Luxembourg ..... 

Netherlands ..... 

12,877! 

2.550/ 

4 , 78 i 

9,772 

t,H 3 

3,076 

539 

25.739 

6,518 

14,016 

2,716 

3,714 

1 , 34 s 

22,909 

6,952 

14,297 

3,772 

3,563 

1,709 

27,182 

8,122 

15,840 

3,513 

4,178 

1,948 

26,990 

8,436 

15,766 

5,501 

4,145 

2,364 

25 . 4 X 3 

8,302 

15,584 

6,273 

3,060 

2,209 

Total 

* 



34,736 

54 ,° 5 T 

53,202 

60,783 

63,202 

61, 74 1 


ISS 
































THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


EUROPEAN ATOMIC ENERGY COMMUNITY— 

EURATOM 

51-53 rue Belliard, Brussels, Belgium 


The idea of the European Atomic Energy Com- 
munity was born at the Messina Conference in 1955, 
together with that of EEC. The Treaty setting up the 
Community came into force on the same date as the 
EEC Treaty, January 1st, 1958. 

EURATOM’s role is to create ‘the conditions nec- 
essary for the speedy establishment and growth of 
nuclear industries in the Community' by stimulating 
and co-ordinating public and private research in 
atomic energj', by ensuring the free flow of informa- 
tion, and by encouraging the building of power 
reactors. EURATOM also has various responsibilities 
of a regulatory character, establishing common laws 
and rules in the atomic field throughout the Com- 
munity. A common market in nuclear materials was 
introduced on January 1st, 1959, which eliminates 
internal import and export duties on nuclear products; 
acommon tariff 'is applied to third countries; assistance 


is granted to the free movement of specialized labour, 
and a common insurance scheme against nuclear risks 
has been established. 

Nuclear materials intended for military purposes 
are not subject to the control of EURATOM, which 
has no responsibilities in the field of armaments, and 
new military plant need not be notified to the Com- 
mission nor is it subject to inspection. However, the 
intended use of all nuclear materials has to be declared, 
so the scope of production for military purposes comes 
to the knowledge of the Commission. 

The supply of nuclear fuel is supervised or negotiated 
by an Agency, financially independent and with an 
option on the purchase of materials within the Com- 
munity. Contracts with third countries are the 
exclusive right of the Agency. EURATOM is also the 
exclusive owner of special fissile materials. 


ORGANIZATION 

The Commission and Council of Ministers of EURATOM were merged with the corresponding executive bodies of the 
European Economic Community and the European Coal and Steel Community on July 1st, 1967. EURATOM also 
shares with the other two Communities the following common organs: European Parliament and Court of Justice. 
The Economic and Social Committee is common to the EEC and to EURATOM. 


SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL COMMITTEE 


President (1967-68): D. C. II. Latzko. 

Vice-President (1967-6S): Heinrich M.yndel. 

Members: Pierre Aillkret (France), Prof. Arnai.do 
Maria Anc.elini (Italy), Jean-Jacques Baron 
(France), Prof. H. J. Born (German Federal Republic). 
Prof. Louis Bugnard (France), Prof. Nkstore Ber- 
nardo Cacciaevoti (Italy), Dr. Giuliu Cesoni (Italy), 
Prof. Willy Deki-vser (Belgium), Marcel nr. Merre 
(Belgium), Reni: Dondelinger (Luxembourg). Prof. 
fiTO Franzini (Italy), Prof. Otto Haxel (German 
federal Republic). Roger Jim.iv (France). Prof 


D. G. H. Latzko (Netherlands), Prof. Heinrich 
Mandel (German Federal Republic), Prof. Francis 
Perrin (France), J. C. Van Keenen (Netherlands), 
j Prof. Carlo Salvetti (Italy), Dr. Walther Schnukk 
; (German Federal Republic). Prof. J. Wenglek 

‘ (German Federal Republic). 

> 

j The Committee, established under Arlidf 1 3.5 of the 
1 Treaty, is composed of 20 members elected for a five-year 
, period. The Committee is attached to the Commission for 

consultations. 


THE EUROPEAN . COMMUNITIES 


ACTIVITIES AND ACHIEVEMENTS 


Research 

EURATOM'S nuclear research assignment is to under- 
take research at its own Joint Research Centre or under 
various types of contracts with bodies in the member 
countries. Ispra is the largest of the four establishments of 
the Centre. A second is in operation (the Central Nuclear 
Measurements Bureau) at Mol, Belgium; a third is at 
Karlsruhe (the European Transuranium Elements Insti- ~v 
tute); the Dutch Petten Centre is the fourth under an 
agreement which came into force in 1962. Roughly half 
EURATOM research is undertaken under contract with 
public or private concerns in member countries and several 
hundred contracts are in course. Some of these are long- 
term "association contracts” in which EURATOM and the 
concern contribute finance and personnel; one is for the 
operation of the Belgian BR2 materials’ testing reactor at 
Mol; others- concern, inter alia, fast breeder and high tem- 
perature gas reactors, nuclear ship propulsion, fusion, 
agricultural and medical aspects of nuclear energy. 
EURATOM was allocated $215 million for research over 
1958-62 and $425 million for a second period 1963-67. At 
present the research staff numbers about 2,700. 

Co-operation with other countries and organizations 

An important section of EURATOM’s research work 
falls under agreements for joint research with other 
countries and international organizations. In November 
1958 an agreement was signed between EURATOM and 
the U.S.A. for a joint power and research and development 
programme. Three large-scale American-designed and con- 
structed atomic reactors have been installed or are under 
construction: one atomic power station is in operation in 
Italy, one plant at Chooz on the Franco-Belgian border 
and one at Gundremmingen in Bavaria. The latter two are 
EURATOM joint undertakings, and so benefit from 
certain fiscal exemptions and other investment aids. Sixty 
million dollars have so far been devoted to joint research 
and development. 

Under the agreements with the U.K. and Canada, 
signed 1959, joint discussions and exchanges of information 
are taking place in many fields of common interest, such as 
fast breeder reactors and the economics of nuclear power 
(with the U.K.) and heavy-water moderated reactors (with 
Canada). Other agreements have been signed with Brazil 
and Argentina. 

EURATOM is participating in the research projects of 
the European Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD. 
EURATOM is participating, in the place of its member 
countries, and in partnership with the U.K., in the building 
and operation of the high-temperature gas-cooled 
DRAGON reactor at Winfrith Heath, along with other 
ENEA countries: some 30 of the 250 scientists and engin- 
eers employed on the DRAGON Project are from 
EURATOM. 

Industry and the Common Market 

About 4,200 MWe. of nuclear capacity will have been 
installed in the Community by 1970, and about 2,100 MWe. 
was in service by September 1967. 

EURATOM expects power reactors on which construc- 
tion could now start to be competitive when they come 


into operation in 1968-70; from then onwards nuclear 
electricity will be required on a large scale. It is estimated 
that between i960 and 1980 Community electricity con- 
sumption will virtually quadruple, rising from an estimated 
264 billion kWh in i960 to 950 billion kWh in 1980 and 
that comsumption per head will rise to 5,000. kW. in 1980 
(from the 1,350 kW. or so in i960). It is estimated that the 
Community’s installed nuclear capacity will be 60,000 MW. 
in 1980 to satisfy electricity needs, over 20 per cent of 
total electricity production capacity. By the year 2000 the 
capacity is expected to be 370,000 MW., producing some 
two-tliirds of the Community's electricity. 

EURATOM is not, however, responsible for the con- 
struction of power reactors in the Community . Its role is to 
facilitate and encourage investment by private or public 
authorities in member countries. At the beginning of 1959 
a common market was brought into existence for all 
nuclear materials and equipment; arrangements for the 
free movement of qualified labour are now in force; a 
supplementary insurance convention providing for third- 
party coverage by the Community as a whole for damages 
amounting to up to $120 million has been prepared; a 
Community patent policy has been drawn up; a Com- 
munity atomic information and documentation centre has 
been built up; and a bureau to provide information on the 
industrial use of radioisotopes is in operation. Moreover, 
EURATOM is giving direct financial assistance to a 
number of power reactor projects in return for access to all 
constructional and operational information and for the 
seconding of its own staff to these projects. Such informa- 
tion may be made available to interested parties in the 
Community. 

Supply Agency 

The Community’s Supply Agency (Article 52 of the 
Treaty) came into operation in June i960. From that date 
all contracts for the purchase and sale of fissile materials 
such as enriched uranium produced in or imported into 
the Community must be concluded by the Agency, which 
is an independent department of the Commission operating 
on commercial lines. The entirety of the enriched uranium 
needs of the Community’s seven light water power reactors 
has been supplied by the U.S.A. to the EURATOM supply 
Agency. The Agency also has an option on all ores and 
fissile materials produced in the Community, and all con- 
tracts for purchases and sales must receive its approval. 

Security Control and Health Protection 

The Commission has set up a Security control system 
designed to guarantee that fissile materials will not be 
improperly used. Community nuclear installations must 
make regular declarations to the Commission on stocks, 
transfers and transactions of nuclear materials, and an 
inspectionteam undertakes periodic visits to them to ensure 
that declarations are being properly made. This is the first 
international control system to be binding on governments. 

In February 1959, Basic Health Standards drawn up by 
EURATOM were approved by the Ministers and these are 
being incorporated into national nuclear legislation. These 
also are the first international nuclear safety laws to be 
binding on governments. 


ISO 


THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


RESEARCH BUDGET— 1967 

(? U.S.) 


Personnel and Administration 


27,605,000 

Fast Reactors .... 


25,720,000 

Other Reactors 


iS, 471,000 

Joint Research Centre 


10,660,000 

Nuclear Fusion 


6,177,000 

Other Expenditure . 


9,492,000 

Total 

• 

99,125,000 


SUMMARY OF EURATOM TREATY 


The preamble to the Treaty states that the signatory 
powers: 

"Realising that nuclear energy constitutes the essential 
resource for ensuring the expansion and invigoration of 
production and for effecting progress in peaceful achieve- 
ment, 

"Convinced that only a common effort undertaken 
without delay can lead to achievements commensurate 
with the creative capacities of their countries, 

"Resolved to create the conditions required for the 
development of a powerful nuclear industry which will 
provide extensive supplies of energy, lead to the moderniza- 
tion of technical processes and in addition have many other 
applications contributing to the well-being of their peoples, 

"Anxious to establish conditions of safety which will 
eliminate danger to the life and health of the people, 

"Desirous of associating with international organizations 
concerned with the peaceful development of atomic 
energy, 

"Have decided to establish a European Atomic Energy 
Community (EURATOM).” 

AIMS OF THE COMMUNITY 

Article i. It shall be the aim of the Community to 
contribute to the raising of the standard of living in 
member states and to the development of commercial 
exchanges with other countries by the creation of conditions 
necessary for the speedy establishment and growth of 
nuclear industries. 

Article a. For the attainment of its aims the Community 
shall: 

(a) develop research and ensure the dissemination of j 
technical knowledge; 

(b) establish, and ensure the application of, uniform J 

safety standards to protect the health of workers I 
and of the general public; ' 

(c) facilitate investment and ensure, particularly by | 

encouraging business enterprise, the construction of j 
the basic facilities required for the development of j 
nuclear energy within the Community; s 

(d) ensure a regular and equitable supply of ores and j 
nuclear fuels to all users in the Community; 


(e) guarantee, by appropriate measures of control, that 
nuclear materials arc not diverted for purposes other 
than those for which they arc intended; 

(f) exercise the property rights conferred upon it in 
respect of special fissionable materials; 

(g) ensure extensive markets and access to the best 
technical means by the creation of a common market 
for specialized materials and equipment, by the free 
movement of capital for nuclear investment, and by 
freedom of employment for specialists within the 
Community; 

(h) establish with other countries and with international 
organizations any contacts likely to promote pro- 
gress in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. 

Article 3. The achievement of the tasks entrusted to 
the Community shall be ensured by: 

an Assembly 
a Council 
a Commission 
a Court of Justice 

The Council and the Commission shall be assisted by an 
Economic and Social Committee acting in a consultative 
capacity. 

PROVISIONS FOR NUCLEAR ENERGY 

Articles 4-1 1: deal with development of research. 

Article S provides for the establishment of a Joint 
Nuclear Research Centre. 

Articles 12-29: the dissemination of information, including 
(Articles 24-27) provisions concerning security. 

Articles 30-30: health protection. 

Articles 40-44: investment. 

Article 41 enacts that certain investment projects 
must be communicated to the Commission. 

Articles 45-51: joint enterprises. 

Article 46 enacts that any project for the establish- 
ment of a joint enterprise, whether originating from the 
Commission, a member state, or any other source. shall 
be the subject of an enquiry by the Commission. 

Articles 52-76: supplies. 

Article 52 provider, for the establishment of a Supply 
Agency. 


THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


Articles 77-85: safety control. 

Articles 86-91: property rights. 

Articles 92-100: the nuclear common market. 

Article 93 enacts the abolition after one year of all 
import and export duties and all quantitative restrictions 
on imports and exports in respect of certain nuclear 
materials and equipment listed in Annex IV to the 
Treaty. 

Articles 101-106: external relations. 

These articles lay down the conditions for agreements 
■with third countries or international organizations. 

PROVISIONS RELATING TO INSTITUTIONS 

Articles 107-160: the Institutions of the Community. 
Articles 107-214: the Assembly. 

Articles 1 15-123: the Council. 

Articles 124-135: the Commission. 

Article 134: Scientific and Technical Committee 
attached to the Commission. 
Articles 136-160: the Court of Justice. 

Articles 161-164: provisions common to several institu- 
tions. 

Articles 165-170: the Economic and Social Committee. 

FINANCIAL PROVISIONS 
Articles 171-183. 

Article 171 provides for an operational budget and a 
research and investment budget. The former covers 


administrative expenses and safety control and health 
protection. Under Article 172 the scale of contributions to 
the operational budget is fixed as follows: 

% 


Belgium 



7-9 

Germany 



28.0 

France . 



28.0 

Italy 



28.0 

Luxembourg . 



0.2 

Netherlands . 



7-9 


The scale of contributions to the research and investment 


budget is as follows: 



0/ 

Belgium 



/o 

9-9 

Germany 


. 

30.0 

France . 


. 

30.0 

Italy 


. 

23.0 

Luxembourg . 


. 

0.2 

Netherlands . 


. 

6.9 


GENERAL PROVISIONS 

Articles 184-208: cover certain legal aspects of the Com- 
munity's status and define certain technical terms. 

Article 205 allows for the application of any European 
state to membership of the Community. 

Article 208 states that the Treaty is concluded for an 
unlimited period. 


PROVISIONS FOR THE INITIAL PERIOD 
Articles 209-224. 


EDUCATION 

EUROPEAN SCHOOLS 

Six schools have been established for the children 
of officials of the Communities. Where possible other 
children may join the schools. 

Luxembourg: Founded 1953, ECSC. 

Brussels: Founded 1959, EEC and Euratom. 

Mol, Belgium: Founded ig6r, Euratom. 

Varese-Ispra, Italy: Founded 1961, Euratom. 

Karlsruhe, Germany: Founded 1962, Euratom. 

Petten, Netherlands: Founded 1963, Euratom. 


192 



THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


INFORMATION OFFICES 


Belgium . 

France 

German Federal 
Republic 

Italy 

Luxembourg 


Official Spokesman of the Commission 
of the European Communities, 23 
avenue de la Joyeuse Entree, 
Brussels. Tel.: 35.00.40. 

Bureau d'information des Commu- 
nautds europeennes, 61 rue des Belles 
Feuilles, Paris 16. Tel.: Kt-Eber 53.26. 

Presse und Informationstelle der Euro- 
paischen Gemeinschaften, Bonn, 
Zitelmannstrasse xi. Tel.: 26041. 

Ufficio Stampa e Informazione delle 
Comunita Europea, Via Poli 29, 
Rome. Tel.: 670.696/688.182. 

Official Spokesman of the High 
Authority, European Coal and Steel 
Community, 2 place de Metz, Luxem- 
bourg. Tel.: 288.31. 


Netherlands 


Switzerland 


United Kingdom 


United States . 


Voorlichtingsdicnst van de Europese 
Gemeenschappen, Mauritskadc 39, 
The Hague. Tel.: 1S4S15. 

Bureau d’information des Commun- 
autes Europeennes, 72 rue de 
Lausanne, Geneva. 

European Community Information 
Service, 23 Chesham Street, London, 
S.W.i. Tel.: BELgravia 4904-4907. 

European Community Information 
Service, SoS Farragut Building, 
Farragut Square, Washington 6, 
D.C.: 2207, Commerce Building, 155 
East 44th Street, New York 10017. 


COUNTRIES WITH DIPLOMATIC REPRESENTATION WITH THE COMMUNITIES 


Algeria 

Guatemala 

Pakistan 

Argentina 

Haiti 

Peru 

Australia 

Iceland 

Philippines 

Austria 

India 

Portugal 

Brazil 

Indonesia 

Rwanda 

Burundi 

Iran 

Senegal 

Cameroon 

Ireland 

Somalia 

Canada 

Israel 

South Africa 

Central African Republic 

Ivory Coast 

Spain 

Ceylon 

Jamaica 

Sweden 

Chad 

Japan 

Switzerland 

Chile 

Kenya 

Tanzania 

Colombia 

Korea, Republic of 

Thailand 

Congo (Brazzaville) 

Lebanon 

Togo 

Congo (Democratic Republic) 

Madagascar 

Trinidad and Tobago 

Costa Rica 

Mali 

Tunisia 

Dahomey 

Malta 

Turkey 

Denmark 

Mauritania 

Uganda 

Dominican Republic 

Mexico 

United Kingdom 

Ecuador 

Morocco 

United States 

El Salvador 

New Zealand 

Upper Volta 

Finland 

Niger 

Uruguay 

Gabon 

Nigeria 

Venezuela 

Greece 

Norway 




193 



THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


PRIVATE ORGANIZATIONS WITHIN THE COMMUNITY 
INDUSTRY AND MINING 


PRODUCERS 

General 

Union des Industries de ta Communaute Europeenne 
(UNICE): 4 rue Ravenstein, Brussels i; Pres. F. Berg; 
Sec.-Gen. Mile H. M. Claessens: National Delegates 
Eichner, Schlotfeldt (German Federal Republic), 
Sauwens (Belgium), Maneval (France), Mondello 
(Italy), Hayot (Luxembourg), Van Rooij (Nether- 
lands), Markoulakis (Greece). 

Building 

Comity Permanent pour I’Etude des Probiemes Poses par le 
Marche Commun Europeen dans I’lndustrie de la Con- 
struction: 3 rue de Bern, Paris 8e., France; f. 1957; 
Pres. Henri Courbot; Sec. Jacques Houdry. 

Ceramics and Glass 

Bureau de Liaison des Industries ceramiques du March 6 
Commun (C6rame-Unie) : 60 rue Ravenstein, Brussels 1; 
f. 1962; Sec.-Gen. A. P. Thill. 

Comite Permanent des Industries du Verre de la C.E.E.: 3 

rue La Boetie, Paris 8e, France; Sec.-Gen. James 
Barrelet. 

Federation Europeenne des Fabricants de Tuiles et de 
Briques: 23 rue de Cronstadt, 75-Paris i5e; f. 1952. 
Federation Europeenne des Industries de Porcelaine et de 
Faience de Table et d’Ornementation (F.E.P.E.) : 60 rue 
Ravenstein, Brussels 1; f. 1958; 17 mems.; Pres. Prof. 
C. H. Lester; Sec.-Gen. A. P. Thill. 

Groupe de Travail C.E.E. de la Federation Europeenne de la 
Porcelaine et de Faience de Table et d’Ornementation: 
Co rue Ravenstein, Brussels; f. 1958; Pres. M. Feron; 
Sec. A. P. Thill. 

Groupement des Fabricants d’Appareils Sanitaires en 
Ceramique de la C.E.E. (GEFACS): 44 rue Copemic, 
Paris i6e; Pres. E. Vercouter; Sec.-Gen. J. Vuil- 

LAUME. 

Groupement des Producteurs de Carreaux ceramiques du 
March6 Commun: 60 rue Ravenstein, Brussels; f. 1959; 
6 mems.; Pres. X. Legrand; Sec. A. P. Thill. 

Chemicals 

Bureau de Liaison des Associations de Fabricants de 
Peintures et d’Encres d’lmprimerie des Pays du Marche 
Commun: 49 square Marie-Louise, Brussels 4, Belgium. 
Comite de Coodination des Industries de la Transformation 
des Matures Plastiques de la Communaute europeenne: 
49 ave. d’Audergliem, Brussels 4, Belgium; f, i960; 
Pres. J. Pennel; Sec.-Gen. L. Buslain. 

Groupement Europfien des Associations Nationals de Fabri- 
cants des Pesticides — GEFAP: 49 square Marie-Louise, 
Brussels 4; f. i960; Pres. J. Borduge; Sec.-Gen. 
Y. Demaret. 

Secretariat International des Groupements Professionnels 
des Industries Chimiques des Pays de la C.E.E.: 49 

square Marie-Louise, Brussels 5; f. 1958. 


Clothing and Footwear 

Commission Interprofessionnelle des Industries de I’Habil- 
lement de la C.E.E.: 20 ave. des Arts, Brussels, Belgium; 
f. 1959; mems.: professional organizations in the six 
EEC countries; Pres. A. de Stexhe; Sec. J. Decat. 

Marche Commun — Comite de Liaison et d’Etudes de 
I’lndustrie de ia Chaussure: 24 rue Montoyer, Brusse^; 
f. 1958; 5 mems.; Pres. A. Steyns; Sec.-Gen. Gilbert 
Maeyaert. 

Domestic Goods 

Commission Executive pour la C.E.E. de la Federation 
Europeenne do I’lndustrie de la Brasserie et Pin- 
ceauterie: 3 ave. Hoche, Paris 8e; f. 1958; Pres. Ghika; 
Sec. J. M. MacquaRT. 

Union Europeenne de la Literie: Ivonigsallee 68, Diissel- 
dorf. Federal Germany; Pres. G. Billerbeck; Sec. R. 
Gornandt. 

Engineering 

Comite de Liaison de la Construction d’Equipements et de 
Pieces d’Automobiles (CLEPA): Westendenstrasse 61, 
6 Frankfurt-am-Main, Federal Germany; Pres. J. M. 
de Voogd; Sec. Dr. K. W. Busch. 

Comite Europeen des Constructeurs de Materiel de Blanch- 
isserie Industrielie et de Nettoyage a Sec (ELMO): 
Postfach 750, 4 Diisseldorf-Oberkassel; Sec. Dr. Fisher. 

Comite Europeen des Constructeurs de Materiel Frigorifique 
(CECOMAF): 10 ave. Hoche, Paris 8e; Pres. M. Dell 
'Orto; Sec. M. de Rouvray. 

Federation Internationale des Producteurs Autoconsom- 
mateurs Industriels d’Electricite (FIPACE): 49 square 
Marie-Louise, Brussels; f. 1954; 10 mems.; Pres. R. 
Morizot; Sec.-Gen. A. Thonon. 

Leather 

Conseil Europeen du Cuir Brut (Comite des Six): 2 rue 

Edouard VII, Paris 8e; f. 1958; Pres. A. Debessac; 
Sec.-Gen. Hubert. 

Groupe d’Etude des Tanneurs et M6gissiers de la C.E.E.: 

122 rue de Provence, Paris; f. 1957; Pres. M. Dayne; 
Sec. A. Gampert. 

Metallurgy 

Club des Siderurgistes: 47 rue Montoyer, Brussels; Sec. 
Funck. 

Comite de Liaison des Industries de Metaux non Ferreux 
de la Communaute Europeenne: 30 ave. de Messine, 

Paris 8e [in course of reorganization) . 

Comite Europeen des Associations de Fonderie: 2 rue de 

Bassano, Paris i6e; f. 1953; mems.: 14 West European 
countries; Pres. Ph. Delachaux; Sec. A. Dujardin. 

Conference Permanente de I’lndustrie Europeenne Pro- 
ductrice d’ Articles EmailI6s: Hochstrasse 115, Hagen/ 
Westfalen, Germany; f. i960; Sec. Dr. Herbert Noth. 


194 


THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


Organisms de Liaison des Industries Mdtalliques Euro- 
pdennes (ORGALIME): 13 rue des Drapiers, Brussels 5 ; 
f. i960; mems.: 28 trade asscns.; Pres. Peter von 
Siemens; Sec.-Gen. Nicolaas Groenhart. 

Comit6 de Liaison de L’ORGALIME pour les Commu- 
nautds Europdennes: 13 rue des Drapiers, Brussels 
5; Sec.-Gen. N. Groenhart. 

ORGALIME Liaison Committee tor the European Free 
Trade Association: 13 rue des Drapiers, Brussels 5; 
Sec.-Gen. N. Groenhart. 

Secrdtariat Europden des Fabricants d’Emballages Mdlal- 
liques Ldgers: 21 rue des Drapiers, Brussels; f. 1959; 
Pres. Marcel Festr£; Sec. Henri Thiebaud. 

Mining 

Comitd d’Etude des Producteurs de Charbon d’Europe 
Occidentale: 31 ave. des Arts, Brussels 4; Pres. Dr. 
Burckhardt; Sec.-Gen. Woronoff. 

Paper 

Commission “Marchd Commun” do la Fdddration Euro- 
pdenne des Fabricants de Cartons Ondulds: 36 rue de 

Chateaudon, Paris ge; f. 1959; Pres. L. Huugiie; Sec. 
It. du Boucheron. 

Pharmaceuticals 

Association Internationale de la Savonnerie ct de la 
Ddtergencc (A.I.S.) : 49 square Marie-Louise, Brussels 4; 
Pres. A. Schnyder; Sec.-Gen. J. Donckerwolcke. 

Commission Pcrmanentc do la C.E.E. do L'Association 
Internationale do la Savonnerie ct de la Ddtergence: 49 

square Marie-Louise, Brussels 4; Pres. R. Couvreur; 
Sec. J. Donckerwolcke. 

Groupcmcnt International des Industries Pharmaceutiqucs 
(G.I.I.P.): 32 rue Joseph II, Brussels; f. 1959; Pres. 
Vekemans; See. A. Guilmot. 

Groupemcnt Pharmaceutique de la Communautd Euro- 
pdenne: 11 rue Arcliimddc, Brussels 4; Sec.-Gen. J. A. 
Verreydt. 

Precision Engineering 

Comitd Europden des Constructcurs d'lnstruments de 
Pesage: 36 ave. Hoche, Paris 8c; Pres. Berding; Sec. 
Michel. 

Comitd Europden des Constructcurs de Matdriel Acraulique: 

10 ave. Hoche, Paris 8e; f. 19S9; 10 meins.; Pres. 
Kiekkns. 

Comitd Europden do l'Optiquo ct do la Mdcaniquc de 
Prdcision: Pipinstrassc 16, Cologne; Pres. Dr. Moller; 
Sec. Dr. von der Trench. 

Rubber 

Bureau de Liaison des Industries du Caoutchouc do la 
C.E.E.: 19 ave. des Arts, Brussels; f. 1050; Pres. 
A. IIomtks Meursing; Sec. A. J. Z.WAT. 

Textiles 

Association des Enducteurs, Calandrcurs ct Fabricants de 
revdtements do sols plastiqucs de la Communautd 
Europdcnne (A.E.C.): 49 ave. d’Auderghem, Brussels 4; 
1 tir-. J. C. BvNeivsT-UoQiiftni:; Sec. l,f:oN Buslain. 


Association Europdenno Rubans, Tresses, Tissus Elas- 
tiques (AERTEL): Paris; Pres. H. von Baur; Sec. 
P. J. Rouchy. 

Comitd des Industries du Coton et des Fibres Connexes de la 
C.E.E. (EUROCOTON): 24 rue Montovcr, Brussels 4; 
Pres. Werner Linnemann (from April 196S); Sec.- 
Gen. G. Massenaux. 

Comitd des Industries de i’Achfevemcnt Textile des Pays do 
la C.E.E.: Building Lieven Bauwens, Martclaarslaan 65, 
Ghent; Pres. Baron G. de Gerlache de Gomkry; Sec. 
A. Lanoye. 

Comitd des Industries de LMmpression sur Tissus de la 
C.E.E. (C.I.I.T.): Baumschuiallee 21, 53 Bonn; Pres. 
P. Delmotte; Sec. Dr. D. Stunkel. 

Comitd des Industries du Jute du Marchd Commun: 33 rue 

de Miromesnil, Paris Se; Pres. Jacques Yerbeeck; 
Sec. Robert Fromont. 

Comitd des Industries Lainidrcs de la C.E.E.: 24 rue 

Montoyer, Brussels 4; f. 1961; Sec. G. Maeyaert. 

Comitd des Industries de la MaiHe de la C.E.E. (MAILL- 
EUROP): 24 rue Montoyer, Brussels 4; Pres. Dr. Carlo 
Viansson; Sec. Andre Jo ye. 

Comitd Europden do I’lndustrie de la Robinclteric: 21 rue 

des Drapiers, Brussels 5; f. 1959; 12 mems.; Pres. Ir. 
W. Wilson; See. Paul de Iveyser. 

Commission “Marchd Commun" de la Confdddration 
Internationale du Linct du Chanvre:37rucdeCourcelles, 
Paris Se; Pres. A. Dequae; Sec. A. Ritter. 

Commission “Marchd Commun” do la Fdddration Inter- 
nationale do la Filtcrie: 37 rue de Courcclles. Paris Sc; 
Pres. Hubert Crespel; Secs. Andre Ritter, Michel 
Lotigie. 

Confdddration Internationale des Fabricants dc Tapis ct dc 
Tissus pour Amcublemcnt (CITTA): Domagkweg S, 
Wuppcrtal-Elbcrfeld; f. 19G0; mems.: national associa- 
tions of Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, German 
Federal Republic, Great Britain, Italy, Netherlands, 
Switzerland; Pres. F. C. Van Den Bergh; Dir. Dr. R. 
Meusers. 

Groupe de la C.E.E. du Comitd International de la Rnyonnc 
et des Fibres Synthdtiques: 29-31 rue de Cotircelles. 
Paris 8e; Pres. R. Janssen; See. S. Mornakd. 

Groupe de Travail "Marchd Commun" de I’Association 
Internationale des Utilisatcurs de Files de Fibres Arti- 
ficicllcs cl Synthdtiques: 5 place du Palais-Bourbon 
Paris 7c; Sec. Gen. F. Vigiek. 

Transport Equipment 

Comitd de Liaison de la Construction dc Carrosscrios et dt 
Rcmorques: Westcmlstrassc 61, Frankfurt-am-Main; 
Pres. E. Piacenza; Sec. A. Diekmann. 

Comitd de Liaison des Fabricants dc Pi dees et Equipemenh 
do Deux Roues (COLIPED): 21 rue tie-. Drapiers, 
Brussels; Pres. A. C. Beyltjens; Sec. E. Timeout. 

Comitd dc Llahon do I’lnduslric Automobile pour les Peyt 
de la Communautd Europdcnne: Wcstcaihtrass- t»i, 
DO Frankfurt-am-Main: Pro-. Biscaretts; See. VOL- 
VIC. 


io:> 



THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


Wood and Timber 

Comit6 Central de la Propri6t6 Forestifcre de la C.E.E.: iid 

route de Condroz, Ougrde, Belgium; f. 1961; mems.: 
the six EEC countries; Pres. Comte Charles d£ 
Limburg Sxirum; Sec. Pierre Gathy. 

Comitd des P6pinieristes Forestiers de la C.E.E.: c/o 

Zentralverband der Forstpflanzenbetriebe e.V., Hal- 
stenbek/Holstein, Germany; f. 1962; Pres. R. Rahte; 
Sec.-Gen. R. A. Streitberger. 

Commission Executive des Industries du Bois pour la 

C.E.E.: 36 ave. Hoche, Paris; Pres. A. Provost; Sec. 
J. M. Macquart. 

Federation Europeenne des Associations du Bois de Mine: 

27 rue N. Bosret, Namur; Pres. L. Dessard; Sec. H- 
Schmitz. 

Federation Europeenne des Syndicats de Fabricants de 
Menuiseries Industrielles de Bailment: 36 ave. Hoche, 
Paris 8e; Pres. Dr. N. Burgers; Sec.-Gen. A. Cheva- 
lier. 

Groupement des Scieries des Pays de la G.E.E.: Galerie du 
Centre, Bloc 2, 5e dtage, Brussels; f. 1958; 6 mems.; 
Pres. P. Koos; Sec. Albert Dejaiffe. 

DISTRIBUTORS 

Building 

Union des Federations Nationals des Ndgociants en 
Materiaux de Construction des Pays de la C.E.E. 
(UFEMAT): 23 rue de la Limite, Brussels 3; f. 1959; 
9 mems.; Pres. H. II art wig; Sec.-Treas. H. Bal. 

Chemicals 

Confederation Internationale du Commerce de la Droguerie: 

Klosterstr. 92, Cologne-Lindenthal; Pres. R. GentzcA. 

Groupement International de la Repartition Pharmaceuii- 
que des Pays de la C.E.E.: 6 rue de la Tremoille, Paris 
8e; Pres. R. Gandini; Sec.-Gen. J. Perier. 

Union du Commerce des Engrais des Pays de la C.E.E.: 

piazza G. G. Bolli 2, Rome; Pres. Armando Gavagni; 
Sec. Ernesto Bassanelli. 

Fuel and Power 

Comite de la Communaute Europeenne de I’Union Inter- 
nationale des Producteurs et Distributeurs d’Energie 
Electrique (UNIPEDE) : 124 blvd. Haussmann, Paris 8e; 
Pres. L. de Heem. 

Comite Europden de Liaison des Negotiants et Utilisateurs 
de Combustibles (C.E.L.N.U.C.O.): 62 blva. Flandrin, 
Paris i6e; Pres. Jean Picard; Sec. P. Delmon. 


Metals and Machinery 

Centre de Liaison International dos Marchands de Machines 
Agricoles et Reparateurs Commission pour le March! 
Economique Europeenne: Stadhouderslaan 126, The 
Hague; Pres. Dr. Saverio de Bevilacqua; Sec. Me. 
C. P. M. van Been. 

Commission de la C.E.E. du Comite Europeen des Groupe- 
ments de Constructeurs du Machinisme Agricole: 19 

rue Jacques-Bingen, Paris i7e; f. 1962; Pres. P. de 
Saint-Hubert; Sec.-Gen. A. Duvignac. 

Commission Executive du Negoce de Vieux Metaux Non- 
Ferreux de la C.E.E. : 13 place du Samedi, Brussels; Sec. 
Louis Renier. 

Federation Internationale des associations de negociants 
en acier, tubes metaux: 65 ave. Victor Hugo, Paris; 
Pres. K. Grote; Sec.-Gen. N. Noel. 

Federation internationalo des associations de Quincailiiers 
et marchands do fer: 164 rue du Faubourg St. Honor!, 
Paris 8e. 

Pater. 

Union des Distributeurs de Papiers et Cartons de la C.E.E. 
(EUGROPA): 2 rue de l'Aurore, Brussels 5; f. 19571 
Chair. F. Lucchetti; Sec. E. Jonckheere. 

Union Europeenne des Groupements de Grossistes special- 
ises en papeterie (UEGGSP): Strasbourg; Pres. H. 
Pier, R. Sirot. 

Textiles 

Comite “Marche Commun” de L’Association Europeenne 
des Organisations Nationals des Commercants-Detail- 
lants en Textiles: 18 rue des Bons Enfants, Paris; Pres. 
R. Boisde; Sec. J. Chouard. 

Comite de Travail C.E.E. de (’Association Internationale 
des Groupements d’Achats de Textiles: Neumarkt 14, 
Cologne; f. 1951; 49 mems.; Pres. W. Terberger; 
Sec. Dr. Weinwurm Wenkhoff. 

Timber 

Association des Groupements du Negoce Intdrieur du Bois 
et des Produits Derives dans ies Pays de ia C.E.E.: 

Federation Nationale des Ndgociants en Bois, Galerie 
du Centre, Bloc 2, 5e etage, Brussels 1. 

Confederation du Liege de la C.E.E. (Industrie et Com- 
merce): 52 blvd. Malesherbes, Paris 8e; f. 1962; Pres. 
P. Adnot; Sec.-Gen. E. Bose. 

Union pour le Commerce des Bois Tropicaux dans la C.E.E.: 

Galerie du Centre, Bloc 2, 5e etage, Brussels; Pres. R. 
Wagenmann; Sec. M. Maelfeyt. 

Union pour le Commerce d’lmportation des Sciages de 
Conifires dans la C.E.E.: Keizersgracht 321, Amster- 
dam; f. i960; Pres. J. J. Eecen; Sec. Dr. J. W. Barker. 


196 



THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


AGRICULTURAL AND FOODSTUFFS 


PRODUCERS 

General 

Comite de Liaison des Vdtfirinaires de la C.E.E.: 2S rue des 

Pctits-Hotels, Paris; f. 1961; Pres. Dr. H. Schulz; 
Scc.-Gen. Dr. Merkt. 

Comit# des Constructeurs Europeens de Materiel Alimen- 
taire, Commission de la C.E.E.: FABRIMETAL, 21 rue 
des Drapiers, Brussels 5; f. 1960; Pres. H. Ooms; Sec.- 
Gen. R. Van den Eyden. 

Comit# des Organisations des Entrepreneurs de Travaux 
Agricoles de la C.E.E.: 12 rue de Spa, Brussels 4; f. 
1962; Pres. R. de Munck; Sec.-Gen. E. Tessier. 

Comit6 des Organisations Professionnelles Agricoles de la 
C.E.E. (COPA): S rue de Spa, Brussels 4; Pres. Reh- 
winkel; Sec.-Gen. A. Herlitska. 

Comit# G#n#ral de la Cooperation Agricole des Pays de la 
C.E.E. (COGECA): S rue de Spa, Brussels 4; Pres. A. 
Betei; Sec. A. Herlitska. 

Animal Foodstuffs 

Federation Europdenn# des Fabricants d’Adjuvants pour 
la Nutrition Animate: Koblenzerstrassc 170, 5300 Bonn; 
f. 1963; Pres. Dr. \Y. Sciiuchardt; Scc.-Gen. Dr. Behm. 

Federation Europdenn# des Fabricants d’Aliments Com- 
poses pour Animaux: 65 rue Montagne aux Herbes 
Potagercs, Brussels 1; f. 1959; 9 mcnis.; Pres. Maurice 
Weber; Sec.-Gen. A. Namur. 

Bakery 

Association Internationale de la Boulangerie Industrielle: 

112 blvd. Montebello, Lille; Pres. Henri Jooris; Scc.- 
Gen. Werner Saro. 

Comite des Fabricants de Levure de Panification de la 
C.E.E.: 7 rue Leonce Reynaud, Paris 16; Pres. K. B. 
Bf.nf.cke; Scc.-Gen. R. van de Wiele. 

Beverages 

Comite de la C.E.E. des Industries et du Commerce des Vins, 
Vins Aromatisds, Vins Mousseux, Vins de Liqueur: 49 

rue de Treves, Brussels; Pres. P. Desom; Sec. Mmc 
Coorkman. 

Comite do I'lndustric des Cidres ct Vins de Fruits do la 
C.E.E.: Tcnvccpark 2, B.P. 177, Leiden; Pres. P. J. 
Teeuaal. 

Comitfi des Profcssionncls Viticolcs de la C.E.E.: 3 rue de 

Kigny, Paris Se; f. 1039; Pres. F. Chevalier; Sec.- 
Gen. Mile J. Muller. 

Communaute de Travail des Brasscurs du Marche Commun: 

207 blvd. du Souverain, Brussels 16; Pres. M. C. ! 
Lr.ct.i-.Rn: Scc.-Gen. A. A. M. Kemrerink. 

Union Europienne des Associations dc Boissons Gazouscs j 
des Pays Membrcs de la C.E.E.: 43 rue dc Provence. 
P-'ris 9c: Pres. Allakv. ; 

Union Europdcnnc des Alcooh, Eaux de Vie ct Spiritueux: 

-o passage International. Brussels i; f. 1050: Pres. B. 
u.ACitotx: Sec.-Gen. K. <'\R!ioNi:u.r.. 


Union Europeenne des Sources d’Eaux Mindrales Naturelles 
du March# Commun: Kenncdyaliee 2S, Bad Godes- 
berg; f. 1959; Pres. Ren£ Loubet; Sec.-Gen. Dr. 

SCHROEDER. 

Cereals 

Association des Amidonneries de Mais de la C.E.E.: 29 

passage International, Brussels 1; Pres. W. Kniep; 
Sec. R. Bauer. 

Association des Petites et Moyennes Meuneries de la C.E.E.: 

Baumschulallee 6, 5300 Bonn; f. 1959; Pres. Prosper 
Convert; Scc.-Gen. Dr. M. Berten. 

Comit# de Liaison des Amidonneries de Riz de la C.E.E.: 

3 allee Vertc, Brussels 1; Pres. Horst Klein. 

Groupement des Associations des Maisiers des Pays de la 
C.E.E. (EuromaTsiers) : 149 Bourse de Commerce, Paris 
ier; f. 1959; Pres. Lours d’Orso; Sec.-Gen. M. 
Pechenart. 

Groupement des Associations Meunifcres des Pays de la 
C.E.E.: 66 rue la Boctie, Paris Se; 165 rue du Midi, 
Brussels; f. 1059; Pres. Gerald Bertot; Del. Gen. 
Maurice Loubaud. 

Secretariat de (’Association des Amidonnicrs de BI6 do la 
C.E.E.: Postfach 3065, 53 Bonn 3; Pres. Hugo Carl 
Deiters; Sec.-Gen. Wolfgang Hees. 

Union des Associations des Riziers de la C.E.E.: 23 rue du 

General Foy, Paris Se; f. 1961; Pres. G. Luthke; 
Sec.-Gcn. G. Lebugle. 

Union des Associations des Semoulicrs do la C.E.E: via del 

Viminale 43, Rome; Pres. A. Cocozza; Scc.-Gen. G. 
Portesi. 

Union des Riziculteurs de la C.E.E.: Palazzo deU’agricol- 
tura, Piazza Zumaglini, Vercelli, Italy; f. 1963; Pres. 
M. Du Lac; Sec. R. Metz. 

Dairying 

Association des Fabricants de Laits de Conserve des Pays 
do la C.E.E. (ASFALEC) : 140 blvd. H.m.-m.uin. 
Paris Sc; f. 1959; Pres. M. K. Sciuvemek; Sec. Mmo S. 
Smee. 

Association de I’lndustric de la Fonte de Frontage de la 
C.E.E. (Assifonte): Kniscr-Friedrich-Strnssc 13, 5300 
Bonn; f. 1064; Pres. E. Piaget; Scc.-Gen. H. Maun. 

Association de I’lndustric Laitiire de la C.E.E.: 140 blvd. 
Haussmnnn, Paris Se; f. 1950: Pres. Iincou: Locatkli.; 
Secs. J. G. Becue, II. Jaurousse; Admin. See. J. I-'. 
OlTKNHEIM. 

Fertilizers 

Comit# Specialist des Coopdralives Agricoles des Pays dc la 
C.E.E. pour les Engrais ct Pesticides: 20 aw. MaeMahon, 
Paris 17c; f. 19G3; Pres. M. Ger p.aud; St-c. -Gen. M. 
Cii.MiEur. 

Union des Fabricants Europdens de Farines Animalts: 

3 rue de Logelb.icb, Pari« 17c: f. 1030; Prr*. A. 
Vr.KniER-Duroui:; See. J. K. Kuors. 


107 



THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


Food Industries 

Association des Fabricants de Caf6 Soluble des Pays de la 
C.E.E. (AFCASOLE): Bourse de Commerce, rue de 
Viarmes, Paris ier; Pres. M. R. Lossel; Sec.-Gen. 
M. R. Marcadet. 

Association des Industries Alimentaires des Glaces et 
Crimes Glacies de la C.E.E. : 55 rue de la Loi, Brussels 4; 
Pres. M. Zanetti; Sec.-Gen. F. Bourel. 

Association des Industries des Aliments Dictetiques de la 

C.E.E.: 23 rue Notre Dame des Victoires, Paris ae; f. 
1959; Pres. G. Horaist; Sec.-Gen. E. de Linieres. 

Association des Industries Margarinieres des Pays de la 
C.E.E.: 55 rue de la loi, Brussels, Pres. H. Seidel; 
Sec.-Gen. R. Francken. 

Association des Industries du Poisson de la C.E.E. (A.I.P.- 
C.E.E.): 1 ave. du Congo, Brussels 5; Pres. Paul 
Lacour; Sec.-Gen. L. Abattucci. 

Association des Organisations Nationales d'Entreorises de 
Peche de la C.E.E.: 32 rue Philippe-le-Bon, Brussels 4; 
f. 1962; 5 member organizations; Pres. R. Bauwens. 

Centre de Liaison des Industries Transformatrices de Viande 
de la C.E.E.: 7 rue Alfred de Vigny, Paris; Pres. J. van 
der Porten; Sec.-Gen. P. Bruand. 

Comite de Travail des IVlalteries de la C.E.E.: 85 blvd. Emile 
Jacqmain, Brussels; Pres. P. J. L. Hendrickx; Dir. 
Leon Matillard. 

Comite des Industries des Mayonnaises et Sauces Condimen- 
taires de la C.E.E.: 1 ave. du Congo, Brussels 5; Pres. 
B. Van Vloten; Sec.-Gen. L. Abattucci. 

Comite des Industries de la Moutarde de la C.E.E.: 1 ave. 
du Congo, Brussels 5; Pres. H. Devos; Sec.-Gen. L. 
Abattucci. 

Comite Permanent International du Vinaigre de la C.E.E.: 

Reuterstrasse 151, 5300 Bonn, Germany; f. 1957; Pres. 
F. \V. Koddermann; Sec.-Gen. K. Von Essen. 

Commission Intersyndicale des Deshydrateurs Europeens: 

5 quai Voltaire, Paris 6e; f. 1959; Pres. M. Vogeler; 
Sec.-Gen. L. Laborie. 

Federation de I'lndustrie de I’Huilerie de la C.E.E.: 33 rue 

de la Loi, Brussels 4; f. 1957; Sec. R. Deom. 

Federation des Associations de I’lndustrie des Bouillons et 
Potages de la C.E.E.: Bourse de Commerce, rue de 
Viarmes, Paris ier; f. 1958; Pres. M. Calmettes; Sec.- 
Gen. R. Marcadet. 

Organisation Europeenne des Industries des Confitures ct 
des Conserves de Fruits: 55 rue de la Loi, Brussels; Pres. 
F. J. C. B. Jansen; Sec.-Gen. P. H. Leurquin. 

Organisation Europeenne des Industries de la Conserve de 
L6gumes: 182 ave. de Tervueren, Brussels 15; Pres. 
H. Krause; Sec.-Gen. P. Hologne. 

Organisation Europeenne des Industries de la Conserve de 
Tomates: 182 ave. de Tervueren, Brussels 15; Pres. 
P. Mainguy; Sec.-Gen. P. Hologne. 

Union des Associations de Fabricants de Pates Alimen- 
taires do la C.E.E.: Via Pietro Verri S, Milan 20121; 
Pres. Ivarl Chr. Birkel; Scc.-Gen. Dr. Mario 
Battaglia. 


Union des Associations des Fabricants de Farine de Poisson 
de la C.E.E.: 2 Hamburg 50 (Altona), Muscumstrasse 
18, hi; f. 1962; Pres. H. Wilhelms; Sec.-Gen. Dr. K. 
Seumenicht. 

Union Europeenne des Industries de Transformation de la 
Pomme de Terre pour I’Alimdntation Humaine: 5201 
Oberpleis/Frohnhard, Germany; f. 1963; Pres. M. 
d'Arnaud-Gerkens; Sec.-Gen. F. Hacke. 

Fruit and Vegetables 

Association de I’lndustrie des Fruits et Lfegumes au 
Vinaigre, en Saumure, & I'Huile et des Produits similaires 
de la C.E.E.: Tcriveepark 2, Leiden, Netherlands; i. 
1959; Pres. C. D. Van Der Vijver; Sec.-Gen. P. J. 
Teebaal. 

Comite de Liaison des Organisations des Industries Trans- 
formatrices des Fruits et Ldgumes de la C.E.E.: 55 ^ 

de la Loi, Brussels 4; f. 1963; Pres. H. Krause; Sec.- 
Gen. J. Dedrij. 

Commission de (’Industrie des Jus de Fruits et de Legumes 
de la C.E.E.: 10 rue de Liege, Paris ge; Pres. M. Tee- 
baal; Sec. G. D’Eaubonne. 

Organisation de I’lndustrie des Fruits et Legumes Surgelis 
de la C.E.E.: Terweeparlc 2, Postbox 177, Leiden; i. 
1962; Pres. Rudolf Auf Dem Hovel; Sec.-Gen. P. J- 
Teebaal. 

Horticulture 

Comite des Planteurs de Houblon du Marche Commun: 

S rue de Spa, Brussels 4; f. 1961; 3 mems.; Pres. M. 
Kauffmann; Sec.-Gen. Copa. 

Sous-Commission “Marche Commun Europden” de (’Assoc- 
iation internationale des Productcurs de (’Horticulture: 

7 rue Gaucheret, Brussels; Pres. M. Turbat; Sec. M- 
Haekens. 

Livestock 

Union Europeenne des Fondeurs et Fabricants de Corps 
Gras Animaux: 3 rue de Logelbach, Paris i7e; Pres. 
P. L. Rodes; Sec.-Gen. Ch. Thomaes. 

Sugar 

Association des Industries de Produits Sucres de la C.E.E.: 

55 rue de la Loi, Brussels; Pres. Jean Michels; Sec. 
Paul H. Leurquin. 

Comite de Liaison des Fabricants de Dextrose de la C.E.E.: 

29 passage International, Brussels 1; f. 1964; Pres. W. 
Kniep; Sec.-Gen. R. Bauer. 

Comite de Liaison des Fabricants de Glucose de la C.E.E.: 

29 passage International, Brussels; Pres. R. Ren aud ; 
Sec. R. Bauer. 

Comite Europden des Fabricants de Sucre: 30 rue de 

Liibeck, Paris i6e; f. 1954; Pres. G. J. de Gilde; Sec.- 
Gen. H. de Veyrac. 

Commission des Pays du Marche Commun de la Confedera- 
tion Internationale des Betteraviers Europeens: 29 rue 

de General Foy, Paris 8; Pres. Dr. A. Frhr. vox 
Poschinger; Vice-Pres. and Sec.-Gen. Henri Cayre. 


198 



THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


DISTRIBUTORS 

General 

Commission des Industries Agricoles et Atimentaires de 

1 'U.N.I.G.E.: 4 rue Ravenstein, Brussels i; f. 1959; Pres. 

\V. Neutelings; Rapporteur M. Loubaud. 

Beverages 

Communaute Europ6enne des Associations du Commerce 
de Gros de Bifcre des Pays Membres de la C.E.E.: S8a 

chaussfje de Charleroi, Brussels 6; Pres. J. Ch. Le- 
gendre. 

Cereals 

Comite des Sentences du Marche Commun (COSEMCO) : 24B 

rue des Fripiers, Brussels 1 ; Pres. J. P. Dudok van 
Heel; Sec. L. Dever. 

Comite du Commerce des C6r6ales et les Aliments du Betail 
de la C.E.E.: 32 ave. de Broqueville, Brussels 15; Pres. 

F. Belpaire; Sec. -Gen. J. Ch. van Essciie. 

Comite Specialise des Cooperatives Agricoles des Pays de la 
C.E.E. pour les Semences: 29 ave. Mac-Mahon, Paris 
17c; Pres. J. Lequertier; Sec.-Gen. I. Zucchini. 

Groupement des Cooperatives de Certalcs de la C.E.E. : 

20 bis rue La-Fayette, Paris 9c; I. 1959; Pres. A. 
Vanmoerbeke; Sec. P. Y. Ehkirch. 

Groupement des Cooperatives Agricoles de certales de la 
C.E.E.: via Curtatone, Rome; Pres. Dr. Eraldo 
Fiorentini; Sec. Dr. Ekirch. 

Union Europtcnne des Commerces des Grains, Graines 
Oltagincuses, Aliments du B6tail et Derives: 24S Bourse 
de Commerce, rue de Viarmes, Paris ier; Pres. W. A. 
Wilson. 

Dairy 

Union Europtenne du Commerces des Produits Laiticrs et 
Derives: 4 rue de la Lingerie, Paris ie; Pres. M. Wirri- 
ger; Sec.-Gen. M. Coquet. 

Union EuropCenne du Commerce de Gros des Ocufs, 
Produits d’Oeufs et Volaillcs: Utrcchtsewcg 31, Zcist; 
f. 1959: mems.: 17 national organizations; Pres. G. 
Verbrugghe; Sec. H. I-I. Knoop. 

Union Europ6cnne du Commerce Laitier (UNECOLAIT): 

5300 Bonn, Baumscliulallce 6; f. 1959; Sec.-Gen. 
Dipl.-Yolkswirt O. Burska. 

Union Internationale des Federations de D6taillants cn 
Produits Laiticrs: Baumscliulallce 6, Bonn; Pres. 
Felix Bakthelkmy; Sec.-Gen. O. Burska. 

Food Industries 

Association des Federations Nationals de la Boulangcrie 
et de la Boulangeric-Patisscrie de la C.E.E.: S3 blvd. 
Mcttewie, Brussels; Pres. P. Gringoike. K. F. Lang. 
Sec.-Gen. Van Sch.me 

Association des Organisations Profcssioncllcs du Commerce | 
des Sucres pour les Pays de la C.E.E. (ASSUC): 1S2 j 

ave. de Tervueren. Brussels 15; Pres. KorsirLs; Sec - j 
Gen. B. Lr.ss.MRi:. 

Association europ6cnne du commerces cn gros des viandcs: 

50 rue St, Harare. Paris oe; (. 1938; Pres. E. Lemairi - 
Avnoip.r; Sec. -Gen. Wii.lv Dupont. 


Association du Commerce et de i’lndustrie da Cate dans la 
C.E.E. (ACICAFE): Markgravestraat 12, Anvers; Pres. 
R. de Haes. 

Comite des Organisations de ia Boucherio-Charcutorie de 
la C.E.E.: 95 rue Joseph II, Brussels; Pres. P. MrNON; 
Sec.-Gen. E. Broos. 

Comite Europeen des Groupemcnts Prolessionncis des 
Importateurs et Distributeurs-Grossistes en Alimentation 

(EC IV/ A): 17 ave. Paul-Hcnri Spaak, Brussels 7; i. 
1963; Pres. M. Labruyere. 

Comite Europeen du Commerce des Produits Amylaccs et 
Derives: Piazza Belgioioso 1. Milan, Itaiv; f. T963; 
Pres. G. Cipelletti; Sec.-Gen. C. Scamardella. 

Comite Europeen du The: S6 ave. Paul Dcschanel, Brussels; 
f. i960; 5 mems.; Pres. Edouard Claes. 

Comite Marche Commun de I’Union Internationale des 
Groupement de Detaillants en Alimentation: Hessen- 
haus, 6200 Wiesbaden, Kronprinzenstrasse 2S, Ger- 
many; f. i960; Sec. Dr. A. Moje. 

Federation des Organisations Nationales des Grossistes, 
Importateurs ct Exportateurs en Poisson de la C.E.E.: 

1 avenue du Congo, Brussels 5; f. 1963; Pres. Hahn; 
Sec.-Gen. I. Abattucci. 

Federation pour Ie Marche Commun des Importateurs de 
Proteine Animale: Posthoomstraat 21, Rotterdam; 
f. 1961; Pres. Dr. K. Wille; Sec.-Gen. Drs. II. Yriens. 

Groupement Europeen des Maisons d’Alimcntation et 
d’Approvvisionnement & Succursales: 3 avenue L. 
Gribaumont, Brussels 15; f. 1965; Pres. F. Br.LLr.T; 
Sec. Dr. Fr. Kempchen. 

Union des Groupement d’Achats de I’Alimentation de la 
C.E.E.: 3 avenue Gribaumont, Brussels 15; f. 1963; 
Pres. IT. Clemens; Sec.-Gen. Dr. B. Sciir.oir. 

Union Internationale des Organisations de Detaillants de la 
Branchc Alimcntaire (UIDA): Falkenplatz 1, 3001 
Berne; Pres. Jean Yalade. 

Flowers, Fruit and Vegetables 

Association des Deiegues des Organisations Proiessionnellcs 
des Producteurs et Ramasseurs de Plantes M6dicina!cs 
et Aromatiqucs de la C.E.E.: La Cle des Champs, ru>- 
de la chapelle St-Jacqucs, Milly-Ia-Forit (S. et O.J, 
France; f. 1959; Pres. A. Dareonne. 

Association des Obtenieurs de Pommes de Terre du Marche 
Commun (Assopomac): 5300 Bonn. Kanlmannstra*^' 
71. Germany; f. io'i.j; Pres. D. Yon Kamlke; Sec.-Ger:. 
II. Junn. 

Comite du commerce de la pomme de terre des pays dc la 
C.E.E.: 20; Bourse de Commerce, ni<- de Vjarm«‘s. 
Paris icr; Pres. CH. Di lassus; Sec.-Gen. M- Aptma. 

Comite Specialise des Cooperative: Agricolcs des Pays dc la 
C.E.E. pour les Pommes dc Terre: c,o Ihiyw.-t Tnrker ■■ 
strasfe 16, Munich 2; Pre--. Richard Maas. 

Federation Europeenne des Importateurs de Fruits Secs, 
Conserves, Epices et Miels (FRUCOM): Mxth<re"--rla.*.r. 
250. Rotterdam; Pro;. G. Schneider: S^e N. 
Koedam. 



THE EUROPEAN 

Federation Europeenne des Unions Professionnelles.de 
Fleuristes: 20A ave. Van Eyck, Antwerp; f. 1958; 
mems.: Belgium, France, German Federal Republic, 
Greece, Italy, Netherlands, Spain; Pres. Walter 
Goebels; Exec. Sec. Fernand L. Fontaine. 

Union du Commerce de Gros de Fruits et Legumes des Etats 
lYlcmbres de la C.E.E.: von Grootestrasse 7, Cologne- 
Marienburg; Pres. Dr. E Muller; Sec. Dr. H. Ditges. 

Union des Groupements Professionnels de I’lndustrie de ia 
F6culerie de Pommes de Terre de la C.E.E.: Hoofdstraat 
82, Hoogezand, Netherlands; Pres. J. E. Duintjer; 
Sec.-Gen. Dr. F. Hamminga. 

Hides and Skins 

Comite des Ventes Publiques de Cuirs et Peaux Verts des 
Pays de la C.E.E.: 2 rue Edouard VII, Paris ge; f. 1964; 
Pres. A. Dubois; Sec.-Gen. Mme Samica. 

Groupement des Negotiants en Cuirs et Peaux Bruts de la 
C.E.E.: 2 rue Edouard VII, Paris ge; f. 1961; Pres. G. 
Magnani; Vice-Pres. P. Paranteau. 


Horticulture 

Commerce International de Bulbes & Fleurs et de Plantes 
(C.I.B.E.P.); Kenaupark 31, Haarlem; Pres. -Gen. J. 
Schreiner; Sec.-Gen. F. B. M. Nederveen. 


COMMUNITIES 

Commission pour le Marche Commun du Commerce Inter- 
national de Bulbes & Fleurs et de Plantes: 29-31 Kenau- 
park, Haarlem; Pres. J. Manager; Sec.-Gen. F. B. M. 
Nederveen. 

Groupement du Negoce Houbionnier du Marche Commun: 

27 rue de la Limite, Brussels 3; f. i960; 4 mems.; Pres. 
Willi Klotz; Sec. Rudolf Zelenka. 

Union Internationale du Commerce en Gros de la Fleur: 

Stephanienstrasse 19, Diisseldorf; Pres. F. Dottling; 
Sec.-Gen. Dr, K. Lapp. 

Livestock 

Commission de Marche Commun Union Europecnne des 
Commerces du Betail et de la Viande: 29 rue Fortuny, 
Paris iye; f. 1957; Sec.-Gen. Y. Guidou. 

Comite Professionnel des Cooperatives des Pays du Marche 
Commun pour le Betail et la Viande: Neinrichstrasse 37, 
Hanover, German Federal Republic; Pres. Dr. Hans 
Christiani. 

Comite Specialise des Cooperatives des Pays de la C.E.E. 
pour les Aliments du Betail: Wilhelminasingel 25, 
Roermond, Netherlands; Pres. Dr. Massimo Bianchedi; 
Sec. Vernia. 

Oils and Fats 

Association du Negoce des Graines Oieagineuses, Huiles et 
Graisses Animales et vegetales et Leurs Derives de la 
C.E.E. : Westersingel 43, Rotterdam; Pres. J. H. 
Wijsman; Sec.-Gen. Rvan Delden. 


COMMERCE 


Association Europeenne des Exploitants Frigorifiqucs 
(A.E.E.F.) : 5 ave. de l’Opera, Paris ler; Pres. Dr. E. 
Baumgartner; Sec.-Gen. J. B. Verlot. 

Centre International du Commerce de Gros: 26 ave. 
Livingstone, Brussels 4; f. 1949; 34 mems.; Del.-Gen. 
H. C, J. Cartens. 

Comite d’lmportateurs Specialises d’Extreme Orient de la 
C.E.E.: 26 ave. Livingstone, Brussels 4; Sec. H. C. J. 
Cartens. 

Comite des Organisations Gommerciales des Pays de la 

C.E.E.: 3 ave. L. Gribaumont, Brussels 15; Pres. E. G. J. 
Luttmer; Sec.-Gen. A. E. ICaulich. 

Comite International des Entreprises h Succursales — 
C.I.E.S. ( International Association of Chain Stores) : 3 rue 
Le Notre, Paris i6e; Pres. Lord Sainsbury (U.K.); 
Dir.-Gen. Frederic C. Treidell (France). 

Commission du Marche Commun de Centre International 
du Commerce de Gros: 48 ave. de Villiers, Paris I7e; 
Pres. Fritz Dietz; Sec. Paul Dubois-Millot. 


Communaute Europeenne des Cooperatives de Consom- 
mateurs: 89 rue la Boetie, Paris 8e; f. 1957, present 
name adopted 1966; mems.: 11 organizations; Pres. 
Marcel Degond; Sec. J. Semler-Collery. 

Communaute Europeenne des Organizations de Publici- 
taires: 112 rue de Treves, Brussels; Pres. R. Mery. 

Conseil des Federations Commerciales d’Europe: 3 ave. 
L. Gribaumont, Brussels 15; Pres. P. Kolseth; Sec.- 
Gen. A. E. Iyaulich. 

Federation Internationale des Grandes Entreprises de Dis- 
tribution (F.I.G.E.D.) : 3 rue de la Science, Brussels 4; 
f- x 959 ; mems.: 8 national associations; Pres. W. J. R. 
Dreesman; Sec. H. J. Sturmer; publ. Informations — 
FIGED. 

Union Internationale des Groupements Professionnels des 
Importateurs et Distributeurs Grossistes en Alimenta- 
tion (IFIWA): 17 ave. Paul-Henri Spaak, Brussels 7; 
f. 1927; mems.: representatives of 12 European coun- 
tries and the U.S.A.; Pres. E. Heim. 


CONSUMERS’ ORGANIZATIONS 


Comite de Contact des Consommateurs de la C.E.E.: 26-28 
rue Haute, Brussels; f. 1962; Sec.-Gen. J. Semler- 
Collery. 


Union Europeenne des Centrales de Production et de Gros 
des Socidtds Cooperatives de Consom mation (EURO- 
COOP) : Hamburg i, Besenbinderhof 43, Germany; f. 
1962; Pres. H. Meins; Sed. A. Schoene. 


200 


THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


FINANCE 

Fdddration Bancaire de la C.E.E.: 44 rue Belliard, Brussels 
4; f. i960; Pres. G. Freiherr von* Falkenhausen; 
Sec. W. Damm. 

Groupe Marche Commun de la Confdddration Internationale 
du Credit Agricole: 43 rue de Varenne, Paris ye; f. 
1950; Pres. A. Camois; Sec. -Gen. F. Angelini. 

Groupement des Caisses d’Epargne de la C.E.E.: 74 avenue 
de Broqueville, Brussels 15; f. 1963; Pres. Dr. F. 
Butschkau; Sec. -Gen. Dr. K. Meyer-Horn. 


LABOUR ORGANIZATIONS 


Bureau de Liaison des Syndicats Europdens (C.E.E.): 

Maison des Industries chimiques, 49 square Marie- 
Louise, Brussels 4; f. 1961; Sec.-Gen. L. E. Billen. 

Comitd exdcutive, Organization Rdgionalo Europdenne do la 
Confdddration Internationale des Syndicats Libres 
(CISL): 58 ave. de la Liberte, Luxembourg. 

Committee lor EEC and Euratom: Pres. L. Rosenberg. 
Committee for ECSC: Pres. W. Michels. 

Comitfi d’Entente des Organizations de Jeuncsse Syndicate 
Agricole des Six Pays de la C.E.E.: 14 rue La-Bodtic, 
Paris 8e; f. 195S; Pres. E. Monticone; Sec.-Gen. 
Claude Vitre. 

F6d6ration des Syndicats Chrdtiens dans la CECA ( Federa- 
tion of Christian Trade Unions within ECSC): 47 ave. 
de la Libertd, Luxembourg; Secs. \V. Goeminne, 
E. Engel. 

Sccrdtariat Syndical Europden: no rue des Palais, Brussels 
3; affiliates: Trade Union Centres of the Six Common 
Market Countries; Pres. L. Rosenberg; Sec.-Gen. Th. 
Rasschaert. 


Comitd Syndical des Transports de la Communautd 
(I.T.F.): no rue des Palais, Brussels 3; Pres. Pit. 
Seibert; Sec. B. Jonckheere. 

Groupe de Travail des Syndicats des Travailleurs 
Agricoles (C.I.S.L.) dans la C.E.E.: no rue des 

Palais, Brussels 3; f. 1958; Pres. H. Schmalz; Sec. 
A. Lulling. 

Groupe des Syndicats de I’Alimcntation, du Tabac ct de 
{’Industrie hfitclifcre (C.I.S.L.) dans la C.E.E.: no 

rue des Palais, Brussels 3; Pres. B. Van IIattem; 
Sec. B. Jonckheere. 

Comitd Europden des Syndicats Mdtaux: no rue des 

Palais, Brussels 3; Pres. M. Zondervan; See. R. 
Sahrholz. 

Comitd Syndical des Employds, Technicions ct Cadres 
(F.I.E.T.): no rue des Palais, Brussels 3; Pres. 
J. H. Ter Horst, Sec. F. Herrmann. 

Union de i’Artisanat de la C.E.E. (U.A.C.E.E.): 9 rue 

Joseph II, Brussels 4; f. 195S; Pres. Joseph Wild; 
See. Norbert Welter. 



EUROPEAN CONFERENCE OF MINISTERS OF 

TRANSPORT— ECMT 

3 rue Andr6 Pascal, Paris 16e, France 

Founded in 1953 to achieve the maximum use and most rational development of European inland transport. 


MEMBERS 


Austria 

Ireland 

Spain 

Belgium 

Italy 

Sweden 

Denmark 

Luxembourg 

Switzerland 

France 

Netherlands 

Turkey 

German Federal Republic 

Norway 

United Kingdom 

Greece 

Portugal 

Yugoslavia 


OBSERVER 



United States 



ORGANIZATION 


COUNCIL OF MINISTERS 

President (1967): G. Leber (Germany). 

First Vice-President (1967): E. H. Childers (Ireland). 
Second Vice-President (1967): S. Lundkvist (Sweden). 

Members: The Ministers of Transport of member coun- 
tries. Meets once or twice yearly. 

COMMITTEE OF DEPUTIES 

Principal Officers: The respective Deputies of the serving 
officers of the Council of Ministers. 

Members: The Ministers’ Deputies. Meets six times 
yearly and is assisted by the Subsidiary Bodies. 

SUBSIDIARY BODIES 

Restricted Group No. 1 ( Eurojima ). 

Restricted Group No. s (E.E.C. countries). 

Restricted Group No. 3 (European Highway Code). 
Restricted Group No. 4 ( Transport Economics). 

General Transport Policy. 

Urban Transport Group. 


Anti-Noise Campaign Group. 

Committee for Liaison between ECMT and OECD. 
Investment Committee. 

Inland Waterways Group. 

Railways Group. 

Working Party for the study of Road Vehicles. 

Working Parly on Road Safely. 

SECRETARIAT 
Secretary-General: E. Corbin. 

The Secretariat conducts the everyday business of the 
Conference, acting in liaison with the member states, the 
Council of Ministers, the Committee of Deputies and the 
Subsidiary Bodies. 

ECMT BUDGET (1967) 

(French Francs) 

Secretariat Expenditure . . . 423,000 

Supplies and Services from OECD . 378,000 

Total .... 801,000 


PRINCIPAL ACTIVITIES 


General transport policy. 

Investment policy. 

Financing of national and international investment. 
Long-term traffic forecasts. 

Financial situation of railways. 

Standardization of rolling stock. 

Prevention of road accidents. 

Co-ordination of road traffic rules. 

Standardization of weights and dimensions of road vehicles. 
Standardization of road traffic dues. 

Classification of waterways and standardization of boats. 


General study on the role and prospects of inland water- 
ways. 

Pipeline transport. 

Urban transport. 

Abatement of surface transport noise. 

Co-operation between surface and air transport. 

Trend of traffic. 

Development of the network of European main lines of 
communication. 

Economic research, in particular ivith regard to problems 
of transport policy. 


202 


EUROPEAN CONFERENCE OF MINISTERS OF TRANSPORT 


INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATION 


Organisation for Economic Go-operation and Develop- 
ment (OECD). There is close contact and exchange of 
information between the two bodies. The Conference’s 
studies of long-term traffic demand and road safety are 
being undertaken in collaboration with OECD. The annual 
report is submitted to OECD and an observer from the 
Conference attends meetings of OECD bodies when a 
matter concerning the Conference appears on the agenda. 

Council of Europe. The annual report of the Conference 
is submitted to the Council’s Consultative Assembly, 


which addresses to the Conference resolutions and recom- 
mendations relating to transport matters. 

UN Economic Commission for Europe (ECE). Close 
collaboration is maintained and the Conference is represen- 
ted at the annual session of the Inland Transport Com- 
mittee of the Commission. 

Other Bodies. The Conference keeps in close touch with 
the European Economic Community (EEC) and the 
European Civil Aviation Commission. 



EUROPEAN FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION-EFTA 


32 chemin des Colombettes, Geneva, Switzerland 

Established in i960, EFTA's object is to bring about free trade between Member countries in industrial 
goods and an expansion of trade in agricultural goods. 



MEMBERS 

Austria 

Denmark 

Norway 

Portugal 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

United Kingdom 

ASSOCIATE MEMBER 
Finland 


COUNCIL 

Council delegations are led by Ministers or by the 
Permanent Official Heads of Delegations. The Chairman- 
ship is held for six months by each country in turn. 
Ministerial Chairman (Jan.-June 1968): C. A. R. Crosland 
(United Kingdom). 

Chairman at Official Level (Jan.-June 1968): Sir Eugene 
Melville (United Kingdom). 

Vice-Chairman (Jan.-June 1968): Dr. R. Martins 
(Austria). 

Heads of National Delegations: 

Austria: R. Martins. 

Denmark: H. E. Thrane. 

Norway: S. C. Sommerfelt. 

Portugal: A. de Siqueira Freire. 

Sweden: E. von Sydow. 

Switzerland: P. Languetin. 

United Kingdom: Sir Eugene Melville, k.c.m.g. 


MINISTERIAL COUNCIL MEETINGS 


Lisbon 
Berne 
Geneva 
London 
Geneva 
Geneva 
Geneva 
Oslo 
Geneva 
Lisbon 
Stockholm 
Geneva 


May i960 
October i960 
February 1961 
June 1961 
July 1961 
November 1961 
March 1962 
October 1962 
February 1963 
June 1963 
Septemer 1963 
February 1964 


Edinburgh 

Geneva 

Geneva 

Vienna 

Copenhagen 

Bergen 

Lisbon 

London 

Stockholm 

London 

Lausanne 


July 1964 
November 1964 
February 1965 
May 1965 
October 1965 
May 1966 
October 1966 
December 1966 
March 1967 
April 1967 
October 1967 


The Council is empowered to make decisions about 
a wide range of issues, including tariffs. Each country has 
one vote, and decisions must be unanimous where new 
obligations are involved, though on many issues a majority 
siiffirpQ J J 


204 




EUROPEAN FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION 


COUNCIL COMMITTEES 

CHAIRMEN 

Customs Committee: M. Colomb (Switzerland) . 

Committee of Trade Experts: M. Nixon (United Kingdom). 
Budget Committee: J. Nipstad (Sweden). 

Agricultural Review Committee: Bengt Rabaeus (Deputy 
Secretary-General). 

Economic Development Committee: Sir Eugene Melville, 
k.c.m.g. (United Kingdom). 

Economic Committee: K. Getz Wold (Norway). 

CONSULTATIVE COMMITTEE 
Chairman: O. Salonen (Finland). 

Meets a few weeks before each Ministerial Council 
Meeting. The Chairman reports to the EFTA Council after 
each meeting. Members: employers representatives, trade 
union leaders and individuals, all appointed by member 
countries. Maximum number of members: five from each 
country. Subjects for discussion: any within EFTA's sphere 
of activity. 

FINLAND-EFTA JOINT COUNCIL 

Ministerial Chairman (Jan.-June 196S): C. A. R. Cros- 
land (United Kingdom). 

Chairman at Official Level: P. Talvitie (Finland). 


Vice-Chairman: Sir Eugene Melville (United Kingdom). 
Finnish Representative: P. Talvitie. 

Consists of the Heads of National Delegations, when 
meeting at official level, and a Finnish representative. The 
Joint Council is empowered to make decisions about a wide 
range of issues, including tariffs. Each country has one 
vote, and decisions must be unanimous where new obliga- 
tions are involved. 

SECRETARIAT 

Secretary-General: Sir John Coulson, k.c.m.g. 

Deputy Secretaries-General: Bengt Rabvhus, a. Wackf.r. 
Heads of Departments: 

General and Legal: Mrs. B. Selld£n-Beer. 

Trade Policy: Miss I. Nielsen. 

Inf or-, nation: A. Buraas. 

Economic: J. Lanner. 

Finance Officer: N. J. MacFarlane, o.b.e. 

Administrative Officer: R. Girod. 

The staff numbers 9S; about half this total belong to 
the professional category. 

EFTA Information Offices: European Free Trade Associa- 
tion, 71 1 Fourteenth St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 
-Z0005, U.S.A.; Head: G. R. Young; Board of Trade. 
1 Victoria St., London, S.W.i. 


IMPORTANT EVENTS 


1958 November 

Breakdown of negotiations for a 


May 


European Free Trade Area of 
OEEC countries. 


November 

1959 June 

Draft plan for EFTA drawn up. 



November 

Convention initialled in Stock- 


December 


holm. 

1964 

June 

i960 January 

EFTA Convention signed. 

May 

July 

Convention entered into force. 

First tariff reduction, and increase i 

! 

j 

November 

in quotas. 


December 

1961 February 

First decision to accelerate tariff 

i 1965 

May 


reductions. 

March 

Association Agreement with Fin- 

I 



land signed. 


July 

June 

Agreement with Finland entered 

t 


into force. 

j 

1 

December 

July 

Second tariff reduction, quotas 

I966 

November 

further increased. 


December 

October 

Denmark and United Kingdom 

■ 

j 



begin negotiations with E.E.C. 

i 


November 

Second decision to accelerate tariff 

I 19b 7 

May 


reduction within EFTA. 

j 


1961 December 

Austria, Sweden and Switzerland 

i 

t 



request opening of negotiations 
with E.E.C. 

\ 

f 

? 

July 

106; March 

Tariff reduction to 60%. 

1 


June 

Portugal and Sweden request 

J 

i Lccmb: r 


opening of negotiations with 
E.E.C. 



December 

Tariff reduction to 5o c i. 

; 


t<g>t January 

Breakdown of negotiations with 




EEC in Brussels. 




Decision to eliminate ail tariffs by 
1967. 

First meeting of Committee for 
Economic Development. 

Tariff reduction to 40%. 

First meeting of Agricultural Re- 
view Committee. 

Council discusses British 15 % im- 
ports surcharge. 

Tariff reduction to 30%. 

Vienna meetings at Ministerial 
level. Britain reduces imports 
surcharge to 10%. 

First meeting of the Economic 
Committee. 

Tariff reduction to 20%. 

British import surcharge lapses. 

Tariff restrictions eliminated. 

Complete elimination of import 
duties for industrial goods. 

The United Kingdom and Den- 
mark apply for membership of 
the EEC. 

Norway applies fur mt-mber-hip of 
the EEC. 

Sweden applies for n>-got:ntio::s 
with the EEC. 

First meeting of Yugndnv E FT A 
working going. Ib-chinn ioalluv. 
Yugoslav to j —ml 1 vers 
certain EFTA :• chr.i'':-! net- 


EUROPEAN FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION 


TARIFFS 

revised programme 


Dale: 

July ist, i960 . 

July ist, 1961 . 

March ist, 1962 
December 31st, 1962 . 
December 31st, 1963 . 
December 31st, 1964 . 
December 31st, 1965 . 
December 31st, 1966 . 

Finland eliminated import 
December 31st, 1967. 


Reduction within EFT A : 
to 80% of the basic duty 
to 70% of the basic duty 
to 60% of the basic duty 
to 50% of the basic duty 
to 40% of the basic duty 
to 30% of the basic duty 
to 20% of the basic duty 
complete elimination of 
import duties 
duties one year later, by 


QUOTAS 

IMPORTS 


Restrictions were eliminated by December 31st, 1966. 


EXPORTS 

Restrictions were eliminated by December 31st, 1961, 


FINLAKD-EFTA ASSOCIATION AGREEMENT 

Entered into force June 1961. First tariff reductions and 
relaxation of quotas took place on July ist, 1961. The main 
principle of the Agreement is to establish a new free trade 
area where Finland will have the same rights and obliga- 
tions towards EFTA members as they have among them- 
selves. 


BUDGET 

(1967-68) 

CONTRIBUTIONS 

% 

Austria .... 

JO 

9.84 

Denmark . . 

io -73 

Norway 

7-74 

Portugal . • 

2.90 

Sweden .... 

21.91 

Switzerland . 

16.88 

United Kingdom 

30.00 

Total 

100.00 


Estimated net expenditure; Swiss francs 5,478,800. 


PUBLICATIONS 


EFTA Bulletin (monthly). 

EFTA Reporter (bi-monthly, published in U.S.). 

EFTA Trade (annually). 

EFTA Today and Tomorrow. 

EFTA Annual Report. 

Convention Establishing the European Free Trade Associa- 
tion. 

Agreement Creating an Association between the Member 
States of EFTA and the Republic of Finland. 

The Operation of a Free Trade Area. 


EFTA — What it is, What it does. 

Annual Review of Agricultural Trade. 

Agricultural Agreements between the EFTA Countries. 
The Rules of Origin. 

Structure and Growth of the Portuguese Economy. 
Agriculture in EFTA. 

Regional Development Policies in EFTA. 

Building EFTA. 

Fisheries in EFTA. 

Study of the Effects on Prices of Tariff Dismantling. 


CONVENTION 


EFTA’s objectives are: 

(a) to promote in the Area of the Association and in 
each Member State a sustained expansion of eco- 
nomic activity, full employment, increased pro- 
ductivity and the rational use of resources, financial 
stability and continuous improvement in living 
standards; 

(b) to secure that trade between Member States takes 
place in conditions of fair competition; 

(c) to avoid significant disparity between Member 
States in the conditions of supply of raw materials 
produced within the Area of the Association; and 

(d) to contribute to the harmonious development and 
expansion of world trade and to the progressive 
removal of barriers to it. 

The main provisions of the Convention are: 

Tariffs. Elimination of tariffs on industrial goods was 
originally to be achieved at the latest by January 1970, 
but this date was brought forward to December 31st, 1966. 

Quotas. The Convention provides for the progressive 
reduction of quantitative restrictions on all imports from 
Member States and their complete elimination by January 
ist, 1970. This date also was brought forward to Decem- 
ber 31st, i960. 

Origin Rules. Member States will not have a common 
external tariff in relation to countries outside the area. 


"Origin” rules have therefore been worked out to identify 
the products of member countries to which the tarill 
reductions will apply. 

Safeguards. Member countries will be free to take action 
which they consider necessary for the protection of their 
essential security interests and, consistently with their 
other international obligations, their balance of payments. 
In certain circumstances a Member State may also take 
special safeguarding action where the application of the 
Convention leads to serious difficulties in a particular 
sector of industry. 

Competition. The Convention contains provisions to 
ensure that the benefits which are expected from the 
removal of tariffs and quotas are not nullified through the use 
of other measures by Governments, public undertakings or 
private industries. These include provisions about sub- 
sidies, restrictive business practices and discriminatory 
restrictions against nationals of Member States wishing to 
establish business anywhere in the area. 

Agriculture and Fish. Special arrangements have been 
made for agricultural goods and fish and other marine 
products. The objective is to facilitate reasonable reci- 
procity to those member states whose economies depend 
to a great extent on agricultural or fish exports. Arrange- 
ments have also been concluded between several member 
countries in respect of trade in agricultural goods. 


206 



EUROPEAN FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION 


STATISTICS 


AREA AND POPULATION 

(ig66) 



Area 

sq. kilometres 

Population 

Austria 

83,800 

7,291,000 

Denmark . 

43,000 

4 . 79 I.OOO 

Norway 

324,200 

3,752,000 

Portugal 

92,000 

9 . 335 .ooo 

Sweden 

449,800 

7,807,000 

Switzerland 

4 i, 3 °° 

6,000,000 

United Kingdom. 

244,000 

54,896,000 

Finland 

337.000 

4,651,000 

Total 

1,615,100 

98,523,000 


EFTA IMPORTS FROM WORLD AREAS 

(1966 — $ million) 


Imports from 

EFTA 

EEC 

Eastern 

Europe 

Total 

Europe 

U.S.A. 



Asia 

Africa 



Importing Country : 
Austria 

37°-7 

1,367.6 

223 . O 

2,032.8 

100.9 

11S.3 

64.1 

5S.2 

41. S 

12. I 

2.327.3 

Denmark 

1,126.2 

1,028.4 

125.4 

2.428.8 

236-5 

249-5 

109.7 

224.0 

63.6 

12.5 

2 , 990.0 

Finland 

Ci 3-3 

489.2 

327.3 

1,448.4 

96.8 

104.9 

64 • 3 

70-3 

22.1 

5.9 

I. 7 I 5-9 

Norway 

1. 012 .6 

668.7 

7 i -3 

i, 7 8 5-6 

179.6 

272.9 

109.8 

173-5 

5 i-o 

0.7 

2,402.5 

Portugal 

236.7 

349-8 

13.0 

648.4 

79-3 

84.9 

41.7 

61.7 

127.4 

5-5 

069 . 0 

Sweden 

1 . 555-2 

1.650.7 

201.5 

3,485 .8 

427.4 

474.0 

272.0 

231 . 1 

So . 2 

20.8 

4 . 573-8 

Switzerland . 

612.8 

2 , 374-9 

95-6 

3 U 52-8 

354-7 

391-3 

1 16.6 

160. 1 

99-4 

I I .O 

3.031 -2 

United Kingdom . 

2,284.4 

3,012 . 3 

626.7 

6,811 . 1 

. 

2,016.5 

3,207.2 

1,079.9 

2,iS6-4 

1 ,694 . 7 

1,154.2 

16.133.5 

Total EFTA . 

7,811.9 

10,941 .6 

1,683.8 

21,693-7 

3 . 491-7 

4,903.0 

I f S50.O 

3.167.2 

2,189-2 

1.231-7 

35 . 0 - 13.8 


EFTA EXPORTS TO WORLD AREAS 

(igOC — $ million) 


lixporls to 

EFTA 

EEC 

Eastern 

Euitorr. 

Total 

Europe 

U.S.A. 

North 

America 

Other 

America 

Asia 

! 

Rest of 

Africa j Wo rli> 

Total 

l : . xpnr ! nip . Country : 
Austria 

339 -o 

751-2 

259 • 3 

1.437 -4 

77-4 

01 .0 

27.6 

75 1 

■ KIM 

1,683 . 1 

Denmark 

1 , 159-2 

610.5 

O7.O 

1.036.3 

195.0 

217.7 

80 . 0 

102 . 1 


2. ]ol .8 

Hnl.vml 

520.3 

4 « > • 5 

272.6 

1,265.0 

06.0 

OS.2 

46.2 

44-8 

26.0 » 16.0 

1 , 496.2 

Norway 

708 . 1 

379-3 

.1S.6 

1,219.0 

I 38. 6 

15 I .O 

54 0 

56.8 

60 . t ! I I . 0 

1,561 .8 

Portugal 

I 49..5 

121.6 

6.7 

301-5 

70.7 

S3. 1 

13-3 

2S. 1 

157.2 ; 6.6 

589 . 8 

Sweden 

1,775. 5 

1,293.4 

164.0 

3 . 397-2 

294.0 

364 • 2 

173-2 

180. 1 

0S.3 j 50.6 

• »«• * 

“• • * / • * 

Switzerland . 

644-3 

1,248.5 

112.3 

2,163 .0 

355-3 

400. 1 

20] .6 

330.5 

118.1 I 52-- 1 

• * V — 

United Kingdom . 

2,106.6 

2.706.S 

4 20 . 2 

6,400.3 

1.058.0 

2,270.6 

740.2 

1 . 977-7 

: . 909 . 2 ; 1,0.84.3 

l 1,088.3 

Total EFTA . 

7 . 4 11 ..3 

7.522.7 

1 . 381.6 

iS. 110.7 

2.SS5.0 

3.t«it .8 

I.33O. I 

2.80 ( . 2 

2 , X ^ -5 : 1.254 0 

20.37; . 3 


20? 

















































EUROPEAN FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION 


INTRA-EFTA TRADE 

TOTAL IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 
(1966 — § million) 


Exporting Country 

Austria 

Denmark 

Finland 

Norway 

Portugal 

Sweden 

Switzer- 

land 

United 

Kingdom 

Exports to: 

Austria .... 


28.4 

6.6 

9.2 

8.0 

42.2 

147-5 

II 9.0 

Denmark 

28.7 

— 

51-7 

no. 6 

14. 1 

383-2 

63.x 

384.2 

Finland 

15.0 

55-8 

— 

33-2 

5-3 

231-4 

40-5 

214.6 

Norway 

16.2 

i 5 i -5 

28.3 

— 

6-3 

447-7 

40.6 

306.1 

Portugal 

9-9 

8.8 

6.0 

4-8 

— 

35-8 

35-3 

134-3 

Sweden 

61.5 

304.2 

126.2 

239.2 

19.4 

— 

102.5 

660.6 

Switzerland . 

136.8 

58.7 

12. 1 

17.0 

IO.4 

92.8 

— 

286.9 

United Kingdom . 

71.0 

551-8 

301.6 

295-5 

78.6 

542.4 

2II.7 

— 

Total EFTA 

338.9 

1 , 159-2 

532.5 

709.6 

142. I 

1 , 775-6 

641.1 

2,105.6 


MANUFACTURED GOODS 


(1966 — $ million) 


Exporting Country 



Finland 

Norway 

Portugal 

Sweden 

Switzer- 

land 

United 

Kingdom 

Total 

EFTA 

Exports to: 

Austria 


17.8 

4.0 

6.8 

6.2 

37-6 

133-5 

108.3 

3 X 4-2 

Denmark 

28.0 

— 

37-6 

97-3 

9.9 

3 X 4-4 

60.7 

3 °x -i 

849.0 

Finland 

14.8 

41.6 

— 

23-9 

4-5 

206.6 

39-4 

188.2 

519.0 

Norway 

16.0 

123-3 

25-5 

— 

5 -o 

378-3 

39-6 

235-3 

823.0 

Portugal 

9.4 

6.1 

5 -x 

2.6 


32.0 

34 -o 

118.9 

20S.1 

Sweden 

59-3 

196.7 

109. I 

176.5 

15-9 

— 

96.9 

521.5 

i,i 75-9 

Switzerland . 

X19.4 

24-3 

7-4 

12.8 

6-5 

77 - x 


260.2 

507-7 

United Kingdom . 

60.6 

66.9 

121.6 

173.6 

40.0 

288.0 

198.5 

— 

949.2 

Total EFTA . 

307.6 

476.7 

310.6 

493-7 

88.1 

i, 334 -o 

602.5 

1 , 733-3 

5 , 346-2 

EEC . 

491.6 

229.2 

217.0 

245-2 

17.6 

733-3 

1,058.4 

2,211 .4 

5 , 233-7 

World . 

x. 347-5 

1,043.9 

935-2 

1,068.5 

355 -o 

3,073.6 

2 , 997.0 

12,143.1 

22,963-8 


IMPORTS 
(1966 — $ million) 




From EFTA 

From 

World 


1953 

1959 

1965 

1966 

1953 

1959 

1965 

1966 

Austria .... 
Denmark 

Finland 

Norway 

Portugal 

Sweden 

Switzerland . 

United Kingdom . 

EFTA .... 

72.0 

386.3 

118.6 
363.8 

75-9 

430.3 

149.7 
1,069.0 
2,665 .6 

135-2 

531-2 

237.0 

483-7 

98.6 

608.4 

247.4 
1.318.2 

3,659-7 

3 I 3-3 
1,020.2 
560 .9 

924.6 

193.6 
I, 424-2 

547-7 

2 , 193-5 

7.178.0 

370.7 
1,126.2 

613-3 

1,012.6 

236.7 
i, 555-2 

6x2.8 

2,284.4 

7,811.9 

545-7 

996.2 

527-5 

9x1.1 

330.9 

x. 575-5 

1,182.6 

9,360.x 

15,429.6 

1,144.4 

x. 595-7 

830.2 

1,314.8 

473-5 
2,403 . 2 
1,913-2 

11.172.2 

20.847.2 

2.100.6 
2,811.2 
1 , 635-7 

2.205.7 
896.0 

4 , 378.6 

3,680.9 

16,137.8 

33,846.5 

2,327-3 

2.990.0 
i, 7 X 5-9 
2,402.5 

1.012.0 
4 , 573-8 
3 , 931-2 

16,133 -5 
35,086.2 



208 


















































EUROPEAN FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION 

EXPORTS 


(1966 — 5 million) 



To EFTA 

To World 

1953 

1959 

1965 

1966 

1953 

1959 

1965 


Austria .... 

81 .9 

116.8 

294.1 

339*o 

537-6 

964.2 

1,600.2 

X.6S3. 1 

Denmark 

464.1 

568.4 

1,059.1 

1,159.2 

383-3 

1.379-6 

2,273.3 

2,401 .S 

Finland 

164.0 

248.4 

470.3 

529.3 

569-5 

S30.3 

1,418.x 

1,496.2 

Norway 

198.0 

328.2 

645-7 

708.1 

508.0 

809.4 

1,442.6 

1,561.8 

Portugal 

33.7 

51-0 

156-5 

186.4 

218.5 

290.0 

569-2 

626.0 

Sweden 

539-5 

815.3 

1,691.5 

1.775-5 

1.47S.1 

2,204.2 

3-973-2 

4,272.6 

Switzerland . 

174. 1 

277.1 

589.6 

644-3 

1,204.5 

1,683.1 

2,972.6 

3.2S3.7 

United Kingdom . 

881.5 

1,114.6 

1,923.6 

2,106.6 

7.524.9 

9,676.8 

13.710-4 

14.0SS.3 

EFTA .... 

2,541-8 

3,520.3 

6,830.4 

7,448.4 

12,924.4 


27.959-6 

29,414.4 

















EUROPEAN ORGANISATION FOR NUCLEAR 

RESEARCH— CERN 

1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland 

Telephone: (002) 41 98 11. 

CERN was established in 1954 on the initiative of UNESCO. It aims to provide for collaboration among 
European states in nuclear research of a pure scientific and fundamental character . Work for military requirements 
is excluded, and the results of experimental and theoretical work are published. 


members 

Austria 
Belgium 
Denmark 
France 

German Federal Republic 


Greece 

Italy 

The Netherlands 
Norway 


Spain 
Sweden 
Switzerland 
United Kingdom 


OBSERVERS 

Poland Turkey Yugoslavia 


ORGANIZATION 


COUNCIL AND COMMITTEES 

Council: composed of two representatives of each member 
state: Pres. (1967) G. W. Eunice (Sweden). 

Committee Of Council: fifteen members, including the 
President and Vice-Presidents of the Council, Chairmen 
of the Scientific Policy and Finance Committees, and 
representatives of member states. 

Scientific Policy Committee: Chair. Prof. G. Puppi (Italy). 

Finance Committee: Chair. Dr. W. Schulte-Meerman 
(German Federal Republic). 


BOARD OF DIRECTORS 

Consists of the Director-General and the Directors of 
the seven departments. 

Chairman: Prof. B. P. Gregory (Director-General). 
MEMBERS 

Department of Administration: G. H. Hampton. 
Department of Applied Physics: Dr. M. G. N. Hine. 
Department of ISR Construction: Prof. K. Johnsen. 
Department of Physics, I: Prof. G. Cocconi. 

Department of Physics, II: Prof. Cn. Peyrou. 

Department of Theoretical Physics: Prof. L. Van Hove. 
Proton Synchrotron Department: Dr. P. Germain. 


activities 


The construction of laboratories in Geneva started 
early in 1954. The research programme has particular 
reference to the phenomena involving very high energies 
and throwing light on the nature of elementary particles. 
The first of the two particle accelerators, a synchro- 
cyclotron of 600 MeV, started up in August 1957. The 
second and larger machine, the proton synchroton of 
30,000 MeV maximum output, was put into operation in 
late 1959- 

By i960 CERN had completed most of its building 
programme and was concentrating on experimental re- 
search. Since then it has been engaged in an extensive 
research programme planned round the machines, experi- 
ments normally being carried out by mixed teams of 
scientists from the member states and CERN. 

In June i960 CERN agreed to exchange scientists with 
the Nuclear Research Centre at Dubna, near Moscow. 

In 1961 the proton synchrotron accelerator came into 
operation. The laboratory's equipment was completed, 


and an extensive research programme carried out, which 
included the use of two large bubble chambers from France. 

In 1962-63 CERN concentrated on a serious scientific 
programme, mainly on experiments with high-energy 
neutrinos whose results may open a new field of physics. 

Yugoslavia withdrew from membership for financial 
reasons and was granted observer status, and Poland and 
Turkey also became observers in 1963. 

In October 1965 an agreement was reached extending 
the area of the laboratory across the international frontier 
and adding 40 hectares of French territory, to the 41 
hectares the site occupies in Switzerland, and work started 
the following year on the construction of intersecting 
storage rings attached to the proton synchrotron machine. 
The project will be completed in 1971 and will open up a 
new field of work. 

In 1967, an agreement was signed with the USSR 
State Committee for Utilization of Atomic Energy for 


210 



EUROPEAN ORGANISATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH— CERN 


collaborative research at their 70 GeV proton accelerator 
at Serpukhov, which is due to come into operation later 
that year. 

During 1966 and 1967 the study of possible sites for an 
accelerator of 300 GeV energy was intensified and reports 


were submitted to the CERN Council on the sites offered 
by member states. Design studies of the machine itself 
continued, and work advanced on the amendments to the 
Convention which would be necessary to allow the new 
machine to be built. 


BUDGET 

(1967 — Swiss francs! 
BASIC PROGRAMME 


Contributions 

% 

France ...... 

19 - 3 -t 

German Federal Republic 

23 - 3 ° 

Italy ....... 

11.24 

United Kingdom ..... 

22.16 

Other Countries ..... 

23.96 

Total .... 

100.00 

supplement; 

Contributions 

% 

France ...... 

19-46 

German Federal Republic 

23-44 

Italy ....... 

11.31 

United Kingdom ..... 

22.30 

Other Countries (except Greece) 

23 -M 9 

Total .... 

100.00 


Expenditure 

| 


Staff 


7S.SS5.000 

Operation . 

. 

37,710,000 

Capital Expenditure 


63.4S5.000 

Total 

. . 1 

! 

iSo.oSo.ooo 

PROGRAMMES 

Expenditure 

I SR 

300 GeV 


Project 

Project 

Staff . . . . j 

5,900.000 

I .650,000 

Operation . 

2,600,000 

2,0 JO, OOO 

Capital Outlays . . . j 

l 

63,000,000 

700,000 

Total . . j 

71,500,000 

j 4,420,000 


! 


PUBLICATIONS 

Scientific Reports, Annual Report, CERA’ Courier. 



EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR THE SAFETY OF 
AIR NAVIGATION — EUROCONTROL 

72 rue de !a Loi, Brussels 4, Belgium 

Telephone: 13 83 00 

Established 1963 to strengthen co-operation among member states in matters of air navigation and in particular 
to provide for the common organization of air traffic services in the upper airspace. 


MEMBERS 

Belgium German Federal Republic Netherlands 

France Ireland United Kingdom 

Luxembourg 


ORGANIZATION 


PERMANENT COMMISSION 

The governing body of EUROCONTROL; consists of 
two representatives from each member state, who are the 
Ministers responsible for respectively civil and military 
aviation. 

President: A. Bousser (Luxembourg) 

Vice-President: M. J. Keyzer (Netherlands). 

AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES AGENCY 

Administered by a Committee of Management and a 
Director-General. 

COMMITTEE OF MANAGEMENT 

Composed of two representatives of each National 
Administration exercising in their own country respon- 
sibilities in matters of respectively civil and military air 
navigation. 

President: V. A. M. Hunt (United Kingdom). 

DIRECTOR-GENERAL 

Heads the General Directorate with four Directorates 
(Operations, Engineering, Administration and Finance, 


General Secretariat) and the EUROCONTROL External 
Services. 

Director-General: R. Bulin (France). 

EUROCONTROL EXTERNAL SERVICES 

Eurocontrol Experimental Centre: Aerodrome de Br^tigny, 
91 Bretigny-sur-Orge, France; provides the planning staff 
at headquarters with technical operational aid of a practical 
nature, in particular by undertaking experiments to 
improve or to develop control methods and procedures and 
to evaluate air traffic control and air navigation equip- 
ment and systems. 

The following services are concerned with co-ordination 
with National Air Traffic Services of member states: 

Upper Area Centre Brussels: Brussels National Airport. 

Regional Service — France: Aerogare d’Orly 94, Orly, 
France. 

Regional Service — IrelandjUnited Kingdom: Heathrow 
House, Bath Road, Cranford, Middlesex, England. 

Regional Service — Benelux j Federal Republic of Germany : 
57 rue Joseph II, Brussels, Belgium. 


AIMS 


To develop common operational methods and procedures 
and the co-ordination of upper airspace Air Traffic Control 
systems for the various participating countries. 

To implement plans for the organization of upper 
airspace control over various member states. 

To proceed to a fundamental study of the best system of 
Air Traffic Control over Europe after 1980 to be imple- 
mented soon after 1975. 


To develop and execute an agreed programme of work 
for the Experimental Centre and to co-ordinate this 
programme with that of the member states. 

To explore the practicability and desirability of standard- 
ization and central purchasing of equipment required in 
common by more than one country. 

To co-ordinate proposals of the member states relating to 
EUROCONTROL activities submitted to the international 
Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). 


212 



EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR THE SAFETY OF AIR NAVIGATION 


ACTIVITIES 


Construction: construction of the first international 
Upper Area Control Centre at Beek Airport near Maa- 
stricht, Netherlands, responsible for the control of general 
air traffic in the upper airspace over Belgium, Netherlands 
and Northern Germany (to become operative in 1972). 

Equipment: commissioning of the Air Traffic Control 
Simulator at the Experimental Centre. 

Plans: elaboration of operational plans for air traffic 
services in the upper airspace of the Benelux/German 
Federal Republic, Ireland and U.K. and France Regions. 

Responsibillies in Air Traffic Control: exercising opera- 
tional, legal and financial responsibilities for upper airspace 
air traffic services over the member states since March 
1964; operation of the Brussels Upper Area Control 
Centre. 

Conferences: organization of inter-governmental Work- 
ing Groups to study operational, technical, legal and 


administration matters for the fulfilment of EURO- 
CONTROL’S tasks and principal aims. 

Co-operation: conclusion of agreements for co-operation, 
aiming mainly at an exchange of technical information, 
with Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Federal Aviation 
Agency of the U.S.A., Switzerland, Italy and Portugal. 

FINANCE 

Budget (1967): 550 million Belgian francs. 

Scale of members’ contributions based mainly on their 
Gross National Product. 

PUBLICATIONS 

EU ROCONTROL Aeronautical Information Publications 
(irregular). 

EUROCONTROL Bulletin (bi-annual). 


Cl.i 



EUROPEAN SPACE RESEARCH ORGANISATION— 

ESRO 


114 ave. de Neuilly, 92 Neuilly sur Seine, France 

Founded 1962 and formally established in 1964 to provide for, and to promote, collaboration among European 
states in space research and technology, exclusively for peaceful purposes. 


MEMBERS* 


Belgium 

Denmark 

France 

German Federal Republic 


Italy 

Netherlands 

Spain 


Sweden 
Switzerland 
United Kingdom 


* Austria and Norway have observer status. 

Spain has announced her intention to withdraw Irom the Organisation. 


ORGANIZATION 


COUNCIL 

Chairman (1968): Prof. C. H. Van de Hulst (Netherlands). 
Vice-Chairmen: Prof. R. Lust (German Federal Republic), 
Dr. J. Stiernstedt (Sweden), Giovanni Migliulo 
(Italy). 

Lays down scientific and technical po icy and takes 
major financial and administrative decisions. Consists of 
two delegates from each member state. Meets at least twice 
a year. It is assisted by two committees: 

Scientific and Technical Committee: Assisted by the 
Launching Programmes Advisory Committee and sis 
groups of experts concerned with particular aspects of 
research. 

Administrative and Finance Committee. 


DIRECTOR-GENERAL 

The Director-General is advised by Scientific, Technical 
and Administrative Directorates, and assisted by a 
Secretariat staffed from member countries. 

Director-General: Prof. H. Bondi (United Kingdom). 

Director of Planning and Programmes: J. Dinkespiler 
(France). 

Director of Administration: M. Depasse (Belgium). 

Director of the European Space Research and Space Tech- 
nology Centre (Noordwijk): Prof. W. Kleen (German 
Federal Republic). 

Director of European Space Operations (Darmstadt): 

Umberto Montalenti. 


SUBSIDIARY CENTRES 


Space Technology Centre (ESTEC): Noordwijk, Nether- 
lands. Responsible for applied research work on space 
technology, and for studying and developing payloads 
for sounding rockets and spacecraft. 

Date Centre (ESDAC): Darmstadt, Federal Republic of 
Germany. Makes detailed calculations needed for imple- 
mentation of the Organization’s technical programme, 
and to process the scientific data resulting from the 
Organisation’s activities. 

Space Research Laboratory (ESLAB): Noordwijk, Nether- 
lands. Provides a link between the scientific groups 
working with the Organization and the technical 
services of ESTEC. This Laboratory is also intended for 
the use of scientists washing to carry out their own 
experiments. 


Sounding-Rocket Launching Range (ESRANGE): Kiruna, 
Sweden. Before ESRANGE became operational in 
1966, sounding-rockets were launched from Andoya, 
Norway, Salto di Quirra, Italy, and He du Levant, 
France. 

Space Research Institute (ESRiW): Frascati, Italy. Carries 
out basic research (plasma physics). 

Satellite Tracking, Telemetry and Telecommand Network 

(ESTRAC): Consists of four stations, Fairbanks 
(Alaska), Ny-Alesund (Spitzbergen) , Port Stanley 
(Falkland Islands), Redu (Belgium), and a control 
centre at Noordwijk. The Organisation will also be able 
to use the stations of the French network. The Council 
has decided to transfer the Control Centre from 
Noordwijk to Darmstadt. 



EUROPEAN SPACE RESEARCH ORGANISATION 


ACTIVITIES 


j. At tlie present time the following satellites are under I 
development: 

ESRO-II will conduct solar astronomy and cosmic • 
rays studies. Seven scientific experiments have been 
selected as payload for the 80 kg. satellite. ESRO II will 
be launched early in 1968 from the Western Test Range 
(California), by a Scout rocket. Prime contractor is 
Hawker Siddeley Dynamics (U.K.) with Engins Matra 
(France) as major co-operant. 

ESRO-I is a small 81 kg. satellite for study of polar 
ionosphere and aurora. It will be launched in 1968 from 
the Western Test Range by a Scout rocket. Prime con- 
tractor is the Laboratoire Central dc Telecommunica- 
tions (France). Major co-operants are Contraves 
(Switzerland) and Bell Telephone Manufacturing 
Company (Belgium). 

HEOS-A, a Highly Eccentric Orbit Satellite, will 
weigh about 105 kg. It will study interplanetary physics 
and cosmic rays. Launch is scheduled for the 1968/1969 
period, with a Delta rocket. Prime contractor is Junkers 
Flugzcug und Motorenwerkc (Germany). Major co- 
operants are Snecma (France), BAC (U.K.), and ECTA 
(Belgium). 

TD -1 and TD- 2 , medium stabilized satellites for solar 
and stellar studies (weight about 400 kg). Main contrac- 
tor is Matra (France) and sub-contractors (Entwick- 


lungsring Nord (Germany), Svenska Aeroplan Aktic- 

bolagct (Sweden) and Hawker Siddeley Dynamics Ltd. 

(U.K.). Launch is scheduled for the period 3970/1971. 

1. ESRO carries out an important programme of 
research by means of sounding rockets. 

Up to the end of August 1967, about S5 scientific group- 
had submitted proposals for experiments to be launched 
as part of the Organization's sounding rocket programme. 
By the same date 23 different payloads (including one 
technological) had been launched; of these iS had been 
launched twice, four had been launched once and one (for 
investigation of the solar eclipse) six times, giving a total 
of 46 launchings. The 23 payloads incorporated 32 different 
experiments, several of which were included in two or 
more payloads. 

3. The Organisation provides scientific agencies of the 
member countries with the necessary technical facilities 
for the carrying out of space experiments ranging from the 
study of the near terrestrial environment to that of stellar 
astronomy. 

CONTRACTS 

Up to the middle of 1967, ESRO had spent 450 million 
French francs in contracts with industrial firms, of which 
373 million French francs was for scientific and technical 
equipment. 


FINANCE 

The following ceilings have been set: 

First three years: 3S0 million French francs 

Second three years: 600 million French francs 
Initial eight years: 1,500 million French francs 

1965 Budget: S6 million French Francs. 

1966 Budget: 196 million French Francs. 


CONTRIBUTIONS 



O-' 

/o 


O' 

'0 

Belgium 

3 - 7 - 

Netherlands 

4.04 

Denmark . 

c.15 

Spain 

3 • -y 

France 

20. 17 

Sweden 

- 1-3 

German Federal 


Switzerland 

3 - -A 

Republic 

-M- 3 J 

United Kingdom 

-3 - J 3 

Italy . 

11.72 




PUBLICATIONS 


European Sparc 

Reward; 

Organisation : describe 

s the 


structure, aims and methods of ESRO. 

ESRO IiuHetin (monthly). 

ESRO Reports. ESRO .Vo .Vs. ESRO Meiwtatt-ia. 



EUROPEAN SPACE VEHICLE LAUNCHER 
DEVELOPMENT ORGANISATION— ELDO 

114 ave. de Neuilly, 92 Neuilly, France 

Founded 1962 and formally established 1964 to develop and construct space vehicle launchers on an international 

basis. 


MEMBERS 


Australia 

Belgium 


France Netherlands 

German Federal Republic United Kingdom 

Italy 


ORGANIZATION 


COUNCIL 

President :]A. Paternotte de la Vaillee (Belgium). 

Vice-President: Gdn. R. Aubiniere (France). J. L. Knott 
(Australia). 

Approves research, development and construction pro- 
grammes and decides on their distribution between 
members. Composed of two representatives from each 
member country. Assisted by a Scientific and Technical 
Committee and a Finance Committee. 

SECRETARIAT 

Responsible for formulation and execution of pro- 
grammes, administration, finance and external relations. 

Secretary-Geueral: R. Di Carrobio (Italy). 
Technical-Director: W. H. Stephens (U.K.). 

Administrative-Director: Dr. H. L. Costa (German 
Federal Republic). 


PROGRAMME 

The initial programme envisages the development and 
construction of a European three-stage satellite-launching 
vehicle, “Europa I". Member countries will have the 
following responsibilities. 


Australia: Firing-range facilities. 

Belgium: Down-range guiding station. 

France: Second stage ("Coralie”). 

Germany: Third stage. 

Italy: Satellite test vehicle. 

Netherlands: Long-range telemetry. 

United Kingdom: First stage ("Blue Streak”). 

Test firings of the first stage commenced in 1964 an< * 
the first firing of the complete vehicle took place success- 
fully in 1966. Orbital firings are planned for 1968. A 
supplementary programme, ELDO-PAS (perigee-apogee 
system), using two additional stages to place satellites in 
geostationary orbit and suitable for communication pur- 
poses, will be undertaken early in the 1970s (“Europa II”)- 


BUDGET 

Initial and supplementary programme: /62G million. 
CONTRIBUTIONS 


(1968) 

% % 


United Kingdom . 

27 

Italy . 

12 

France . 

25 

Belgium 

• 4-5 

Germany 

27 

Netherlands . 

• 4-5 


Australia's contribution is the provision of the Woomera 
range and support facilities. 


216 



THE FRANC ZONE 


The Franc Zone embraces all those countries and groups 
of countries whose currencies are linked with the French 
franc at a fixed rate of exchange and who agree to hold 
their reserves in the form of French francs and to effect 
their exchange on the Paris market. Each of these countries 
or groups of countries has its own central issuing Bank and 
its currency is freely convertible into French francs. This 
monetary union is based on individual agreements con- 
cluded between France and the various States who, after 
attaining independence, opted for independent sovereignty 
either within or outside the French Community. 

The Maghreb members have much more independent 
monetary and economic policies than the thirteen sub- 
Saharan Franc Zone countries, due largely to the relatively 
more developed state of their economies, and the Tunisian 
and Moroccan currencies are no longer directly tied to the 
French franc. They hold part of their foreign reserves in 
French francs and the transaction of most of their inter- 
national payments is made through the Paris exchange 


market; however, each country has created its own 
currency and their issuing banks arc entirely autonomous. 
Bccau se of balancc-of-payment stringencies, these countries 
restrict payments to other Franc Zone countries, in 
contrast with the free convertibility among the sub- 
Sahara n members. The currencies of the Maghreb countries 
do not enjoy the unlimited backing of the French Treasury. 

Mali withdrew from the Franc Zone in 1062, setting up 
her own currency, the Malian franc, and her own issuing 
Bank. However, in May 1967 she ratified a currency 
agreement with France covering her gradual return to the 
West African monetary zone, and France's guarantee of 
the convertibility of the Mali franc. Under the terms of 
the agreement, Mali is to reorganize her economy, and in 
May 1967 she devalued her franc by 50 per cent. 

Guinea left the Franc Zone when she opted for indepen- 
dence outside the French Community in 195S. Togo 
joined in 1963. 


MEMBERS 

French Republic (Metropolitan France and the Overseas 
Departments and Territories, except French Somaliland). 

Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, 
Dahomey, Gabon, Ivory Coast, Madagascar, Mauritania, 
Niger, Senegal, Togo (full members). 

Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco retain national control 
over financial transfers. 


CURRENCY 


French franc; used in Metropolitan France and the 
Overseas Departments of Guadeloupe, French Guiana and 
Martinique. 

1 CPF (Coimmmaute Finnncitre du Pacifique) franc — 
0 0 55 fr. Used in New Caledonia. French Polynesia, and 
Wallis and Futuna Islands. 

1 UFA (Communautc Financicre Africainc) franc — 0.02 
fr. 1 srd in the monetary areas of West Africa, Equatorial 
.\frira and Cameroon, and also in the Overseas Department 


i of Reunion and the Overseas Territories of the Comoro 

■ Islands and St. Pierre et Miquelon. 

1 franc malgache -0.02 fr. Used in the Malagasy Re- 
1 public, where it replaced the CFA franc in 1 <>'>3. 

t Algerian dinar - 1 fr. Replaced the Algerian franc in 
| 1 no.;, 

■ The Tunisian dinar and the Moroccan dirham, created in 

• 195? and r o so re-pectively, are not attached to tlm French 

i franc. 


CM 7 



THE FRANC ZONE 


AFRICAN FINANCIAL COMMUNITY (COMMUNAUTE FINANCIERE 

AFRI CAINE — CFA) 


The CFA comprises twelve former French territories in 
West and Equatorial Africa plus Cameroon and the 
Malagasy Republic. These full members of the Franc Zone 
are still grouped within the currency areas that existed 
before independence, each group having its own currency 
issued by a central Bank. 

West African Monetary Union (Union Mouetaire 
Ouest-Africaine) : Dahomey, Ivory Coast, Mauritania, 
Niger, Senegal, Togo, Upper Volta (the countries of the 
former French West Africa, plus Togo who joined the 
Union in 1963. Mali is to return to membership of the 
Union). Established by Treaty of May 1962; agreements on 
Co-operation were signed with France in 1963; two-thirds 
of the members of the Board of Directors of its central 
issuing Bank are provided by the member States and one- 
third by the French Government. 


Monetary Union of Equatorial Africa and Cameroon 

( Union Monet air e de I'Afrique Equatoriale ct du Cameroun): 
Central African Republic, Chad, Congo (Brazzaville), 
Gabon, Cameroon (the countries of former French Equa- 
torial Africa, plus Cameroon). Agreements on Co-operation 
were signed with France in 1962; the French Government 
provides half of the members of the Board of Directors of 
its central issuing Bank, the other half being provided by 
the member States. 

Malagasy Republic: Agreements on Co-operation were 
signed with France in i960 and 1962; a national issuing 
Bank replaced the former Bank of Madagascar in 1962; the 
French Government provides half of the members of the 
issuing Bank's Board of Directors. 


ORGANIZATION 


The CFA and Malagasy francs are freely convertible into 
French francs at a fixed rate, through “Operations 
Accounts” established by agreements concluded between 
the French Treasury and the individual issuing Banks. 
The notes are backed fully by the resources of the French 
Treasury, which also provides the Banks with overdraft 
facilities. 

The monetary 7 reserves of the CFA countries are held in 
French francs in the French treasury. Exchange is effected 
on the Paris market and foreign assets earned by member 
countries are pooled in a “Fonds de Stabilisation des 
Changes” (Exchange Stabilization Fund) which is managed 


by the Bank of France. Part of the reserves earned by 
richer members can be used to offset the deficits incurred 
by poorer countries. Member countries negotiate each 
year their import programme with the French authorities 
and they receive a quota of non-franc foreign exchange to 
cover approved imports from outside the area. 

New regulations drawn up in July 1967 provided for the 
free convertibility of currency with that of countries 
outside the Franc Zone. Restrictions are to be removed on 
the import and export of CFA and Malagasy banknotes, 
although some capital transfers will still be subject to 
approval by 7 the governments concerned. 


CENTRAL ISSUING BANKS 


Banque de Franco: 1 rue de la Brilliere, Paris; f. 1800; 
issuing house for Metropolitan France; Governor 
Jaques Brunet. 

Institut d’Emission des DSpartements d’Outre-Mer: issuing 
house for the Overseas Departments and Territories; 
Dir.-Gen. Andre Postel-Yinay. 

Banque Ccnfrale des Etats de I’Afrique de I’Ouesi: 29 rue 

du Colisde, Paris 8e; f. 1955 under the title "Institut 
d Amission de l'AOF et du Togo” and re-created under 
present title by convention with France in 1962; 
central issuing bank for the members of the West 
African Monetary 7 Union; Pres. El Hadj Courmo 
B ARCOURGN fi ; Dir.-Gen. Robert Julienne. 


Banque Centralo des Etafs de I’Afrique Equatoriale et du 
Cameroun: 29 rue du Colisde, Paris 8e; f. 1955 under 
the title “Institut d Amission de 1 'AEF et du Cameroun; 
re-created under present title in i960; issuing house for 
the four equatorial African member countries and 
Cameroon; Pres. Georges Gautier. 

Institut d’Emission Malgache: Place de l’Independence, 
B.P. 550, Tananarive; f. 1962, replacing former Banque 
de Madagascar et des Comores, under the terms of the 
Co-operation Agreement signed with France in June 
i960; issuing house for Madagascar; Dir.-Gen. Jean 
Jacques Boissard. 


218 



THE FRANC ZONE 


ECONOMIC AID 


France's tics with the African Franc Zone countries 
involve not only monetary arrangements, but also include 
comprehensive French assistance in the forms of budget 
support, foreign aid, technical assistance and subsidies on 
commodity exports. 

Official French financial aid and technical assistance to 
developing countries is administered by the following 
agencies: 

Fonds d’Aide et de Co-op6ration — FAC, 20 rue Monsieur, 
Paris ye. In 1959 FAC took over from FIDES (Fonds 
d’lnvestisscmcnt pour lc Devcloppement Economique 


et Social) the administration of subsidies and loans 
from the French Government to the former French 
African States and Madagascar. FAC is administered 
by the Secretariat of State for Co-operation, which 
allocates budgetary funds to it. 

Caissc Centrale de Co-operation Economique— CCCE, 233 

Boulevard Saint-Germain, Paris ye. Founded in 19^1. 
and given present name in 195S. French Development 
Bank which executes the financial operations of FAC. 
Lends money to member States of the Franc Zone. 
Dir.-Gcn. Ax mu': Postf.i.-Vinav. 


FRENCH COMMUNITY 


The Community was created by the 1958 Constitution, 
adopted by referendum by the countries of French West 
Africa (with the exception of Guinea, which opted for 
total and immediate independence), French Equatorial 
Africa and Madagascar, which all chose to become Member 
States of the Community. The field of the Community’s 
competence included foreign policy, defence, currency, 
economic and financial policy, strategic materials and 
higher education. Between October and December 1958 
all the States of the Community were granted internal 
autonomy. 

A Constitutional Act of June i960 introduced the 
possibility of concluding agreements whereby a Member 
State could become independent without ceasing to belong 
to the Community. Six States — Central African Republic, 
Chad, Congo (Brazzaville), Gabon. Madagascar and i 
Senegal — decided to become independent within the j 
Community which was then called the "renewed Com- 
munity", while all the other States preferred total indepen- 


dence. France has concluded co-operation agreements in 
international law with all these States (including Togo and 
Cameroon which had been territories entrusted to France 
by international mandate and therefore could not be 
Members of the Community). 

The Articles of the Constitution dealing with the Com- 
munity have not been expressly alwlished but are no 
longer applied today and the various organs of the 
Community have fallen into abeyance. The two main 
organizations now responsible for liaison between France 
and African and Madagascan States are: 

Secretariat-General for the Community and African and 
Madagascan Affairs, 13S rue de Crenelle, Paris ye; 
Sec.-Gcn. Jacques Foccart. 

I Secretariat of State for Foreign Affairs in Charge of Co- 
operation, 20 rue Monsieur. Paris ye; Sec. -Gen. Yvo.v 
, Boultons. 


CUSTOMS UNIONS 


t ndcr the terms of the Convention of Yaounde, July 
1903, all CFA countries and Madagascar became associate 
members of the European Economic Community. This 
t onvention of Association stipulates the gradual abolition 
"f t.iriil and quota restrictions for the whole Common 
Market, and therefore tile guaranteed markets and prices 
• or African produce m Franco are now being phased out, 

Ihe followin'.; regional common markets within the 
Franc Zone lia\r Ivon formed 


West Africa: l .'niou l>ouanii.re Economique do FAlri-tue dt: 
FOuest (lil)EAO; (sec chapter.!. 

1 Ccr.tr a! Africa: Union Douanierc Economique do FAl'riqnc 

j Centrale (l.'DEACi (to- chapter). 

OijtJM (A', -;;e‘u:r A fi cl ■ \OCAM ; 

a common market in sugar has Ur-n < -tnK.v.V -.1 is:: 
r hapteri. 


INDUS WATERS TREATY 

A Treaty governing the use of the Indus Basin waters, signed September i960. 


SIGNATORIES 

India Pakistan 

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank) 


ADMINISTRATION 

The Indus Basin Development Fund is administered by 
the International Bank for Reconstruction and Develop- 
ment. 

INDUS COMMISSION 
Indian Commissioner: P. R. Ahuja. 

Pakistani Commissioner: Mian Khalil-Ur-Rahman. 

The two-man Commission is responsible for establishing 
and maintaining co-operative arrangements for the im- 
plementation of the Indus Water Treaty, and for promoting 
co-operation between the parties in the development of 
the waters of the rivers. The Commission reports at least 
once a year to Member Governments. First Meeting May 
1961. 

THE INDUS BASIN 

Some 50 million people depend for their livelihood upon 
the six rivers of the Indus Basin flowing from the Hima- 
layas to Pakistan and the Arabian Sea. These rivers are 
the Indus itself, the Jhelum, the Chenab, the Ravi, the 
Sutlej and the Beas. Before 1947, the rivers fed the irriga- 
tion canals of the Punjab in undivided India. At the 
transfer of power in 1947, most of the irrigated area 
became part of Pakistan although some canals and head- 
works went to India. Since 1951 the World Bank has been 
trying to settle differences between India and Pakistan 
over the division of river water and these attempts came 
to fruition in the Indus Waters Treaty i960. Under the 
i960 Agreement the waters of the three eastern rivers, the 
Ravi, Beas and Sutlej will be allocated to India and the 
waters of the three western rivers, the Indus, the Jhelum 
and the Chenab to Pakistan. Storage and irrigation works 
to the value of over $1,000 million will be constructed. 

DEVELOPMENT FUND 

Simultaneously with the signing of the Treaty, an inter- 
national financial agreement was executed by the Govern- 
ments of Australia, Canada, Federal Republic of Germany, 
New Zealand, Pakistan, United Kingdom, United States 
and by the IBRD. This agreement created the Indus 
Basin Development Fund to finance the construction of 
irrigation and other works in Pakistan. 


In April 1964 a Supplemental Agreement came into 
force, providing for a further $3!5 million in foreign 
exchange. The aggregate resources of the Fund in foreign 
exchange and in Pakistani Rupees amount to the equiva- 
lent of $1,200 million. 

The Indus Basin Development Fund also financed a 
study, completed in 1966, of the water and power resources 
of West Pakistan to provide the Pakistan Government 
with a basis for development planning. 

SYSTEM OF WORKS 

The following major operations are to be undertaken by 
Pakistan and financed from the Indus Basin Development 
Fund: 

1. Construction of the Mangla Dam on the Jhelum river. 
This Dam was inaugurated in November 1967- 

2. Development of 300,000 kW. of hydro-electric poten- 
tial in West Pakistan. 

3. Construction of three new barrages. 

4. Construction or re-modelling of eight link canals. The 
first link canal system, joining the Chenab and Sutlej 
Rivers, was completed in March 1965. 

GRANTS 

Australia ..... £Ai 1,634,643 

Canada .... Canadian $3S,gio,794 

German Federal Republic . . DM206,400,000 

India ...... £ 62,060,000 

New Zealand .... £NZl,5C>3,434 

United Kingdom .... £34,S38-57* 

United States of America . U.S. ?295,59°. oot> 

LOANS 

IBRD (World Bank) . . . U.S. $ 80,000,000 

IDA (International Development 

Association) ..... U.S. $ 58,540,000 
United States .... U.S. $121,220,000 

The United States is also providing U.S. $235,000,000 
in local currency. Pakistan is providing local currency 
equivalent to £9,850,000. 


220 



INDUS WATERS TREATY 


INDUS WATERS TREATY 


1. The Preamble recognises the need to fix and de-limit 
the rights and obligations of the Governments of India 
and of Pakistan concerning the use of the waters of 
the Indus river system. 

2. Allots the waters of the three eastern rivers to India 
with certain minor exceptions. The transition period 
will be xo years, which may be extended. 

3. The waters of the three western rivers arc allotted to 
Pakistan with certain stated exceptions. 

4. Pakistan undertakes to construct a system of works. 

5. India is to contribute to the Indus Basin Develop- 
ment Fund £ 62.06 million in 10 equal yearly instal- 
ments. 

6. Both countries recognise their "Common interest in 
the optimum development of the rivers, and, to that 
end, they declare their intention to co-operate, by 
mutual agreement, to the fullest possible extent”. 

7. The Treaty sets up a permanent Indus Commission 
consisting of two persons, one appointed by each of 
the two Governments. The functions of the Commis- 
sion will be "to establish and maintain co-operative 
arrangements between the parties in the development 
of the waters of the rivers”. 

8. Where differences cannot be settled by agreement 
between the Commissioners the Treaty establishes 


machinery for resort to a neutral expert (who is to be 
a highly qualified engineer) for a final decision on 
technical questions. 

9. Differences which cannot be settled by the neutral 
expert will be treated as disputes, and failing resolu- 
tion by agreement between the two Governments 
will be referred to a Court of Arbitration. 

10. The Treaty’ has eight anncxurcs. The principal 
matters covered in these anncxurcs are: 

(a) Agricultural use by Pakistan of water from the 
tributaries of the Ravi river. 

(b) Agricultural use by India of water from the 
western rivers. 

(c) The use of the water of tire western rivers by 
India for the generation of hydro-electric power. 

(d) The storage of water by India on the western 
rivers. 

(c) The questions which may be referred to a neutral 
expert. 

(f) The appointment and procedure of a court of 
arbitration. 

(g) Transitional arrangements relating to the supply 
of water to Pakistan during the transition period. 

11. The Treaty came into force on 12th January. 1961, 
on the exchange of ratification. 


INDUS BASIN DEVELOPMENT FUND AGREEMENT 

Signed at Karachi in i960 to provide financial arrangements to give effect to the Indus U atcrs Treaty. 


Article 1 
A rticle 2 
Article 3 
Articles .(-6 


Indus Basin Development Fund. 
Contributors. 

Provisions regarding payments. 
Special Reserve and Disbursements. 


Article 7 Undertakings of Pakistan. 

Article S The Administration. 

Articles 9-10 Consultation and Settlement of Dispute? 

Articles 11-1.5 Termination, Additional Parties, Entry into 
Force, Title. 


INDUS WATERS DEVELOPMENT FUND (SUPPLEMENTAL) AGREEMENT 
Signed at Washington in inO.j to provide additional resources. 


Article 1 Elfect of the Agreement. 

Articles 2-3 Increase in Contributions 
Article .( Disposition of the Fund. 


Article 5 Study of the Water and Power Resource*.- of 
West Pakistan. 

Article (> Signature and Entry into Force, 

Article 7 Title. 


:"1 



INTER-AMERICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK— IDB 

808 17th Strest, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20577, U.S.A. 


Founded in 1959 to promote the individual and collective developments member countries through the financing of economic 
and social development projects and the provision of technical assistance; helps to implement the Alliance for Progress. 


Argentina 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

Chile 

Colombia 

Costa Rica 


MEMBERS 

Dominican Republic 
Ecuador 
El Salvador 
Guatemala 
Haiti 


Honduras 

Mexico 

Nicaragua 

Panama 

Paraguay 


Peru 

Trinidad and Tobago 
U.S.A. 

Uruguay 

Venezuela 


ORGANIZATION 


President: Dr. Felipe Herrera (Chile). 

Executive Vice-President: T. Graydon Upton (U.S.A.). 

Executive Directors: Diego Calle Restrepo (Colombia). 
Francisco Norberto Castro (Argentina), Alberto 
IbAnez (Bolivia), True Davis (U.S.A.), Jose Juan de 
Olloqui (Mexico), Carlos E. Peralta Mendez 
(Guatemala), Victor da Silva (Brazil). 


BOARD OF GOVERNORS 

All the powers of the Bank are vested in a Board of 
Governors, consisting of one Governor and one alternate 
appointed by each member country. 

EXECUTIVE BOARD 

Consists of seven Directors responsible for the conduct 
of operations and answerable to the Board of Governors. 
Six are elected by Latin American countries and one is 
designated by the U.S.A. 


FINANCIAL STRUCTURE 


ORDINARY CAPITAL RESOURCES 

Loans are made to governments, and to public and pri- 
vate bodies for specific economic projects. They are re- 
payable in the currencies lent and their terms range from 
10 to 20 years. 

Authorised Capital $2,150 million, of which $475 million 
is paid-in. 

FUND FOR SPECIAL OPERATIONS 

The Fund enables the Bank to make loans for economic 
and social projects where circumstances call for special 
treatment, such as lower interest rates and longer repay- 
ment terms than those applied to loans from the ordinary 
resources, and possibility of repayments in whole or in 
part in local currency. 

Present Capital of $1,121,436,000 is being raised to 
$2,32r,436,ooo over the period 1967-69 by the member 
countries, through new contributions of $400 million per 
year. 

SOCIAL PROGRESS TRUST FUND 

The Social Progress Trust was set up in 1961 by the 
United States to promote social development in Latin 
America under the Alliance for Progress programme. It has 


a total capital of $525,000,000 and is administered by IDB 
under an agreement with the United States. Resources have 
been used to grant loans in four fields; housing for low 
income groups; water supply and sanitation installations; 
land settlement and rural development; and higher 
education and training related to economic development. 

The Fund is now totally committed and its fields of 
action transferred to the Fund for Special Operations. 

OTHER FUNDS 

The Bank in 1964 began administering a Canadian Fund 
created by the Government of Canada within its external 
aid programme to finance economic, technical and educa- 
tional assistance projects in Latin America. The Fund 
currently amounts to 40 million Canadian dollars. 

In 1966, the Government of the United Kingdom 
established under Bank administration a fund of £4,142,000 
for development projects in Latin America. 

In 1966, the Government of Sweden placed a similar 
fund under Bank administration totalling $5 million. 

BOND ISSUES AND LOANS 

To increase its lendable ordinary resources, the Bank 
has issued long-term bonds in the markets of Italy, 
Switzerland, the United States, the United Kingdom and 


222 



INTERGOVERNMENTAL COMMITTEE FOR EUROPEAN MIGRATION 


NUMBERS MOVED 

(February 1952- October 1965) 


From 


Italy ...... 

350,734 

German Federal Republic . 

249,996 

Austria ...... 

172,674 

Greece ...... 

116,739 

Netherlands ..... 

119,198 

Spain ...... 

95,603 

Malta ...... 

40,374 

Others ...... 

292,993 

Far East Programme .... 

20,955 

Total .... 

1,459,266 


To 


Australia ...... 

459 , 48 i 

U.S.A 

234,578 

Canada ...... 

181,021 

Argentina ...... 

1 15.947 

Brazil ...... 

107,913 

Venezuela ...... 

70,018 

Israel ...... 

158,150 

Republic of South Africa 

28,367 

New Zealand ..... 

15,608 

Uruguay ...... 

13,703 

Chile 

7.787 

Colombia ...... 

5> 011 

Others (Overseas) .... 

10,590 

(Europe) .... 

51,092 

Total 

1,459,266 


RESETTLEMENTS AND BUDGET 



Migrants 
Resettled with 
ICEM Assistance 

Bun 

GET 

Percentage 

Administrative 

Operational 

Administrative 



$ 

? 


1952 

77,664 

17,221,000 

2,064,000 

II 

1956 

172,232 

34,925,000 

2,680,000 

8 

1957 • 

194.156 

56,461,000 

2,771,000 

5 

1958 

94,332 

24,734,ooo 

3,242,000 

13 

1959 

105,736 

28,256,000 

2,901,000 

IO 

i960 

99,799 

28,374,000 

2,926,000 

IO 

1961 

87.175 

21,864,000 

2,853,000 

13 

1962 

69,748 

18,217,000 

2,824,000 

16 

1963 

64,480 

i7,599,ooo 

2,474,000 

14 

1964 

69,714 

ig,5°9,000 

2,265,000 

12 

1965 

67,031 

18,331,000 

2,382,000 

12 

1966 (est.) 

53.490 

16,522,000 

2,537.000 

15 


Major contributions to the administrative budget (per cent): Australia 7.5, Belgium 2.5, German 
Federal Republic 8.1, Italy 8.1, Netherlands 4.0, U.K. 8.1, U.S. 29.8. 


226 

















INTERNATIONAL AIR TRANSPORT ASSOCIATION- 

IATA 


1155 Mansfield St., Montreal 2, Canada 

Founded 1945 to promote safe, regular and economical air transport, to foster air commerce and to provide a 
means of international air transport collaboration. Membership: 87 international airlines (active members), 

14 domestic airlines (associate members). 


ORGANIZATION 


ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING 

The basic source of IATA authority. All active members 
have an equal vote and decisions are by majority. The 
A.G.M. elects the President and the Executive Committee. 
It designates committees to be organized by the Executive 
Committee. 

President: Benigno P. Toda, Jr. (Philippines). 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

Consists of eighteen elected members. Carries out policy 
between Annual General Meetings, and is assisted by 
Financial, Legal, Technical, Traffic Advisory and Medical 
Committees. 

TRAFFIC CONFERENCES 

Negotiation of fares and rates is carried out through the 
IATA Traffic Conferences, with separate meetings con- 
sidering passenger and cargo matters. Decisions are 
unanimous and cannot become effective without the 
approval of interested governments. The conferences are 


PRINCIPAL 

Finance: Member airlines may settle their international 
accounts through the IATA Clearing House in London, 
enabling a single cash settlement of all debts in dollars or 
convertible sterling. 

Technical Problems. There is a full and free exchange of 
experience and information between airlines, and experts 
study such problems as minimum noise procedures for 
take-off and landing, linking of airline telecommunications 
systems and the application of production planning and 
control techniques to maintenance. Other groups are 
concerned with problems of navigation aids, turbine fuels, 
helicopter operations and supersonic transport. 

Air Traffic: Subject to the approval of governments, 
agreements are reached on international fares and rates 
through the Traffic Conferences. IATA also furthers the 
standardisation of documentation and all phases of 
passenger, baggage and cargo handling. 

International Law: IATA formulates and represents 
airlines’ views on international conventions affecting the 
egal position of air carriers. Standardised Conditions of 


held in various world cities at two year intervals, in the 
autumn for passenger operations and the following spring 
for matters involving cargo. The three IATA Traffic Con- 
ferences have their offices in New York, Paris and Singa- 
pore. 

SECRETARIAT 

Carries out the day-to-day administration of IATA. 
Director-General: Knut Hammarskjold (Sweden). 
Secretary: A. Laurence Young. 

BRANCH OFFICES 

Brazil: Avenida Rio Branca 156, Sala 2816, Rio de Janeiro. 
France: 76-78 Champs Elysees, Paris 8e. 

Kenya: Ottoman Bank Building, P.O.B. 7979, Nairobi. 
Singapore: MacDonald House, Orchard Rd., Singapore 9. 
Thailand: P.O. Box 1196, Bangkok. 

U.K.: Berkeley Square House, London, W.i. 

U.S.A.: 500 Fifth Avenue, New York 10036. 


ACTIVITIES 

Contract governing carriage of passengers and cargo have 
been drawn up, and Conditions of Carriage for all aspects 
of transport are in preparation. 

Information and Documentation: IATA acts as a docu- 
mentation centre, collecting and issuing statistics, internal 
manuals, technical surveys, reports and publicity material. 

International Co-operation: IATA works closely with the 
International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) and also 
co-operates with other bodies such as the International 
Telecommunication Union (ITU), The World Meteoro- 
logical Organisation (WMO) and the International 
Standards Organization. 

BUDGET 

Financed from dues paid by member airlines in pro- 
portion to the amount of international air traffic carried. 

PUBLICATIONS 

I A TA Bulletin (annual, English, French, and Spanish). 



INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF 
UNIVERSITIES— IAU 

6 rue Franklin, Paris 16e, France 


Founded 1950 to promote practical academic co-operation and to assist university institutions throughout the 
world. Members: 490 universities and institutions of higher learning in 94 countries; 7 associate members 

(international university organizations) . 


ORGANIZATION 


GENERAL CONFERENCE 

Composed of the full and associate members and meets 
at least once every five years. Determines general policy 
and elects the President and members of the Administrative 
Board. 


Meetings 


Nice 

195 ° 

Istanbul 

1955 

Mexico City 

i960 

Tokyo 

1965 


ADMINISTRATIVE BOARD 

Composed of the President and fourteen other members, 
including a Vice-President. Meets annually. Gives effect to 


decisions of the General Conference and directs the work 
of the secretariat. 

President: Constantine K. Zurayk (American University 
of Beirut, Lebanon). 

Vice-President: Jean Roche (University of Paris, France). 


INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITIES BUREAU 

The permanent secretariat of the Association. Carries 
out day-to-day administration between meetings of the 
Administrative Board and General Conference. 
Secretary-General: H. M. R. Keyes (U.K.). 


PRINCIPAL ACTIVITIES 


Documentation and Information: The secretariat is a 
source of information on higher education throughout the 
world. Its reference library of published and unpublished 
material in many languages is probably unique of its kind. 
An extensive network of contacts with national and 
international bodies, academic and governmental, facili- 
tates the international exchange of information 

Research and Studies: These activities are most closely 
related to the themes of the General Conferences in an 
attempt to contribute in an international setting to the 
classification and resolution of major problems of higher 
educational policy. Since i960 special efforts in this field 
have been concentrated in the Joint UNESCO-IAU 
Research Programme in Higher Education. This is carried 
out with the support of major private foundations and 
includes systematic studies of urgent problems connected 
with the r 61 e of universities in the modern world. 

Publications Programme: A quarterly Bulletin provides 
a chronicle of university affairs in all parts of the world. A 
series of reference works published at regular intervals 
gives detailed information about university institutions and 
organisations concerned with higher education. Special 
reports and issues in the series of "Papers’’ of the Associa- 
tion are devoted to selected research themes and studies. 


BUDGET 

Annual expenditure amounts to approximately $200,000, 

excluding expenditure on the Joint UNESCO-IAU 

research programme which is financed separately. 

SELECTED PUBLICATIONS 

Bulletin of the International Association of Universities 
(English and French; quarterly). 

International Handbook of Universities (English; every 
three years). 

World List — universities, other institutions of higher 
education, university organisations (English and French; 
every two years). 

Access to Higher Education (English and French editions, 
published jointly with UNESCO). 

University Autonomy — its meaning today (English and 
French editions). 

Higher Education and Development in South East Asia 
(English and French editions, published jointly with 
UNESCO). 



228 



INTERNATIONAL BANK FOR ECONOMIC 
CO - OPERATION— IBEC 

15 Kuzneiskty Most, Moscow K-31, U.S.S.R. 

Founded in October 1963 and commenced operations in January 1964 to assist in the economic co-operation 
and development of member countries. Members: all COMECON countries. 


ORGANIZATION 


FUNCTIONS 

r. To undertake multilateral settlements in transferable 
roubles. 

2. To advance credits to finance foreign trade and other 
operations of the members. 

3. To accept on deposit and other accounts non-committed 
funds in transferable roubles. 

4. To accept gold, convertible and other currencies on 
deposit and other accounts and to perform financial and 
other operations with these funds. 

5. To perform other banking operations corresponding to 
the aims and tasks of the Bank. 


THE COUNCIL 

Three permanent representatives from each of the eight 
member states. The Council meets quarterly to decide on 
the general policy of the Bank. 

THE BOARD 

The executive body subordinate to the Council. One 
permanent representative from each of the eight member 
states.. 

Chairman: K. Nazarkix (U.S.S.R.). 

Members: N. Anghel, A. Fodor, L. Lkhamsuren, R. 
Mates a, G. Terziev, F. Toepper, J. Zelinka. 


FINANCE 

CAPITAL 


(million transferable roubles) 



Sub- 

scribed 

Paid- 

up* 

U.S.S.R 

xi6 

34- 8 

German Democratic Republic 

55 

16.5 

Czechoslovakia 

45 

13-5 

Poland ..... 

27 

8.1 

Hungary. .... 

21 

6-3 

Bulgaria ..... 

17 

5 -i 

Romania .... 

16 

4 .8 

Mongolia .... 

3 

0.6 

Total 

300 

89.7 


* Of which 59.7 million were paid-up in transferable 
roubles during 1964 and 30 million in convertible currencies 
and gold during 1966. 


STATEMENT OF ACCOUNT 
(End 1966 — transferable roubles) 


Assets 


Monetary Funds: 

On Current Accounts and Cash in Hand 

5,312,366 

On Deposit ... 

123,234,027 

Credits Granted to the Members’ Banks 

248,760,144 

Property of the Bank .... 

121,998 

Other Assets ..... 

6,072.509 

Total .... 

383,501,044 


At a meeting of the Board in October 1965 it was 
decided that a proportion of members’ capital subscrip- 
tions should be in gold and hard currency. This came into 


Liabilities 


Paid-up Capital and Reserve Capital 

90,563,520 

Current Accounts .... 

111,951,042 

Deposit Accounts .... 

175,424,403 

Other Liabilities .... 

6,296,770 

Net Profit ...... 

1,265,309 

Total .... 

383,501,044 


effect in mid-1966, with initial subscriptions totalling 
30 million roubles, to be raised to 90 million by the end of 
the year; quotas remain in the same proportion as before. 


229 



INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF EDUCATION— IBE 

Palais Wilson, 1211 Geneva 14, Switzerland 


Founded in 1925 as a private organization, the IBE became an inter-governmental organization in July 1929. 
The Bureau serves as a centre for information and research on all matters concerning education. Members: 68 

governments. 


ORGANIZATION 


Director: Prof. Jean Piaget. 

Assistant Director: Prof. Pedro Rossell6. 

General Secretary: Prof. Laurent Pauli. 

COUNCIL 

The governing body of the IBE; meets once a year; 
composed of three representatives of each member; deter- 
mines general policy of the Bureau’s work, discusses and 
approves the accounts and budget. 

Chairman: AndrS Ciiavanne. 


EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

Also meets once a year and exercises the powers of the 
Council, between Council sessions; composed of one 
representative of each member. 

Chairman: AndriI Ciiavanne. 

Sub-Committcs: 21 members; appointed to propose re- 
vision of the IBE Statutes. 


AIMS AND ACTIVITIES 


The purpose of the Bureau is to develop international 
co-operation in the field of education. A non-political 
organization, it serves as a centre of information for all 
matters concerning education, so that each country may 
benefit from the experiences of the others. It undertakes 
experimental and statistical research on public and private 
education, the results of which are made known to educa- 
tors, and conducts research in various aspects of compara- 
tive education, particularly primary and secondary' 
education. The following are the Bureau’s major activities: 

International Educational Library and Documentary 
Collections: The library comprises approximately 100,000 
works. Documentary collections comprise volumes on 
educational sciences, volumes on comparative education, 
textbooks, children’s books, educational journals. 

Inquiries: Each year the Bureau conducts two special 
inquiries, the results of which are made known to the 
International Conference on Public Education ( see below) 
and to educators. Among the inquiries carried out are the 
following: legislation regarding school buildings; organiza- 
tion of rural education; organization of special schools; 
school inspection; drafting, choice and utilization of school 
textbooks; primary and secondary teachers’ salaries; 
organization of pre-school education; domestic science 
teaching in primary and secondary schools; primary' and 
secondary teacher training; teaching of handicrafts; 
equality of opportunity for secondary education; free pro- 
vision of school supplies; teaching of handwriting; teaching 
of reading; development of psychological services in 
education; access of women to education; teaching of 
mathematics; educational planning; organization of educa- 
tional and vocational guidance; literacy and education for 
adults; modem languages at general secondary schools; 
organization of educational research; teachers abroad; 
shortage of secondary' school teachers; health education 
in primary schools. 

Permanent Exhibition of Public Education : Each member 
maintains a permanent collection of exhibits — including 
school legislation and regulations; curricula and time- 
tables of educational institutions at all levels; principal 


textbooks; photographs of school buildings, classrooms and 
school activities; specimens of pupils’ work — in order to 
acquaint other nations with the state of education in the 
country and the efforts being made towards its improve- 
ment. 

International Conference on Public Education: An inter- 
governmental Conference on Public Education is convened 
annually, and held its 31st session in 1967. Apart from the 
presentation of annual reports from the Ministries of 
Education on educational developments in their countries, 
the agenda of these conferences include the discussion of 
the Bureau’s inquiries on current problems and the 
adoption of recommendations addressed to the Ministries 
of Education. To date, 65 recommendations have been 
adopted. Since 1947 the Conference has been convened 
jointly udth UNESCO. 

Collaboration with UNESCO: In 1947 a working agree- 
ment was signed between the IBE and UNESCO. A Joint 
Committee, composed of three representatives of each 
organization, supervises co-operation between the two 
bodies. Among other things, the agreement provides for 
the joint convening of the International Conference on 
Public Education, joint publication of the results of 
inquiries and the exchange of documentation. 

Bibliographic Card Index Service: Bibliographic analyses 
published in the Quarterly Bulletin are reprinted for use in 
card indexes in educational libraries. 

Training of Educators: The IBE acts as organizing 
agency for scholarship holders sent to Switzerland by 
UNESCO. 

FINANCE 

The IBE is financed by members' subscriptions and the 
sale of publications. 

Budget (1967): 933.000 Swiss francs. 

PUBLICATIONS 

Inquiries and Studies: 294 volumes. 

International Yearbook of Education: 29 volumes. 

Quarterly Bulletin (in English and French): 42nd year. 


230 



INTERNATIONAL CHAMBER OF COMMERCE-ICC 


38 Cours Albert ler, 75 Paris VWe, France 

Founded 1919 to establish a permanent organisation of world business. ICC is a private and non-political body. 


Africa and Madagascar 
(Franc Zone) 
Argentina 
Australia 
Austria 
Belgium 
Brazil 
Canada 
Ceylon 

China, Republic of 
Colombia 


MEMBERS 


National Committees 


Denmark 

Finland 

France 

German Federal Republic 

Greece 

India 

Iran 

Israel 

Italy 

Japan 

Korea, Republic of 


Luxembourg 

Mexico 

Morocco 

Netherlands 

Norway 

Pakistan 

Peru 

Philippines 
Portugal 
South Africa 


Afghanistan 

Andorra 

Bahrain 

Burma 

Cambodia 

Congo (Democratic Republic) 


Associate Members 


Cyprus 

Ethiopia 

Honduras 

Hong Kong 

Iceland 

Iraq 


Ireland 

Lebanon 

Malta 

New Zealand 

Nigeria 

Rhodesia 


Spain 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

Thailand 

Turkey 

United Kingdom 
United States 
Uruguay 

Yict-Nam, Republic of 
Yugoslavia 


Sudan 

Syria 

Tunisia 

U.A.R. 

Venezuela 

Zambia 


ORGANIZATION 


CONGRESSES 

Meets every two years. Composed of delegates from 
member states and observers from governments and 
international organisations. Promotes policy, discusses 
economic issues, examines conclusions reached by the 
International Council. The twenty-first Congress was held 
in Montreal in May 1967. Next Congress: Istanbul. June 
J069. 

INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL 

Governing body' of the organization. Composed of 
permanent delegates elected by the National Committees. 
Considers, co-ordinates, amends and approves reports 
and activities of the Technical Commissions. Meets twice 
annually and reports to Congress. 

President (191.7-60): Annum K. Watson (U.S.A.). 
Secretary-General: Walter Hill (U.K.l. 


NATIONAL COMMITTEES 

Established in .(i countries. Composed of leading trade 
-ac latinos and individual companies. Each Committee 
has its own secretariat, and draws public and government 
attention to ICC politic--.. 


TECHNICAL COMMISSIONS 


* "tupo •'<! o? experts from 
it. Commi", m::-: study world 
■•id- information ami guidance 


the National Committees 
business problems and pro- 
to the business community. 


1 

I 

i 

? 

: 

! 

i 


C 31 


Group i: Economic and Financial Policy 
Expansion of International Trade: Chair. Jean Charles 
Snoy et D’Oppuf.ks. 

Formalities and Regulations in International Trade: Chair. 
Mariano Tkomhetta. 

International Monetary Relations: Chair. George. S. 
Moore.. 

International Investments am! Eeoncmic Development: 
Chair. Pieteu Kilts. 

Taxation: Chair. Wilfred Baumgartner. 

Head of Group: It. K. Eenti.on, 


Group c: Production. Distribution and Advi.rumno 
Primary P/oduits and Have olatmat:: Chair. Ji an 
Mikoi.ajczak. 


Restrictive Piaetices affeetinp Competition: Chai 
de YoC.fif . 

Distribution: Chair. Jules Mucou s:. 
Advertisin': : Chair. i>lLN Honwnz 
International Exl.’J ittens. Trad- /■'. 16 ■ and 
Enn: lu-.iNi-soN. 

Joint (Tv;.-:u:-.n ICC;!'! {■' <d |:t:-ir.a*.i-> 

Chair. Eras: jtuin- 'ICC , M. C.iiu.is u*m 

/ It J * If 1*1 /tUT/.ifl tf C ■’* l (• • ,». r r- s r 

Kvpotv l‘fL'h*’rr vo.*: S v 

Head ct Group: M s ? . **•" 


Aus'^r d 


CJi 




/nr 





INTERNATIONAL CHAMBER OF COMMERCE 


Group 3: Transport and Communications 
General Transport: Chair. Dr. Stoedter. 

Transport Users: Chair. Otto Kampf. 

Air Transport: Chair. Walter Berchtold. 

Sea Transport: Chair. Sir Colin S. Anderson. 

Road Transport: Chair. E. W. P. Verbeek. 

Rail Transport: Chair. Frederik Gerst. 

Inland Navigation: Chair. F. Osterrietii. 

Postal and Telecommunications Services : Chair. Dr. HAkan 
K. A. Sterky (Sweden). 

Simplification and Standardisation of Export Documents: 
Chair. David Hunter. 

Head of Group: Marcelle R. Kling. 

Group 4: Law and Commercial Practice 

International Commercial Arbitration: Chair. Lord Tang- 
ley. 

International Protection of Industrial Property: Chair. 
H. R. Mathys. 

International Commercial Practice: Chair. Enrico Minola. 
Banking Technique and Practice: Chair. Bernard S. 
Wheble. 

Head of Group: Fr£d£ric Eisemann. 


OTHER BODIES 

Commission on Asian and Far Eastern Affairs: Tokyo. 
Functions include international joint ventures, develop- 
ment of national trade policies and intra-regional trade, 
measures to increase exports of primary' products, and 
promotion of basic industries. Chair. Sir Manuel Lim; Sec.- 
Gen. Hiroo Hirota; Liaison Officer Pierre Jonneret. 

Court of Arbitration: Settles international commercial 
disputes submitted to it by governments or private firms. 
Chair. Charles Carabiber, Francois Prevet; Sec.-Gen. 
Frederic Eisemann. 

International Councii on Advertising Practice: Examines 
unfair advertising on the basis of the ICC Code of Standards 
of Advertising Practice; Chair. Sten Horwitz; Sec. 
Marie C. Psimenos de Metz-Noblat. 

INTERNATIONAL HEADQUARTERS 

The secretariat of ICC. Departments of Technical 
Services, External Relations and Administration. 
Secretary-General: Walter Hill. 

Administrative Director: Lucien R. Duchesne. 

External Affairs Director: Pierre Jonneret. 

Information Directors: Jacques Hebrard, Thomas 
Houston. 

Internal Administration: Georges Dalle. 
Mectings-Documentntion: Wladimir Zweguintzow. 


ACTIVITIES 


Standardisation: ICC brings together national repre- 
sentatives and invites them to agree on standard rules for 
commercial transactions. 

Economic Problems: Policy statements and analyses of 
conventions, regulations and agreements are submitted to 
governments for their consideration. 

Settlement of Business Disputes. The good offices of ICC 
are available in international business disputes. Should 
conciliation fail, the differences can be settled by the Court 
of Arbitration in the form required by law, so that the 
decision can be enforced by the courts if necessary. 

Industry and Finance. ICC has recommended greater 
protection for trade-marks and patents, fair treatment of 
foreign private investments, a multilateral guarantee 
system and the abolition of double taxation. It has also 
urged the simplification of governmental regulations and 
formalities and the standardisation of sales contracts. 

Transport and Banking. ICC sponsors consultations 
between carriers and users on transport of goods and 
promotes a joint policy for all branches of commercial 
transport. Its standard practices for commercial credits 
are used by banks all over the world, and it has recom- 
mended international rules for payment and transfer orders. 

Distribution and Advertising. New methods to increase 
efficient distribution are publicised by ICC, which also 


compiles statistics for traders. It promotes fair standards 
of advertising, standardization of advertising contracts 
and research into press, cinema, outdoor and television 
media. 

Information Exchange. A Centre for the Exchange of 
Information on Distribution has been established. Training 
courses are organised for staS of Chambers of Commerce 
in the developing countries and the International Bureau 
of Chambers of Commerce makes available information on 
a wide range of commercial subjects. 

Co-operation. ICC co-operates with a large number of 
international organizations, both governmental and non- 
governmental. Liaison offices with the United Nations are 
maintained in Bangkok, Geneva and New York. 

BUDGET 

The International Chamber of Commerce is a private 
organization financed entirely by members’ contributions. 
Ghairmen of the Budget Commission: Rudolf Brinckmann 
(German Federal Republic), Sir Jeremy Raisman 
(United Kingdom). 

PUBLICATION 

ICC News (published monthly in English and French). 



INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS 
SATELLITE CONSORTIUM— INTELSAT 

c/o Communications Satellite Corporation, 1900 L St. N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036, U.S.A. 

Founded in August 1964 by agreements which provide interim arrangements for the establishment of a global 

commercial communications satellite system. 


MEMBERSHIP 


Membership of INTELSAT is available to all states which are members of the International Telecommunication Union, 

and as of October 1st, 1967, comprised 58 states. 


ORGANIZATION 


INTERIM COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE 
COMMITTEE 

Responsible for the design, development, construction, 
establishment, maintenance and operation of the "space 
segment" of the global system (the "space segment" 
comprises the communications satellites and the tracking, 
control, command and related facilities and equipment 
required to support the operation of the communications 
satellites; members of INTELSAT are represented on the 
Interim Committee on an investment quota basis; as at 
October 1st, 1967, there were 18 committee members, 
representing 47 participants. 


ADMINISTRATION 

The Interim Agreement provides that the Communica- 
tions Satellite Corporation (COMSAT), a public company 
set up by Act of U.S. Congress, shall act as the Manager in 
the design, development, construction, establishment, 
operation and maintenance of the space segment. 

TRIBUNAL 

The Agreement on Arbitration provides for a group of 
legal experts to be selected to form a tribunal for the 
settlement of legal disputes. Each signatory submits one 
name, from which the Committee appoints seven experts. 


FUNCTIONS 


The Interim Agreement is intended to lead to definitive 
arrangements which will provide for a global communica- 
tions satellite system, available to all countries on a non- 
discriminatory basis, whether or not they have contributed 
capital to the system. All states may invest in the system 
with consequent participation in the design, development, 
construction (including the provision of equipment), 
establishment, maintenance, operation and ownership of 
the system. 

Three Agreements have been signed: 

{a) An Intergovernmental Agreement establishing Interim 
Arrangements for a Global Commercial Communica- 


tions Satellite System, which came into force in 
August 1964. 

(6) A Special Agreement concluded between governments 
or their designated communications entities, which 
came into force in August 1964. 

(c) A Supplementary Agreement on Arbitration providing 
for the settlement of legal disputes, which came into 
force in November 1966. 

These Agreements are to remain in force until they are 
reviewed in January 1969 with the object of concluding 
definitive arrangements by January 1970 at the latest. 



1 

& 


233 


INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE CONSORTIUM 


ACTIVITIES 


Four satellites in synchronous orbit over the Atlantic 
and Pacific have been launched and are in commercial use. 

1965 INTELSAT I ( Early Bird) was launched on April 6th, 
and began commercial service on June 28th. Pro- 
vides 240 voice circuits between North America and 
Western Europe. There are earth stations communi- 
cating via INTELSAT I in Canada, France, the 
Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, U.K. and 
U.S.A. 

1966 (An INTELSAT II was launched on October 26th 
but failed to achieve synchronous orbit.) 

1967 A second INTELSAT II ( Pacific I) was launched 
over the Pacific on January nth, and opened for 
commercial usage on January 27th. It currently pro- 
vides service among earth stations in U.S.A., 
Australia, Japan, Philippines and Thailand. 

A third INTELSAT II ( Atlantic II) was launched on 
March 22nd to provide additional service across the 
Atlantic. 

A fourth INTELSAT II ( Pacific II) was launched 
on September 27th to provide additional service 
across the Pacific, and began commercial service on 
November 4th. 

The INTELSAT II satellites are capable of providing 
360 voice circuits and are expected to have a lifetime of 
three years. Earth stations already authorized to com- 
municate with these satellites include facilities in Ascension 
Island, Australia, Bahrain, Brazil, Canada, France, the 
Federal Republic of Germany, Hong Kong, Italy, Japan, 
the Philippines, Thailand, U.K. and U.S.A. 


In early 1966, it was agreed to establish an INTELSAT 
III programme for satellites in synchronous orbit pro- 
viding global coverage in 1968. Each INTELSAT III 
satellite is expected to have a capacity of approximately 
1,200 voice circuits and an estimated lifetime of five years. 
Further programmes will provide satellites of greatly 
increased capacity at decreased costs. 


FINANCE 

The contributions of the signatories to the Special 
Agreement towards the cost of the design, development, 
construction and establishment of the space segment 
during the interim arrangements are based upon an 
estimate of U.S. $200,000,000. 

Each signatory to the Special Agreement is to pay its 
quota of costs in accordance with the provisions of that 
Agreement. The space segment is owned in proportion to 
the respective contributions. GOMSAT at present owns 
53.8 per cent of the space segment. 

The Interim Committee approves utilization of the space 
segment by earth stations, taking into account the 
recommended standards of the International Telecom- 
munication Union. 

The Interim Committee establishes the rate of charge 
per unit of satellite utilization to cover amortization of the 
capital cost of the space segment and to cover estimated 
operating, maintenance and administration costs of the 
space segment (the latter portion to be paid to COMSAT). 


234 



INTERNATIONAL CONFEDERATION OF FREE 

TRADE UNIONS— ICFTU 

37-39 rue Montague aux Herbes Potag&res, Brussels I, Belgium 

Telephone: 17 80 85. 

Founded in 1949 by trade union federations which had withdrawn from the 
World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU). 

MEMBERS 

AFFILIATED NATIONAL CENTRES AND INDIVIDUAL UNIONS 
122 organisations in 94 countries with over 63 million members 


ORGANIZATION 

President: Bruno Storti (Italy). 


WORLD CONGRESS 

The highest authority of ICFTU, Congress meets every 
three years. 

Delegations from national federations vary in size 
according to membership. Individual unions send one or 
two delegates. 

Functions: examines past activities, maps out future 
plans, elects the Executive Board and the General 
Secretary, considers the functioning of the regional 
machinery, examines financial reports and social, economic 
and political situations. It works through plenary sessions 
and through technical committees which report to the 
plenary sessions. 

London December 1949 

Milan July 1951 

Stockholm July 1953 

Vienna May 1955 

Tunis July 1957 

Brussels December 1959 

Berlin July 1962 

Amsterdam July 1965 

New York July 1968 


First Congress 
Second Congress 
Third Congress 
Fourth Congress 
Fifth Congress 
Sixth Congress 
Seventh Congress 
Eighth Congress 
Ninth Congress 


EXECUTIVE BOARD 

Meets twice a year, for about a week, usually at Brussels, 
or at the Congress venue. 

Consists of 27 members elected by Congress and nomi- 
nated by areas of the world. The General Secretary is an 
ex officio member. After each Congress the Board elects its 
own President and at least seven Vice-Presidents. 

Functions: administrative questions; hearing of reports 
from field representatives, missions, regional organisations, 
and affiliates, and resultant decisions; finances; applica- 
tions for affiliation; problems affecting world labour. 

Sub-Committee: the Board elects a sub-committee of 
eight to deal with urgent matters between Board meetings. 


PERMANENT COMMITTEES 
Finance Sub-Committee. Administers tlic General Fund 
from affiliation fees; 5 members. 

International Solidarity Fund Committee. Administers 
the voluntary fund for regional activities; G members 
including the General Secretary. 

Sub-Committee on Trade and Development. Studies and 
advises the Board on international trade and develop- 
mental questions affecting workers throughout the world; 
7 members; also a technical advisory committee to advise 
and guide the sub-committee on technical matters. 

Joint Consultative Committee. Considers questions affect- 
ing women workers, youth and education; composed of 
representatives of International Trade Secretariats and 
ICFTU affiliates. 


SECRETARIAT 

General Secretary: Harm G. Buiter (Netherlands). 

The headquarters staff numbers over 100, comprising 
some 15 different nationalities. 

The six departments are: Organization; Economic. 
Social and Political; Education, Women and Youth; 
Administration, Relations and Translation; Finance; 
Publications and Publicity. 


Branch Offices 

ICFTU Geneva Office: 27-29 rue de la Coulouvrenifcre, 
CH 1 zo.} Geneva. 

ICFTU Paris Office: SS rue Saint-Marlin, Paris 4c. 

ICFTU United Nations Office: 820 Second Ave., 3rd Floor, 
New York 17, N.Y. 

ICFTU Vienna Office: Mitlerstcig 3A, Vienna 1040. 


REGIONAL ORGANIZATION 



REGIONAL OFFICES 


Europe . 

ICFTU European Regional Organisation 
— ERO, SO rue des Palais, Brussels, 
Belgium. 1 

America 

' 

Inter-American Regional Organisation 
of Workers — ORIT, Plaza dc la 
Republica 30, Mexico 1, D.F., Mexico. 

Africa . 

. ICFTU African Regional Organisation — 
AFRO. Day Spring House. Private Mail 
Bag :03s, 85 Simpson Street, Ebute- 
Mctta, Nigeria, 

Asia 

ICFTU Asian Regional Organisation — 
ARO, C3-4 Green Park Extension, New 
Delhi iG, India. 


235 


INTERNATIONAL CONFEDERATION OF FREE TRADE UNIONS 


ICFTU TRADE UNION COLLEGES 


ICFTU African Labour College: P.O. Box 7033, Kampala, 
Uganda; f. 1958; for the training of trade union 
organisers and officials in English-speaking Africa. 
ICFTU Asian Trade Union College: C-3/C-4 Green Park 
Extension, New Delhi 16, India; f. 1952; holds two 


twelve-week courses each year, and several shorter 
ones; international seminars and conferences. 

ICFTU-ORIT Inter- American Labour College: Cuernavaca, 
Mexico; opened February 1966; holds regular courses 
for trade unionists in the Latin American region. 


There are Sub-Regional Offices and Field Representatives in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Curasao, 
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Indonesia, Japan, Lebanon, Nicaragua, Rhodesia, Singapore, Trinidad, United 
States of America, Zambia. 


ASSOCIATED INTERNATIONAL TRADE SECRETARIATS 


International Secretariat of Entertainment Trade Unions: 

37/39 rue Montagne aux Herbes Potagfcres, Brussels; 
f. 1965; Mems.; trade union members totalling 432,165 
in 20 countries. Organization: Congress, Executive 
Board of eighteen. 

Pres. Leslie Littlewood (Great Britain); Dir. Alan 
Forrest. 

International Federation of Building and Woodworkers: 

Ewaldsgade 5, Copenhagen N., Denmark; f. 1891. 
Mems.: National Unions. Organization: Congress, 
Executive Committee. 

Pres. J. H. Mills (Great Britain); Sec.-Gen. J. Lofblad 
(Sweden). Pubis. Bulletin, Housing Bulletin (monthlies). 

International Federation of Commercial, Clerical and 
Technical Employees: 15 avenue de Balexert, 1211 
Geneva-Chatelaine, Switzerland; f. 1904. Mems.: 
national unions of non-manual workers comprising 
5,002,261 workers in 62 countries. Organization: Inter- 
national Congresses (every three years). Executive 
Committee, four trade sections. 

Pres. James Suffridge (United States); Sec.-Gen. 
Erich Kissel (German Federal Republic). Pubis. The 
Non-Manual Worker (monthly in English, French, 
German and Norwegian), Interamerican Bulletin 
(monthly in English, Portuguese and Spanish). 

International Federation of Free Teachers’ Unions: 37-39 
rue Montagne aux Herbes Potageres, Brussels 1, 
Belgium; f. 1951. Mems.: national professional associa- 
tions covering 400,000 people in 16 countries. Organiza- 
tion: Congress (every two years). General Council 
(annual meetings). Executive Committee of at least 
five. Executive Bureau. 

Pres. Heinrich Rodenstein; Gen. Sec. A. Braconier. 

International Federation of Chemical and General Workers’ 
Unions: 58 rue de Moillebeau, 1211 Geneva 19, Switzer- 
land; f. 1907. Mems.: 46 national unions covering 
2,178,200 people in 34 countries. Organization: Con- 
gress (every three years). Executive Committee (meets 
twice a year), Standing Committee. 

Pres. W. Gefeller; Sec.-Gen. C. Levinson (Canada). 
Pubis. Bulletin (irregular), reports. 

International Federation of Plantation, Agricultural and 
Allied Workers: 17 rue Necker, Geneva, Switzerland; 
f. 1959. .Mems.: unions covering 7,227,732 workers. 
Organisation: Congress (every six years). Executive 
Committee, Central Secretariat. 


Pres. Lord Collison; Sec.-Gen. Tom S. Bavin. Pubis 
Snips (monthly), IF PA A W Journal (quarterly). 

International Federation of Petroleum and Chemical 
Workers: 407 Denham Building, Denver 80202, 
Colorado, U.S.A.; f. 1954. Mems.: unions in 80 countries 
with a membership of two million. Organization: 
Congress (every three years). Executive Board (repre- 
senting 14 countries), Secretariat. 

Pres. Luis Tovar (Venezuela); Gen. Sec. L. A. Haskins 
(U.S.A.). Pubis. Petro (monthly), Petrogram (weekly). 

International Graphical Federation: Monbijoustrasse 73, 
3007 Berne, Switzerland; f. 1949. Mems.: national 
organizations in 26 countries. Organization: Executive 
Committee and Trade Group Boards. 

Pres. John Bonfielp (United Kingdom); Gen. Sec. H. 
Goke (Switzerland). Pubis. Journal of the IGF (twice 
a year), reports. 

International Metalworkers’ Federation : Route des Acacias 

54 bis, 1227 Geneva, Switzerland; f. 1893. Mems.: 
national organizations covering 10,000,000 workers in 

55 countries. Organization: Congress (every three years). 
Central Committee (meets annually), Executive Com- 
mittee, five Sections. 

Pres. O. Brenner; Gen. Sec. A. Graedel (Switzerland). 
Publ. Bulletin (three times a year). 

International Shoe and Leather Workers’ Federation: The 

Grange, Earls Barton, Northampton, England; f. I9°7- 
Mems.: unions and union federations covering 310,000 
workers in 20 countries. Organization: International 
Congress (every two years). Executive Committee. 

Sec. S. A. Robinson (Great Britain). Publ. Bulletin 
(annually). 

International Textile and Garment Workers’ Federation: 

120 Baker Street, London, W.i, England; f. i960. 
Mems.: 44 national federations covering 3,239,987 
workers in 25 countries. Organization: Congress, 
General Council, Executive Committee of eight. 

Pres. John Newton (Great Britain); Gen. Sec. John 
Greenhalgh (Great Britain). Publ. Bulletin. 

International Transport Workers’ Federation: Maritime 
House, Old Town, Clapham, London, S.W.4, England; 
f. 1896. Mems.: national federations covering 6,500,000 
workers in 86 countries. Organization: Congress (every 
three years), General Council, Executive Board, 
Management Committee, eight Departments. 


236 



INTERNATIONAL CONFEDERATION OF FREE TRADE UNIONS 


Gen. Sec. Haxs Imhof (Switzerland). Pubis. ITF 
Journal (quarterly), ITF Newsletter (monthly), ITF 
Technical Bulletin (quarterly). 

International Union of Food and Allied Workers’ Associa- 
tions: 15 rue Necker, Geneva, Switzerland; f. 1920. 
Mems.: national organizations covering 1,608,384 
workers in 54 countries. Organization: Congress (every 
three years), Committee, Executive Committee of 
eleven. 

Pres. H. Ceuppexs (Belgium); Gen. Sec. Juue Poulsen 
(Denmark). Pubis, monthly bulletins, reports, bro- 
chures. 

Miners’ International Federation: 75-76 Blackfriars Road, 
London, S.E.i, England; f. 1890. Mems.: 36 national 
unions covering about 2,000,000 miners in 32 countries. 
Organization: Congress (every four years), Executive 
Committee, Bureau. 

Pres. \V. Arexdt (German Federal Republic); Gen. Sec. 
D. Edwards (U.K.).Publ. Bulletin (three times a year). 

Postal, Telegraph and Telephone International: 24 rue du 

Lombard, Brussels 1, Belgium; f. 1920. Mems.: national 


FINANCES 

Affiliated federations pay a standard fee of £9 per 1,000 
members per annum, which covers the establishment and 
routine activities of the ICFTU headquarters in Brussels 

INTERNATIONAL SOLIDARITY FUND 
The Fund was set up in 1958 to assist workers and trade 
unionists in the developing countries. It finances the 
regional organizations, regional colleges, branch and field 
offices of the ICTFU throughout the world, extends 
assistance to unions in the developing countries and token 
assistance is granted to workers victimized by repressive 
political measures by government or employer and in 
cases of major natural disasters affecting workers. 


federations covering 2,116,404 workers in 78 countries. 
Organization: Congress (every three years), Executive 
Committee. 

Pres. C. Stenger; Gen. Sec. S. Nedzynski. Publ. PTTI 
News (monthly). 

Public Services International: 54-5S Bartholomew Close, 
London, E.C.i, England; f. 1035. Mems.: 136 unions 
and professional associations covering 3,313,167 
workers in 64 countries. Organization: Congress (every 
three years). General Council, Executive Committee of 
eleven, Secretariat. 

Pres. G. HalstrOm (Sweden); Gen. Sec. \V. F. Bara- 
zetti (U.K.). Pubis. Bulletin (four times a year). News- 
letter (monthly). 

Universal Alliance of Diamond Workers: Plantin-cn- 
Moretuslei 66-68, Antwerp, Belgium; f. T905; Mems.: 
13,100 in 6 countries; annual Executive committee 
meetings. 

Pres. G. JiLvters; Gen. Sec. F. Schoeters. Publ. 
Quarterly Bulletin. 


PUBLICATIONS 

Free Labour World (official monthly journal). 

International Trade Union News (fortnightly). 

Press and Radio Service (weekly). 

Economic and Social Bulletin (every two months). 

ICFTU Bulletin (every two months). 

Women's News (non-periodical). 

All these periodicals arc issued in English, French, 
German and Spanish, and, on the regional level, in many 
other languages. In addition Congress Reports and 
numerous other publications on labour, economic and 
trade union training have been published in various 
languages. 


SUMMARY OF THE CONSTITUTION 

(As revised in 1959) 


PREAMBLE AND AIMS 

The International Confederation of Free Trade Unions 
exists to unite the workers organised in the free and 
democratic trade unions of the world and to afford a means 
of consultation and collaboration between them in further- 
ance of the aims here set out. (Statement of ICFTU’s Aims 
follows.) 

Article i. Membership: All bona fide national trade 
union centres accepting the aims and Constitution of the 
Confederation shall be eligible for membership. 

Articles 2-3. Congress: The supreme authority. (Con- 
vened at least once everv three years. Composed of 
delegates of the affiliated organisations.) 

Articles o-io. Officers: President, the Vice-Presidents 
and the General Secretary. 


Articles 13-1S. Executive Board: Elected by Con- 
gress. 27 members nominated by: Africa 3. Asia 4. Middle 
East 2, Australia and New Zealand 1, Britain 2, Continent 
of Europe 6, Latin America 3. North America 5, West 
Indies 1. 

Article 19. Regional Organisations: Organic parts of 
the Confederation. 

Articles 20-22. Finance: Income derived from regular 
affiliation fees, special levies and voluntary contributions. 

Articles 23-24. Co-operation with International Trade 
Secretariats; Headquarters. 

Articles 25-26. President and Vice-Presidents: Elected 
bv the Executive Board. 

Articles 27-2S. General Secretary: Elected by On- 
press. 


INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATIVE ALLIANCE— ICA 

11 Upper Grosvenor Street, London, W.1, England 

Telephone: GROsvenor 5991. 

Founded by the International Co-operative Congress in 1895. The Alliance links individual members and affiliated 

organisations in the pursuit of Co-operative aims. 

MEMBERS 

603.326 societies, 222,897,389 members 


CATEGORIES OF ICA MEMBER-SOCIETIES 




Societies 

Members 

Consumers’ Societies .... 


55 . 9 U 

110,019,429 

Agricultural Societies .... 


139,655 

32,776,628 

Fishery Societies ..... 


10,263 

1,248,720 

Workers’ Productive and Artisanal Societies 


68,167 

5,114,879 

Building and Housing Societies 


28,097 

4,928,606 

Credit Societies ..... 


291,655 

62,480,582 

Miscellaneous Societies .... 


9 , 57 s 

6,328,545 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION 

OF 

ICA MEMBERSHIP 

(1964) 


Societies 

Members 

Europe ...... 


108,190 

118,959,704 

Asia ....... 


424,923 

66,613,946 

America ...... 


35 , 8 o 6 

28,024,190 

Oceania ...... 


2,057 

756,062 

Africa ...... 


4,750 

1 , 133,693 


ORGANIZATION 


President: Dr. Mauritz Bonow (Sweden). 

Vice-Presidents: Robert Southern (United Kingdom), 
A. P. Klimov (U.S.S.R.). 

CONGRESS 

The highest authority of the ICA. Congress meets every 
three years. 

Each national organization sends delegates. Their 
number is according to the organization’s size. 

Functions: to elect the Central Committee, to establish 
general policy and the future programme, to approve 
reports and to decide on motions and resolutions. 


Congresses 


First Congress 

London 

i s 95 

Sixteenth Congress 

Zurich 

1946 

Seventeenth Congress 

Prague 

194S 

Eighteenth Congress 

Copenhagen 

1951 

Nineteenth Congress 

Paris 

1954 

Twentieth Congress 

Stockholm 

*957 

Twenty-first Congress 

Lausanne 

i960 

Twenty-second Congress 

Bournemouth 

1963 

Twenty-third Congress 

Vienna 

1966 


CENTRAL COMMITTEE 

Meets once a year at least. 

There are 143 members, nominated by the national 
organizations and the Committee is elected by Congress. 


Functions: to elect the President, two Vice-Presidents 
and the Executive, to appoint the Director, to confirm the 
budget, and to carry out the programme established by 
Congress. 

EXECUTIVE 

Meets three or four times a year. 

Members: the President, Vice-Presidents, and thirteen 
members elected by the Central Committee. 

Functions: to admit new members, to appoint staff, to 
draw up the budget and control finance, to conduct any 
collaboration with other international organizations, and 
to direct ICA policy between Central Committee meetings. 
The Technical Assistance sub-Committee of the Executive 
directs ICA activities in promoting co-operation in the 
developing countries and controls the expenditure of the 
development fund financing the activities. 

SECRETARIAT 

Director: W. G. Alexander (United Kingdom). 

The Director is responsible for executing the decisions of 
the Alliance’s authorities, for representing it at inter- 
national organizations, for finance, organization of meet- 
ings and the running of the Secretariat. He is assisted by 
the heads of departments for Administration, Education, 
Press and Public Relations, Research and Statistics, and 
Women Co-operators. 


238 



INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATIVE ALLIANCE 


ECONOMIC RESEARCH AND STATISTICAL 
SECTION 

The Section follows developments important to the 
Co-operative Movement, and pays special attention to 
trusts and monopolies, restrictive practices, world com- 
modity markets and the protection of consumers’ interests. 
It also collates returns from the National Organizations 
and issues the results in an annual summary. 

REGIONAL OFFICE 

18 Friends’ Colony, New Delhi, India 
Founded i960 to develop ICA activity in South-East 


Asia, to act as a link with affiliated national movements, 
and to represent ICA at international organizations in the 
region. 

The Regional Office includes the Education Centre, 
which facilitates the interchange of knowledge and experi- 
ence between Co-operative organizations in the region. It 
arranges courses, seminars and conferences, undertakes 
surveys, and supports and supplements the educational 
activities of national Co-operative Movements. 

Regional Officer: Dr. S. K. Saxena. 


FINANCE 

The ICA works on an annual budget of slightly over 
£x 00,000. Its income is obtained almost entirely from the 
annual subscriptions paid by its members. Costs of about 
^80,000 per annum for the work of the Education Centre 
in South East Asia are borne by the members of the 
Swedish co-operatives, supplemented by grants from the 
Swedish Government. Technical Assistance expenditure is 
met from the ICA Development Fund to which contribu- 
tions are made by member organizations on a voluntary 
basis. 


PUBLICATIONS 


Review of International Co-operation (bi-monthly): in 
English, French, German and Spanish. 

Co-operalive News Service (monthly) : in English. 

Agricultural Co-operative Bulletin (monthly) : in English. 

Consumer Affairs Bulletin (monthly): in English and 
French. 


Reports of ICA Congresses. 

Statistics of A f filiated Organisations. 

Annual Statistical Summary. 

Directory of the Co-operative Press. 

International Co-operation: reports of national organiza- 
tions. 


239 



INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF SCIENTIFIC UNIONS 

-ICSU 

7 Via Corneiio Celso, Rome, Italy 

Telephone: 862555. 

Founded 1931 as successor to the International Research Council (1919) to co-ordinate international co-operation 

in theoretical and applied sciences. 


MEMBERS 

National Members 

Academies, research councils or governments of 62 countries. 


Scientific Members 

International Union of the History and Philosophy of 
Science (IUHPS). 

International Union of Physiological Sciences (IUPS 1 . 
International Union of Pure and Applied Biophysics 


International Astronomical Union (IAU). 

International Geographical Union (IGU). 

International Mathematical Union (IMU). 

International Scientific Radio Union (URSI). 
International Union of Biochemistry (IUB). 

International Union of Biological Sciences (IUBS). 
International Union of Crystallography (IUCr). 
International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG). 
International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS). 


(IUPAB). 

International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry 
(IUPAC). 

International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP). 
International Union of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics 
(IUTAM) . 


ORGANIZATION 


GENERAL ASSEMBLY 

Consists of representatives of National and Scientific 
Members, Meets every two years to lay down general 
policy. Next Assembly: Paris, June 1968. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 
President: Dr. J. M. Harrison (Canada). 

Vice-Presidents: Prof. H. Boesch (Switzerland), Dr. H. 
Brown (U.S.A.), Prof. W. Klemm (German Federal 
Republic), Prof. I. Malecki (Poland). 

Treasurer: Ing. Gen. G. Laclavere (France). 
Secretary-General: Prof. K. Chandrasekharan (India). 


Past President: Prof. H. W. Thompson (U.K.). 

Consists of twenty-nine members; four principal officers, 
ten representatives of national institutions and one repre- 
sentative for each of the fifteen member unions. Directs 
the affairs of the Council between meetings of the General 
Assembly, to which it is responsible. Meets annually. 


SECRETARIAT 

Executive Secretary: F. W. G. Baker (U.K.). 

Responsible for general affairs, finance, information and 
publications. Pubis. ICSU Yearbook, ICSU Bulletin. 


COMMITTEES 


Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR): f. 1958 
to continue the co-operative scientific exploration of 
Antarctica after the close of the International Geophysi- 
cal Year (IGY). Mems.: 12 countries; Pres. Dr. 
L. M. Gould (U.S. A.) ; Secretariat: Dr. G. de Q. Robin, 
Sec., Scott Polar Research Institute, Cambridge, 
England. Publ. SC A R Bulletin. 

Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR): f. 1957 
to further international scientific activity in all 
branches of oceanic research, especially concerning 
climate, fertility of the sea and improvement of oceano- 
graphic methods. Advisory- body to UNESCO and to 
Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission. Mems.: 
31 countries; Pres. Capt, L. R. Capurro (Argentina); 
Secretariat: Prof. W. S. Wooster, Sec. Scripps Institu- 


tion of Oceanography, P.O.B. 109, La Jolla, Calif. 
92038, U.S. A. 

Committee on Space Research (COSPAR): f. 1958 to con- 
tinue and foster, after the end of IGY, international 
co-operation in all sciences that make use of the new 
research tools of rockets and satellites. Mems.: institu- 
tions in 35 countries and n scientific unions; Pres. 
Prof. Maurice Roy (France); Secretariat: M. J. Gazin, 
Exec. Sec., 55 blvd. Malesherbes, Paris 8e, France. 
Pubis. COSPAR Information Bulletin, International 
Reference Atmosphere Tables, World List of Optical and 
Radio Tracking Stations, Proceedings of Symposia, 
Technical Manuals, Transactions. 

Scientific Committee on Water Research (COWAR): f. 1964 
to consider the problem of international water resources 


240 



INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF SCIENTIFIC UNIONS 


in all its aspects, and to act as adviser on behalf of 
ICSU to UNESCO and other interested bodies on 
problems pertaining to the International Hydrological 
Decade; Pres. Prof. A. Volker (Netherlands); Secre- 
tariat: Dr. L. Serra, Sec., 98 rue Xavier de Maistre, 
92 Rueil-Malmaison, France. 

Special Committee for the International Biological Pro- 
gramme (SCIBP): f. 1964 to organize the International 
Biological Programme. Mems. : 46 countries; Pres. Prof. 
Jean G. Baer (Switzerland); Scientific Dir. Dr. E. B. 
Worthington (U.K.); Secretariat: H. A. W. Southon, 
Exec. Sec., 7 Marylebone Rd., London, N.W.i, 
England. Pubis. IBP News, The Biosphere. 

Committee on Science and Technology in Developing 
Countries (COSTED) : f. 1966 for the encouragement of 


science and technology in developing countries; 12 
mems.; Pres. Prof. P. M. S. Bracket (U.K.); Secre- 
tariat: F. W. G. Baker, 7 via C. Celso, 00161 Rome, 
Italy. 

Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA) : 

f. 1966 to promote and encourage on a world-wide 
basis, the production and distribution of compendia 
and other forms of collections of critically selected 
numerical and other quantitively expressed values 
of properties of substances of importance and interest 
to science and technology. Mems.: 6 countries and 11 
scientific unions; Pres. Prof. F. D. Rossini (U.S.A.); 
Secretariat: Dr. Guy Waddington, Exec. Dir., 
National Academy of Sciences, 2101 Constitution Ave., 
Washington, D.C. 20418, U.S.A. 


SERVICES AND INTER-UNION COMMISSIONS 


Federation of Astronomical and Geophysical Services 
(FAGS): f. 1956; federates the following Permanent 
Services: International Time Bureau, International 
Polar Motion Service, Permanent Service of Geo- 
magnetic Indices, International Gravimetric Bureau, 
International Seismological Summary, Monthly Bulletin 
of the International Seismological Bureau, Quarterly 
Bulletin on Solar Activity, Permanent Services on 
Earth Tides, Mean Sea Level, Crustal Thickness, 
Fluctuation of Glaciers, Solar Particles and Radiations 
Monitoring Organization, International Ursigram and 
World Days Service; Pres. Prof. P. Tardi (France); 
Sec.-Gen. Prof. G. D. Garland (Canada), Geophysics 
Laborator)'-, University of Toronto, Toronto 5, Ontario, 
Canada. Pubis. Quarterly Bulletin on Solar Activity, 
International Seismological Summary, Tables of Geo- 
magnetic Indices, Bulletin Mensuel du Bureau Central 
International de Siismologie, Bulletin Iloraire, etc. 

ICSU Abstracting Board (IAB); f. 1949; facilitates the 
prompt publication of abstracts in Physics, Astronomy, 
Chemistry and Biology; co-operates ■with the Institute 
for Scientific Information of the U.S.S.R.; Pres. Prof. 
G. A. Boutry (France); Secretariat: Mme J. Poyen, 
Gen. Sec. ICSU Abstracting Board, 17 rue Mirabeau, 
Paris i6e, France. Publ. Annual survey of activities and 
list of publications of members of the ICSU family. 

Joint Commission on Applied Radioactivity (JCAR) : f. 1955 
under the auspices of IUPAC; Pres. Dr. H. Seligman 
(U.K.); Sec. Dr. C. Fisher, Commissariat a l’Energie 
atomique. Centre d’dtudes de Saclay, B.P.2, Gif-sur- 
Yvette, France. 

Inter-Union Committee on Frequency Allocations for Radio 
Astronomy and Space Science (JUCAF): f. i960 under 
auspices of URSI with representatives of URSI, IAU 


and COSPAR, to study the requirements for frequency 
channels and radio frequency protection for research 
in the fields of radio astronomy and space science; 
Sec.-Gen. Dr. R. L. Smith-Rose, 21 Tumblewood Rd., 
Banstead, Surrey, England. 

Inter-Union Committee on Radio Meteorology (IUCRM): 

f. 1959 by IUGG and URSI, to further the study of 
those aspects of meteorology which affect radio pro- 
pagation and the application of radio techniques to 
meteorology. Pres. Prof. R. Bolgiano, Jr. (U.S.A.) ; 
Sec. Prof. D. Atlas, Dept, of Geophysical Sciences, 
University of Chicago, 5727 University Ave., Chicago, 
Illinois 60637, U.S.A. 

Inter-Union Commission on Solar-Terrestrial Physics 
(IUCSTP): Small nucleus formed in January 1966, 
expanded to 30 mems. in July 1967; principal tasks are 
to organize international co-operative projects in solar- 
terrestrial physics and to co-ordinate international 
symposia in this field; Pres. Dr. H. Friedman (U.S.A.) ; 
Acting Sec. Dr. C. M. Minnis, 6 Carlton House Terrace, 
London, S.W.i, England. 

Inter-Union Commission on Science Teaching (IUCST): f. 

1961 to study all matters related to science teaching, 
especially at university level; Pres. Prof. T. N. George 
(U.K.); Sec. Prof. P. Fleury, Institut d’Optique, 3 
blvd. Pasteur, Paris 15c, France; ppubl. Circulairc 
d’lnformation. 

Inter-Union Commission on Spectroscopy (IUCS): f. 1966 
to co-ordinate the work of the international unions of 
Astronomy, Chemistry and Physics in the field of 
Spectroscopy; Chair, of the Organizing Committee 
Prof. H. W. Thompson, St. John's College, Oxford, 
England. 


FINANCE 


BUDGET 

Prepared annually by a Finance Committee and presented 
to the General Assembly, which determines contributions 
for National and Scientific Members. 

ICSU SPECIAL FUND 

Established 1956 to raise supplementary funds from 
ou 1 e sources for the support of major projects. 


ICSU WORKING CAPITAL FUND 

Established 1961 to (a) make advances to ICSU bodies 
pending the receipt of expected subventions, grants or 
subscriptions; ( b ) make loans to the scientific projects of 
the Council. 


241 


INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF CHRISTIAN 

TRADE UNIONS— IFCTU 


26 rue Juste Lipse, Brussels 4, Belgium 

Telephone: 33 37 85. 

Founded in 1920. 

MEMBERS 

AFFILIATED NATIONAL FEDERATIONS AND TRADE INTERNATIONALS 
12,000,000 members in 74 countries 


ORGANIZATION 


President: Maurice Bouladoux (France). 

Vice-Presidents: August Cool (Belgium), Tran-Quoc- 
Buu (Vietnamese Republic), Gilbert Pongault 
(Congo, Brazzaville), Jose Golds ack Donoso (Chile), 
M. Pepin (Canada). 

CONGRESS 

The supreme and legislative authority. Meets every four 
years (last meeting: Liege, July 1964). 

Consists of delegates from national confederations and 
trade internationals. Delegates have votes according to 
the size of their organization. 

Congress receives official reports, elects the Executive 
Board, considers the future programme and any proposals. 

GENERAL COUNCIL 

Meets at least once a year. 

Members: delegates from member organizations. Size of 
delegations is according to the organization’s membership. 

Functions: establishes main policy lines for the 
Executive Committee and hears its reports; establishes the 
budget. 


EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

President: Maurice Bouladoux. 

Vice-Presidents: August Cool (Belgium), Tran-Quoc- 
Buu (Vietnamese Republic), Gilbert Pongault 
(Congo, Brazzaville), Jos£ Goldsack Donoso (Chile), 
M. Pepin (Canada). 

Secretary-General: August Vanistendael. 

Five representatives of National Confederations and 
five representatives of Trade Internationals. 

Meets at least every four months or whenever necessary. 
Consists of at least twelve members elected by Congress 
from among its members for three-year terms. 

Functions: executive directions and instructions to the 
Secretariat. 

SECRETARIAT-GENERAL 

Secretary-General: Jean Bruck (acting). 

Assistant Secretary-General: Willem Kreeftmeijer. 

The Secretary-General is responsible to the Congress, 
Council and Executive Committee. 


Europe . 


Africa . 


REGIONAL OFFICES 

Latin-American Confederation of Chris- 
tian Trade Unions, Apdo. 6681, 
Caracas, Venezuela. 

President: J. Goldsack Donoso. 
Brotherhood of Asian Trade Unionists, 
Taft Avenue 1845, Manila, Philippines. 
Secretary: J. Tan. 

There are also regional offices in New York, Geneva, Kinshasa and Caracas. 

EDUCATION 

INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTES OF TRADE 
UNION STUDIES 

Africa . . B.P. 60, Kinshasa 7, Democratic Republic 

of Congo. 

Latin America 1475 Alonso Ovalle, Santiago, Chile. 

242 


1 21 rue Joseph II, Brussels, Belgium. Latin America 

President: A. Cool. 

Secretary: A. Kulakowski. 

Pan-African Workers’ Congress, P.O. Box 
60, Kinshasa 7, Democratic Republic Asia 
of the Congo. 



INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF CHRISTIAN TRADE UNIONS 

BUDGET 

Income is derived from affiliation dues, contributions 
per capita, donations and capital interest. 

PUBLICATIONS 

Labor (every other month): in English, French, German, 

Dutch. 

Labor Information: in English, French, German, Dutch, 

Spanish. 

Reports of Congresses. 


TRADE INTERNATIONALS 


International Federation of Christian Agricultural Workers 
Unions: Bondstraat 27, Brussels, Belgium; f. 1921; 
Mems.: national federations covering 320,000 workers 
in 10 countries. Organization: Congress (every third 
year), Bureau, Permanent Secretariat. 

Pres. A. Yska (Netherlands); Sec. E. Machielsen 
(Belgium). Pubis. Le Travailleur de la Terre. 

International Federation of Christian Trade Unions of 
Building and Woodworkers: 22 Kromme Niemve 
Gracht, Utrecht, Netherlands; f. 1936. Mems: national 
federations covering 350,000 workers in 10 countries. 
Organization: Congress, Bureau, Permanent Secretariat. 
Pres. C. Nuvxs (Belgium); Sec. D. H. Grasman (Nether- 
lands). Pubis. L’ Ouvrier chritien du Bois et du Bdtiment. 

International Federation of Christian Trade Unions of 
Employees in Public Service and P.T.T.: Biltstraat ri8, 
Utrecht, Netherlands; f. 1022. Mems: national federa- 
tions of workers in public service, P.T.T. and teachers 
affiliated to IFCTU covering 900,000 workers. Organiza- 
tion: Federal Congress (at least every three years). 
Council (meets every year). Bureau, Control Commis- 
sion, six Trade Groups, Secretariat. 

Pres. Th. de Walsche (Belgium); Sec.-Gen. E. H. M. 
Damen (Netherlands). Pubis. International P.T.T. 
(bi-monthly). Information Bulletin (bi-monthly). 

International Federation of Christian Factory Workers’ 
Unions: Renaissancelaan 13, Brussels .1. Mems.: 
1 33.25 1. 

Pres. II. van Hoorick (Belgium); Sec.-Gen. M. Ylr- 
U.xnr.N (Belgium). Publ. Bulletin d'ln formation. 

International Federation of Christian Workers in tho Food, 
Drink, Tobacco and Hotel Trades: Bondstraat 27, 
Brussels, Belgium; f. 1948. Mems: 94,500. Organization: 
Congress, Executive Council, Executive Committee. 
Pres. J. M. Nooy (Netherlands); Sec. E. Machielsen 
(Belgium). Publ. Contact (irregular). 

International Federation of Christian Metalworkers’ Unions: 

47 avenue de la Liberty, Luxembourg; f. 1920. Mems.: 
national organizations grouping 350,000 workers in 9 
countries. Organization: Congress (every five years). 


Committee (meets four times a year). Executive 
Bureau. 

Pres. J. Coeck (Belgium); Sec. W. Goeminne (Belgium). 
Publ. ICM Bulletin (irregular). 

International Federation of Christian Miners’ Unions: S rue 

Duchscher, Luxembourg; f. 1901. Meins.: national 
federations grouping 159,700 miners in 6 countries. 
Organization: Congress, Bureau, Secretariat. 

Pres. Fr. Dohmen (Netherlands); Sec. E. Engel 
(France). 

International Federation of Christian Trade Unions of 
Graphical and Paper Industries: 1 70-1 72 P.C. Hoofstraat, 
Amsterdam, Netherlands; f. 1925. Mems: national 
federations in 6 countries covering 70,000 workers. 
Organization: Congress, Bureau, Secretariat. 

Pres. E. de Bondt (Belgium); Sec.-Gen. M. G. Koen- 
ders (Netherlands). Publ. Bulletin dTnformatian 
(irregularly). 

International Federation of Christian Trade Unions of 
Salaried Employees, Technicians, Managerial Staff and 
Commercial Travellers: 26 rue de Montholon. Paris gc, 
f. 1921. Mems: national federations of unions and 
professional associations covering 350,000 workers in 10 
countries. Organization: Congress (every two years). 
Council, Executive Bureau, Secretariat. 

Pres. P. Seiler (Germany); Sec.-Gen. Jacques Tlssilii 
(France). Publ. Revue. 

Internationa! Federation of Christian Trade Unions of 
Textile and Garment Workers: Koning Albcrtlann 13. 
Ghent, Belgium; f. 1901. Mems.: unions covering 
300,000 workers in 11 countries. Organization: Con- 
gress (every two years). Bureau, Secretariat. 

Pres. P. van Wesemael (Belgium); Sec. H. IlrvsMANs 
(Netherlands). Publ. Intervetex (quarterly). 

International Federation of Christian Trade Unions of 
Transport Workers: 50 rue Joseph II, Brussels 
Belgium; f. 1021. Mems.: national federations in 20 
countries covering 500,000 workers. Organization : 
Congress (every three years). Committee (meets twice 
a year). Executive Board. 

Pres. I\. Honorat (France); Sec.-Gen. Gj'.rard Ror- 
landt (Belgium). Pubis. Tram port (three times a year). 
Contact bulletin. 





INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF CHRISTIAN TRADE UNIONS 


SUMMARY OF THE CONSTITUTION 


Article i. The National Confederations of Christian 
Trade Unions of the different countries and the Christian 
Trade Internationals agree to constitute an International 
Federation of Christian Trade Unions, hereafter referred to 
as the IFCTU. 

Articles 2-4. Principles, Purposes and Means of 
Action: Recognising the principles of Christian doctrine 
and Christian moral teaching as the foundations of human 
society, the IFCTU shall endeavour to make them pre- 
dominant in the world, trying to achieve, through its 
activities, a social order in conformity with Christian 
principles. (Statement of aims follows.) 

Article 5. Financial Year: January ist-December 31st. 

Articles 6 -i 3 . Membership. 


Article 14. Organs: General Council, Executive Com- 
mittee. 

Articles 15-21. Congress: Supreme and legislative 
authority of IFCTU. 

Articles 22-26. General Council: Representatives of 
the affiliated National Confederations, Trade Inter- 
nationals and Extraordinary Members. 

Articles 27-30. Executive Committee. At least twelve 
members elected by Congress. 

Articles 31-33. Officers: Congress elects a President 
from its members and four Vice-Presidents from members 
of the Executive Committee. 

Articles 34-37. Organs of Propaganda: Finance. 

Articles 38-40. Final Provisions. 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATION OF EMPLOYERS 

— IOE 

98 St. Jean, Genova, Switzerland 

Telephone: 31 73 50. 

Founded in 1920 and reorganized in 1948, IOE represents the interests of private employers in the social field, 
defends free enterprise and provides a permanent liaison in labour matters. 

World membership: 81 federations in 73 countries. 

ORGANIZATION 

Hon. President: M. P. AValine. 


GENERAL COUNCIL 

President (June 1967-Junc 1968): Wajid Ali (Pakistan). 

The Council is composed of two delegates sent by each 
affiliated federation, and is the supreme body of the IOE. 
It meets once a year. Among its functions are the drawing 
up of the annual budget and the review of the events of the 
previous year. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

Chairman: G. BergenstrCm (Sweden). 

Vice-Chairmen: M. Ghali (Tunisia), E. P. Neilan (U.S.A.), 
Sir George Pollock (U.K.), N. II. Tata (India), 
F. Yllanes Ramos (Mexico). 

The Committee is composed of one representative from 
each affiliated federation. It meets three or four times a 
year and formulates general policy. 

SUMMARY OF 

CONSTITUTION AND OBJECTIVE 

Articles 1 and 2. The IOE is an international organisa- 
tion of national central employers' federations. It is to 
maintain contact between members, to keep them in- 
formed of developments in social questions and to promote 
common discussion of these questions and their repercus- 
sions. 


MEMBERSHIP AND ADMINISTRATION 

Articles 3-5, Any central employers' federation with 
the aims given above may become a member, provided that 
it does not include any workers' organisation, that it 
defends the principles of free enterprise, and that it is a 
free and independent voluntary organisation outside 
gov i rntnental or other control. All applications arc con- 
siders by the General Council. If there is no such central 
federation, individual federations tnav be admitted with 
the permission of the General Council.' The administration 
is to consist of the General Council, the Executive Com- 
mitte.s and the Secretary. General. 


GENERAL SECRETARIAT 
Secretary-General: R. Lagasse (Belgium). 

Responsible for day-to-day administration, and executes 
the decisions of the General Council and Executive 
Committee. 


RELATIONS WITH THE UNITED NATIONS 

The International Organisation of Employers is one of 
the ten international non-governmentaf organisations 
having category "A” consultative status with the 
Economic and Social Council of UN and consultative 
status with the International Labour Organisation in 
Geneva. 


THE STATUTES 

GENERAL COUNCIL 

Articles 6-13. The General Council shall be compos'd 
of two delegates from eacli central federation, accompanied 
bv anv technical advisers. Other mcmlx-rs are represented 
according to the conditions of their admission. The Gene: at 
Council shall elect a President and two Vice-President-;. 
The President shall serve for one year, to be succeeded in 
turn by the senior and junior Vice-Presidents. The General 
Council shall pass the annua! budget and completed 
accounts at its annual meeting. Pp*-cia! meetings may he 
held. Voting shall only be hekl on administrative questions, 
and shall be done by a simple majority. Each delegation 
shall have two votes. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

Articles 1 5-18. The Executive Comr-ntte* h* 

elected at tin* annual no—: me of the G« Co-.:::::'. ; r. 

the Genera t Council shall fix tie* miml-T of r-.-e, - Th- 

Kxerut-.ve Committee shall app-m the G s-: ..ry-C-r. .-P 
j and decide on prop s- -.G. by *.k- o,*, P- 

I Committer* shall h od regular tr.-— t:r:g* 

ct:> 



INTERNATIONAL PRESS INSTITUTE— IPI 

Munstergassc 9, 8001 Zurich, Switzerland 

Telephone: (051) 34 48 38. 

Founded in 1951. A non-governmental association of editors, publishers and news broadcasters independent of 
governments who support the principles of a free and responsible Press. 

Membership: 1,550 individual members representing 600 newspapers in 51 countries. (Full membership is open 
to journalists responsible for editorial and news policies. Associate membership applies to journalists employed 

in non-executive editorial posts.) 


ORGANIZATION 


ANNUAL ASSEMBLY 

Composed of delegates from all member countries. The 
Assembly elects the Executive Board, appoints the 


Director and 

lays down Institute policy. 

1952 

Baris 

1961 

Tel Aviv 

1953 

London 

1962 

Paris 

1954 

Vienna 

1963 

Stockholm 

1955 

Copenhagen 

1964 

Istanbul 

1956 

Zurich 

1965 

London 

1957 

Amsterdam 

1966 

New Delhi 

1958 

Washington 

1967 

Geneva 

1959 

Berlin 

1968 

Nairobi 

i960 

Tokyo 




EXECUTIVE BOARD 

The governing body of the Institute. The Board con- 
sists of editors from 20 countries. It meets when necessary, 
but must do so at least once a year. 

Chairman: C. E. L. Wickremesinghe (Ceylon). 
Vice-Chairmen: J. M. Lucker (Netherlands), Aryeh 
Dissentshik (Israel). 

NATIONAL COMMITTEES 

Accredited by the Executive Board. Composed of 
leading editors. Established in 25 countries (November 
1967) . The Committees report to the Secretariat on develop- 
ments affecting the Press and conduct Institute business 
in member countries. 


SECRETARIAT 

Director: Per Monsen (Norway). 


ACTIVITIES 


A programme to train staff of Asian newspapers was 
launched in i960 and a number of workshop seminars have 
been held with the aim of improving newspaper techniques. 
Representatives of the fnstitute have visited papers to 
give advice and training to editorial and management 
staffs. A training scheme launched in 1963 has given 
nearly 300 African journalists six-month courses in journal- 
istic techniques at centres in Nairobi and Lagos. 

Regular meetings are held between newspapermen to 
discuss mutual problems and to improve relations through 
the Press. These have included Franco-German meetings 
and meetings between British and German, Korean and 
Japanese, Greek and Turkish and Canadian and American 


editors. Background Seminars are arranged to improve 
journalistic practices. 

The Institute publishes cases of the violation of Press 
freedom and makes formal protests to governments. 

A research department regularly publishes studies of the 
problems of international journalism. There are also a 
library and a Press centre. Publications in 1966: Press 
Councils and Press Codes (4th edition) Press Laws for our 
Time (a study of the new German Press Laws), IPI in 
Asia, Le Reportage; 1967: Newspaper Crisis in Britain, 
Report on the Suppression of Press Freedom by the Military 
funta in Greece. 


AIMS 

1 . To further and safeguard the freedom of the Press which 
is defined as: free access to news; free expression of views; 
free publication of newspapers. 

2. To achieve understanding among editors and so among 
people. 

3. To promote free exchange of accurate balanced news. 

4. To improve journalistic practices. 

246 



INTERNATIONAL PRESS INSTITUTE 


BUDGET 

The Institute is supported by members’ subscriptions Foundation. A grant of $813,700 was made b3' the Rocke- 

and donations. It began with the aid of the United States feller Foundation in 1 . larch 1965 to support the Asian 

Carnegie and Rockefeller Foundations. The current African Programme up to May 1968. In 1967 the Ford Foundation 

training scheme is financed by a $300,000 grant from the j made a grant of $150,000 for a programme of activities to 

Ford Foundation which was made in 1965 at the termina- I improve objective news coverage between countries, 

tion of the previous two-year scheme backed by the j 


PUBLICATION 

I PI Report: published monthly in English, French, 
German and Japanese. 


147 



THE INTERNATIONAL RED CROSS 

Geneva, Switzerland 

THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE RED CROSS— ICRC* 
THE LEAGUE OF RED CROSS SOCIETIES— LORCS* 

THE NATIONAL RED CROSS SOCIETIES 

COMMON ORGANS 

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE RED CROSS 

The supreme deliberative body of the International Red Cross. Composed of delegations of National Red Cross, 
Red Crescent and Red Lion and Sun Societies, of the States parties to the Geneva Conventions and of the International 
Committee of the Red Cross and of the League of Red Cross Societies. Conference’s function is to secure unity of effort 
between the National Societies, the International Committee and the League. It usually meets every four years. (Last 
Conference: October 1965.) 


STANDING COMMISSION 

President: The Countess of Limerick (United Kingdom). 

The Commission meets twice a year in ordinary session. Its functions are to prepare the International Conference and 
to settle any disputes between the International Committee and the League. It consists of two members each from 
the ICRC and the League, and five members chosen by the Conference. 

MEETINGS OF THE THREE PRESIDENTS 

The President of the Standing Commission, the President of the International Committee and the Chairman of the 
Board of Governors meet once between Standing Commission meetings and whenever else they wish. They present 
a report to each Standing Commission. 


THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE RED CROSS— ICRC 

7 avenue de la Paiz, 1211 Geneva 1, Switzerland 

Founded in 1863 and assumed present title in 1880. The ICRC is the guardian of the Principles of the Red Cross 

and the Geneva Conventions. 


PRINCIPLES OF THE RED CROSS 

Humanity. 

Impartiality. 

Neutrality. 

Independence. 

Voluntary Service. The Red Cross is a voluntary organiza- 
tion not prompted in any way by desire for gain. 

Unity. There can be only one Red Cross Society in any 
one country. It must be open to all. It must carry out its 
work throughout the whole territory. 

Universality. 


GENEVA CONVENTIONS 

The first Geneva Convention (Geneva Convention for the 
Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick 
in Armed Forces in the field) was signed in 1864 by twelve 
countries. In 1929 a second Convention was approved, 
concerning the treatment of prisoners of war. 

Under the following 4 Conventions agreed in 1949 P r0 " 
tection is bestowed upon: 

x. The wounded and sick in the armed forces, doctors 
and medical personnel, chaplains. 

2. The wounded and sick and medical personnel at 
sea; the shipwrecked. 

3. Prisoners of war. 

4. Civilians. 


* ICRC and LORCS were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1963. 

250 



THE INTERNATIONAL RED CROSS 


ORGANIZATION 


INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE 
President: Samuel Alexandre Gonard. 

Vice-Presidents: Guillaume Bordier, Frederic Siordet. 
Members: Jacques Cheneviere, Martin Bodmer, 
Paul Ruegger, Rodolfo Olglati, Marguerite 
van Berchem, Adolphe Franceschetti, Hans Bach- 
mann, Jacques Freymond, Dietrich Schindler, 
Hans Meuli, Marjorie Duvillard, Mvx Petit- 
pierre, Leopold Boissier, Adolphe Graedel, 
Denise Bindschedler-Robert, Marcel Naville, 
Jacques F. de Rougemont. 

The work of the ICRC is international, but its composi- 
tion is exclusively Swiss, to ensure the neutrality essential 
for its work. Members are co-opted, and their total number 
may not exceed 25. They are subject to re-election every 
three years. Sessions are normally held once a month, and 
any important decisions must be made there. ICRC staff 
numbers about 200. 

PRESIDENTIAL COUNCIL 

Consists of the President and at least three other 
members of the Committee. Executes current work 
between sessions of the International Committee. 


DIRECTORATE 

EXECUTIVE DIRECTORATE 
Joint Director-General: Roger Gallopix. 

Deals with practical work resulting from events; controls 
the Central Tracing Agency at Geneva, for tracing 
prisoners-of-war and missing civilians, and the Inter- 
national Tracing Service at Arolsen; also responsible for 
financial and administrative affairs. 

GENERAL AFFAIRS DIRECTORATE 
Joint Director-General: Jean S. Pictet. 

Director: Claude Pilloud. 

Responsible for humanitarian law, doctrines and pub- 
lications. A liaison committee attached to the General 
Affairs Directorate deals with the ICRC’s external relations. 

FINANCE 

The ICRC’s work is financed by a voluntary annual 
grant from governments parties to the Geneva Conven- 
tions, and similar grants from National Red Cross Societies 
and the Swiss public. 


PUBLICATIONS 

The International Committee of the Red Cross — What it is — What it does. 

Topical Red Cross Nezvs (information bulletin, about 20 times annually). 
International Review of the Red Cross (monthly): French and English editions. 
Annual Reports. 

The Geneva Conventions: texts and commentaries. 


THE LEAGUE OF RED CROSS SOCIETIES— 

LORCS 

17 Chemin des Crets, Petit-Saconnex, 1211 Geneva 19, Switzerland 


Founded in 1919, by the American, British, French, Italian and Japanese Red Cross Societies to be a permanent 

organ of liaison between national societies. 


MEMBERS 

National Red Cross, Red Crescent, Red Lion and Sun 
Societies in 109 countries at the end of 1967, with an 
aggregate junior and adult membership of over 210 million. 

FUNCTIONS 

1. To facilitate, as the International Federation of the 
National Societies, their humanitarian action at all 
times and carry out the responsibilities devolving on it 
in this capacity, being a permanent organ of liaison, 
co-ordination and study among the various National 
Societies, and having the duty of assisting them in 
organizing and carrying out their work on both national 
and international level. 


2. To promote the establishment and development of an 
independent and duly authorized National Society in 
each country. 

3. To be the official representative of the Member Societies 
in the international field. 

4. To accept the mandates entrusted to it by the Inter- 
national Conference of the Red Cross and the Board 
of Governors. 

FINANCE 

The League of Red Cross Societies is financed by the 
contributions of Member Societies on a pro-rata basis. 
Each relief action is financed by contributions specified 
for that action and the development programme is also 
financed independently by National Societies. 


251 


THE INTERNATIONAL RED CROSS 


ORGANIZATION 


BOARD OF GOVERNORS 
Chairman: Jos£ Barroso ChAvez (Mexico) 

The Board is the highest authority of the League and 
meets every two years. It is composed of representatives 
from all National Societies Members of the League. 
Meetings: 1961 Prague 1963 Geneva 

1965 Vienna 1967 The Hague 

1969 Istanbul 


EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

Meets every two years, alternately with the Board of 
Governors. It is composed of representatives from the 
Societies to which the Chairman and seven Vice-Chairmen 
of the Board of Governors belong and from nineteen other 
Societies appointed by the Board of Governors for a 
four-year term. It directs the League between sessions of 
the Board of Governors. 


ADVISORY COMMITTEES AND STANDING FINANCE COMMISSION 

Disaster Relief Advisory Committee. Nursing Advisory Committee. 

Health and Social Service Advisory Committee. Standing Pinance Commission. 

Junior Red Cross Advisory Committee. 

These Committees meet, in principle, once every two years. Members are elected by the Board of Governors and 
number between 10 and 16 except the Standing Finance Commission which numbers 14. 


SECRETARIAT 

Secretary-General: Henrik Beer (Sweden). 

Deputy Secretary-General: Nedim Abut (Turkey). 

Under Secretary-General: William Ii. Dabney (U.S.A.;. 
Treasurer-General: Baron van Zeeland (Belgium). 


The Secretariat has a staff of 105 from some 20 countries. 
Its work falls into two main categories, relief in times of 
■natural disaster and development of National Societies. The 
League is recognized by the United Nations as the main 
co-ordinating agency in emergency stages of international 
disaster relief, and launches an appeal if requested by the 
National Society, or the government, of the country 
concerned. In the field of development, three sections 
—Training, Planning and Execution, in consultation and 
close co-operation with the technical bureaux — provide 
assistance on request to National Societies in process of 
formation or development by means of regional, field and 
technical delegates, regional seminars and conferences, and 
help established National Societies develop and extend 
existing services and set up new ones if and when the need 
arises. 

TECHNICAL BUREAUX 

Health and Social Service, promoting and co-ordinating 
A ational Societies’ activities in first aid, preventive 
medicine, organization of blood transfusion services and 
donor recruitment and social welfare activities. 

Nursing, which reinforces the efforts of National 
Societies to improve recruitment and training of nursing 
personnel for their own health programmes and state 


needs, provides documentation for basic and post-basic 
nursing schools, training of auxiliary nursing personnel 
and development of "Health in the Home" instruction. 

Junior Red Cross, which co-ordinates youth programme 
of three points — protection of life and health, service and 
international understanding — designed to encourage young 
people to contribute actively to the promotion of good 
health in their families, schools, communities and the 
world: there are junior or youth sections in over 90 
countries with membership of over 75,000,000 ranging 
between ages 5 to 25. 

Information, which provides National Societies with 
publications, photographs, films, tape recordings and other 
audio-visual materials, maintains constant contact with 
international information media; is responsible for all 
League publications, in particular the monthly review 
Panorama. All periodicals appear in English, French and 
Spanish. 

The League maintains close relations with many inter- 
governmental organizations, in particular the World 
Health Organization, the United Nations High Com- 
missioner for Refugees and UNESCO, and non-govern- 
mental organizations. 



INTERNATIONAL SECRETARIAT FOR VOLUNTEER 

SERVICE— ISVS 


1000 16th St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036, U.S.A. 

Telephone: 382-S4S0. 

Established 1962 to support and assist national volunteer service programmes. Members: 4S governments. 


ORGANIZATION 


ASSEMBLY 

Composed of governments of 48 countries attending the 
1962 Puerto Rico Conference on Human Skills and others 
interested in the promotion of volunteer service. 

COUNCIL 

Composed of 13 governments who contribute to the 
support of ISVS, either in the form of cash or in the 
provision of personnel, and who approve the programme 
and policy of the ISVS. 

SECRETARIAT 

Responsible for the executive functions of the organiza- 
tion. 


Secretary-General: Michael U. R. vox Schexk (Switzer- 
land). 

REGIONAL OFFICES 

Europe: ISVS European Office, Bezuidenhoutseweg 153, 
The Hague, Netherlands. 

Asia: ISVS Asian Office, c/o PACD, Port Area, Manila, 
Philippines. 

Latin America: Secretaria International para el Scrvicio 
Voluntario, Oficina de Latinoamerica, Calle Defensa 
120, 6mo Piso, Oficina 47, Buenos Aires, Argentina. 


AIMS 


1. To support and assist national volunteer programmes 
by serving as an information and experience exchange 
clearing house. 

2. To encourage the formation of new national volunteer 
service programmes. 

3. To provide technical assistance where requested in 
the setting up and support of national volunteer service 


organizations, both those for service overseas and those 
within their own borders. 

4. To co-operate with other organizations, international, 
governmental and private in working to increase and 
improve volunteer service, and to increase the supply of 
skilled manpower in the developing countries. 


ACTIVITIES 


1. Circulation of volunteer information, documentation 
and statistics, films, language and other training materials 
for volunteers. 

2. Sponsorship of international and regional conferences 
and seminars about volunteer service and related subjects. 


3. Technical assistance for the establishment of national 
volunteer organizations. 

4. Aid to co-ordination of volunteer service. 


FINANCE 

The Secretariat is financed by Council member govern- 
ments. 


PUBLICATIONS 

The International Volunteer. 

Statistical Summary of Volunteers (bi-annual). 


253 


INTER -PARLIAMENTARY UNION 

Place du Petit-Saconnex, 1211 Geneva 19, Switzerland 


Founded in 1889 to promote personal contacts among the members of the world’s parliaments. 
World membership: 68 Parliamentary Groups. 


ORGANIZATION 


INTER-PARLIAMENTARY CONFERENCE 

Meets once a year. National Groups are represented by 
Delegations consisting of Members of Parliament. Confer- 
ence adopts resolutions on subjects referred to it by the 
Inter-Parliamentary Council. 


Recent Conferences 


1953 

Washington 

i960 

Tokjm 

1954 

Vienna 

1961 

Brussels 

1955 

Helsinki 

1962 

Brasilia 

1956 

Bangkok 

1963 

Belgrade 

1957 

London 

1964 

Copenhagen 

1958 

Rio de Janeiro 

1965 

Ottawa 

1959 

Warsaw 

1966 

Teheran 


Forthcoming Conferences will be held in 1968 in Lima 
and in 1969 in New Delhi. 

INTER-PARLIAMENTARY COUNCIL 

The directing organ of the Union. Composed of two mem- 
bers from each affiliated National Group. The Council 
convenes Inter-Parliamentary Conferences, fixes their 
agenda, approves the annual budget of the Union and 
appoints the Secretary General. 

Acting President: Abderrahman Abdennebi (Tunisia). 


EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

The administrative organ of the Union. It supervises 
the work of the Inter-Parliamentary Bureau. The President 
of the Council is ex officio a member and President of the 
Committee. 

Vice-President: J. Vilfan (Yugoslavia). 

Members: E. Q. Daddario (U.S.A.), C. de Baeck (Bel- 
gium), J. M. Dessureault (Canada), D. Hacohen 
(Israel), L. Gueye (Senegal), A. Matine-Daftary 
(Iran), M. de Aranegui (Spain), J. K. Wende 
(Poland), J. Virolainen (Finland). 


INTER-PARLIAMENTARY BUREAU 

The Secretariat of the Union. It maintains contacts with 
the National Inter-Parliamentary Groups, organizes 
meetings held under the auspices of the Union; carries out 
study programmes and issues publications. 

Secretary General: Andr£ de Blonay (Switzerland). 
Assistant Secretary General: James Douglas (Great 
Britain) . 


AIMS AND ACTIVITIES 


Ihe Union promotes personal contacts among members 
of all Parliaments constituted into National Groups with a 
view to establishing and developing firm democratic 
institutions and to advance international peace and 
co-operation. 

The Union organizes conferences bringing together 
parliamentarians of different nationalities and ideologies 
to study objectively political, economic, social and cultural 
problems of international significance. 

The Union has consultative status. Category A, with the 
Economic and Social Council of the United Nations 


(ECOSOC). It has entered into consultative arrangements 
with UNESCO and also maintains regular contact with 
other UN specialized agencies. Co-operation also exists 
with the Inter-Parliamentary Union of the Nordic Coun- 
tries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden), 
the Consultative Inter-Parliamentary Council of Benelux 
(Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg), the Regional Inter- 
parliamentary Group set up by the members of the Union 
in the two Americas, the Latin American Parliament, and 
the Arab Parliamentary Union set up by representatives 
from the Parliaments of Jordan, Kuwait and the United 
Arab Republic in 1965. 


BUDGET 

Contributions from National Groups are the main source 
of revenue. These are paid annually on a scale fixed by the 
Council. The Union’s budget is about 700,000 Swiss francs 
yearly. 


PUBLICATIONS 

Inter-Parliamentary Bulletin, Constitutional and Parlia- 
mentary Information. 


254 



JOINT INSTITUTE FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH 

(OBEDINENNYI INSTITUT YADERNYCH ISSLEDOVANII) 


Dubna, near Moscow, U.S.S.R. 

Postal Address: Head Post Office P.O. Box 79, Moscow, U.S.S.R. 


The Joint Institute at Dubna was founded at an international conference in Moscow in March 1956, its purpose 
being the furthering of collaboration in nuclear research between the member countries. 


MEMBERS 


Albania 

Bulgaria 

China, People’s Republic* 

Czechoslovakia 

German Democratic Republic 

Hungary 


Korea, People’s Democratic Republic 

Mongolia People’s Republic 

Poland 

Romania 

U.S.S.R. 

Viet-Nam, Democratic Republic 


* Withdrew her scientists in July 1966. 


ORGANIZATION 


COMMITTEE OF 

GOVERNMENT PLENIPOTENTIARIES 

The Committee is the supreme authority of the Joint 
Institute. It is composed of the chairmen or heads of the 
atomic energy authorities of member countries. The 
Committee meets about once a year, and makes decisions 
about future policy, and finance. 

SCIENTIFIC COUNCIL 

Chairman: Academician N. N. Bogolubov (U.S.S.R.). 

Plans the programme of work. Composed of senior 
scientists from the member countries. 


MANAGEMENT 

Director: Academician N. N. Bogolubov (U.S.S.R.). 

Vice- Directors: Prof. A. Hrynkiewicz (Poland), Prof. 

N. Sodnom (Mongolia People's Republic). 
Administrative Manager: V. L. Karfovsky. 

Broad executive powers are vested in the Director. The 
Management carries out all practical work of the Institute 
between meetings of the Committee. The Director and 
Vice-Directors are elected by the Committee. 


RESEARCH LABORATORIES 


LABORATORY OF NUCLEAR PROBLEMS 
Director: Prof. V. P. Dzhelepov. 

This laboratory has a synchrocyclotron that accelerates 
protons to 680 MeV, dcutrons to 420 MeV, and alpha- 
particles to 840 MeV and is a powerful source of 600 MeV 
neutrons and charged and neutral mesons. This accelerator 
started operating in 1949. The main directions of research 
at this laboratory arc the investigation of nucleon-nucleon 
scattering, the processes of pion production and their 
interaction with nucleons, the investigation of /i-meson 
properties and weak interaction processes, and the 
interaction of nucleons and mesons with complex nuclei. 

The Laboratory also has a Radio-chemical Laboratory. 


LABORATORY OF HIGH ENERGIES 
Director: Prof. I. V. Chuvilo. 

The Laboratory has a 10 BeV synchrophasotron that has 
been operating since 1957. 

Experimental investigations arc carried out with 
protons and secondary particles. The experiments are 
devoted to the study of nucleon structure problems, strong 
interactions of strange particles and weak interaction 
processes. In i960 the laboratory discovered the anti- 
sigma minus hyperon. 


JOINT INSTITUTE FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH 


laboratory of theoretical physics 

Director: Prof. D. I. Blokhintsev. 

This Laboratory works on the problems of field theory, 
the theory of elementary particles, nucleon structure, the 
phenomenological theory of scattering, and the use of 
superconductivity methods to the atomic nucleus. 

LABORATORY OF NEUTRON PHYSICS 
Director: Prof. I. M. Frank. 

An experimental fast neutron pulse reactor came into 
operation in i960. It is being used for research in low- 
energy physics and neutron spectrometry, and for studying 
the structure of matter. Nuclear reactions induced by light 
nuclei are studied with the aid of the laboratory electro- 
static generator. 

LABORATORY OF NUCLEAR REACTIONS 
Director: Prof. G. N. Flerov. 

In ig6o a cyclotron of multiple-charged ions came into 
operation. It is used to produce powerful beams of various 
ions up to the light-charged 320 MeV ion Ar. In 1962 a new 


HISTORY 

In 1946 work was begun on the 680 MeV synchrocyclo- 
tron at Dubna. In 1949, when it was put into operation, 
the Institute of Nuclear Problems of the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences was set up. In 1957 the 10 GeV synchrophastron 
of the Electrophysical Laboratory of the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences was completed and the two installations formed 
the centre of a new town named Dubna, 80 miles from 
Moscow. In 1956 these two large research institutes were 
handed over to the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research 
and Dubna became an international centre. During the 
following years the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research 
founded four new Laboratories: the Laboratory of 
Theoretical Physics, the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, 
the Laboratory of Neutron Physics and the Laboratory of 
Computing and Automation. 

There are over 3,000 stall at the Institute. Scientists of 
other member states make liaison visits and work at the 
J oint Institute for Nuclear Research laboratories for short 
and long periods of time. 


type of nuclear radioactivity — proton radioactivity was 
discovered, in 1963 a new isotope of the 102 element with 
a mass number of 256 was synthesised, in 1964 the 104 
element was synthesised. The chemical properties of 
transuranium elements are studied at the laboratory. 

LABORATORY OF COMPUTING 
AND AUTOMATION 

Director: Prof. M. G. Mescheryakov. 

This Laboratory was founded in 1966, its purpose being 
the centralization of computing and data handling 
facilities at JINR. 

The main directions of the laboratory activities are the 
creation and operation of systems for analysis of data 
collected on film, development of automatic flying sport 
devices for scanning and measuring chamber films, 
organization of measuring centres at other Laboratories of 
the Institute and development of mathematical methods 
and programmes for data processing as supplied to 
problems of elementary particle physics. 


BUDGET 


CONTRIBUTORS 

% 


U.S.S.R 

47- 2 5 

China, People’s Republic 

20.00 

German Democratic Republic 

6.74 

Poland .... 

6-75 

Czechoslovakia . 

5-74 

Romania .... 

5-74 

Hungary .... 

3-99 

Bulgaria .... 

3-59 

Albania . 

0.05 

Mongolian People’s Republic 

0.05 

Korean People’s Republic 

0.05 

Viet-Nam, Democratic Republic 

0.05 


256 



LATIN AMERICAN FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION 

LAFTA— ALALC 

(ASOCIACION LATINO — AMERICANA DE LIBRE COMgRCIO— ALALC) 

(ASSOGIAQAO LATINO-AMERICANA DE LIVRE COM^RCIO) 

Cebollati 1461, Casilla de Correo 577, Montevideo, Uruguay 

The Latin American Free Trade Association was set up in February i960. It aims at an eventual South American 

Common Market. 

MEMBERS 

Argentina Ecuador 

Brazil Mexico 

Chile Paraguay 

Colombia 

ORGANIZATION 

PERMANENT EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

The Committee, consisting of one representative of each 
contracting party, is the Permanent body of the Associa- 
tion and is responsible for supervising the implementation 
of the provisions of the Treaty. Among its regular duties 
are the convoking of the Conference of Contracting Parties, 
to submit to the Conference an annual progress report and 
budget, to represent the Association, to carry out studies, 
suggest measures and submit recommendations to the 
Conference and to apply for technical assistance and 
collaboration. 

President (1967): Alfonso Cortina Gutierrez (Mexico). 

SECRETARIAT 

The Executive Secretary is General Secretary of the 
Conference and is elected by it for a term of three years. 
The appointment is renewable. 

Executive Secretary: Gustavo Magarinos (Uruguay), 
elected June 1967. 

Deputy Executive Secretaries: Elvio Baldinell (Argen- 
tina), Cesar Venegas (Peru). 


CONFERENCE OF CONTRACTING PARTIES 

The Conference of Contracting Parties is the supreme 
authority of the Association and will make all decisions on 
matters that require a joint resolution of the Contracting 
Parties. Among its duties will be to take steps towards the 
implementation of the Treaty, to approve the annual 
Budget, to fix contributions, to elect a President and two 
Vice-Presidents and to appoint the Executive Secretary 
of the Permanent Executive Committee. It will meet in 
ordinary session once a year and in extraordinary session 
when convened by the Permanent Executive Committee. 

In November 1965, the Conference agreed to the setting 
up of a Council of Foreign Ministers, considering that the 
evolution of the integration process would be facilitated if 
those responsible for the external policies of LAlTTA 
members could meet regularly to adopt resolution^ at 
political level. The Council meets annually in Extra- 
ordinary Periods of Sessions of the Conference. 


Peru 

Uruguay 

Venezuela 


MEETINGS 


i960 Treaty of Montevideo signed, February. 

Provisional Committee of Montevideo established, 
April. 

'96i First Period of Sessions of the Conference and 
establishment of the Permanent Executive Com- 
mittee, July. 

1962 Extraordinary Period of Sessions of the Conference, 
January. 

*962 Second Period of Sessions of the Conference, 
Mexico City, August. 

*963 Third Period of Sessions of the Conference, Monte- 
video, October. 

*964 Second Extraordinary Period of Sessions of the 
Conference, Montevideo, May. 

Fourth Period of Sessions of the Conference, 
Bogota, November. 


1965 Meeting of Foreign Ministers, Montevideo, Novem- 

ber. 

Fifth Period of Sessions of the Conference, Monte- 
video, November. 

1966 Sixth Period of Sessions of the Conference, Monte- 

video, October. 

First Meeting of the Council of Foreign Ministers 
(Third Extraordinary Period of Sessions of the 
Conference), Montevideo, December. 

1967 Fourth Extraordinary Period of Sessions of the 
Conference, Montevideo, June-August. 

Fifth Extraordinary Period of Sessions of the 
Conference, Montevideo, July. 

Second Meeting of the Council of Foreign Ministers 
(Sixth Extraordinary Period of the Sessions of the 
Conference), Asuncion, September. 

Seventh Period of Sessions of the Conference, 
Montevideo, Octobcr-Decembcr. 



LATIN AMERICAN FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION 


FUNCTIONS 


To reduce tarifi and other trade barriers gradually 
over twelve years by two means, the National Lists and a 
Common List. 

The National Lists form the basis for reductions of 
tarifi and trade barriers between the member countries. 
Each country shall present annually a list of those com- 
modities on which it is prepared to concede reductions and 
agreement between the members shall be reached by 
negotiation. These reductions shall be made at an annual 
rate of 8 per cent. When the Treaty came into force only 
seven countries bad reached agreement on their National 
Lists, but in January 1962 Colombia presented her list 
and Ecuador joined the negotiations in August 1962. 
Venezuela joined the negotiations during the Sixth 
Conference and Bolivia joined them during the Seventh 
Conference. 

The Common List includes those products on which 
complete exemption from all duties and charges shall 


obtain within the Free Trade Zone. The products represen- 
ted on this list shall represent at least 25 per cent of the 
total trade of the area during the first three years, 50 
per cent during the second three year period, 75 per cent 
during the third three year period, and the greater part of 
the inter-alia trade during the final three year period. 

The first Common List was agreed in 1964 and negotia- 
tions for the second were begun in December 1967. 

The Treaty includes special provisions for more favour- 
able terms for less developed countries. Paraguay has 
already obtained benefits under this clause, which also 
covers Ecuador, Bolivia and, to some extent, Uruguay. 

At the Second Meeting of Foreign Ministers in Septem- 
ber 1967, a Co-ordinating Committee was established 
between LAFTA and CACM (Central American Common 
Market) to devise methods for combining the two organiza- 
tions into a Latin American Common Market. 


TREATY 


Chapter 1 
Chapter 2 

Chapter 3 

Chapter 4 
Chapter 5 
Chapter 6 


Name and Objects. 

Trade Liberalization Programme (transition 
period not exceeding twelve years) . 
Expansion of Trade and Economic Integra- 
tion. 

Most-Favoured-Nation Treatment. 
Arrangements concerning Internal Taxation. 
Escape Clauses. 


Chapter 

7 

Special Provisions for Agriculture. 

Chapter 

8 

Measures in Favour of Less-Developed 
Countries. 

Chapter 

9 

Structure of the Association. 

Chapter 

10 

Legal Personality — Immunities and Privi- 
leges. 

Chapter 

11 

Miscellaneous Rulings. 

Chapter 

12 

Final Clauses. 


ANDEAN DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION 

(CORPORACK5N ANDINA DE FOMENTO) 


In August 1966, representatives from Chile, Colombia, 
Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela met in Bogotd and signed a 
pact calling for accelerated regional integration measures 
to facilitate the establishment of a Latin American 
Common Market. In June 1967, at the close of the fifth 
Inter-American ECOSOC conference at Vina del Mar, the 
Andean Development Corporation was founded, and a 
Mixed Commission of delegates from the five countries 
was formed. The Corporation, at present a private body 
but later to become public, is based in Caracas and has an 
initial capital of $50 million. 


In July 1967 the Mixed Commission held its second 
meeting in Quito to draw up a sub-regional planning 
agreement. This agreement covers co-operation on develop- 
ment projects, particularly in the petrochemical, iron and 
steel, automobile and electronics industries, and also in- 
cludes provisions for the eventual establishment of a 
common external tariff for the region and plans for co- 
ordinating national economic policies. The text of the 
agreement was approved by the Council of LAFTA 
Foreign Ministers in September 1967. 


258 



LATIN AMERICAN FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION 

STATISTICS* 


EXTERNAL TRADE 

{$ million) 




Imports 

Exports 



1965 

1966 

1965 

1966 

Country 











From 

World 

From 

ALALC 

(LAFTA) 

From 

World 

From 

ALALC 

(LAFTA) 

To 

World 

To 

ALALC 

(LAFTA) 

To 

World 

To 

ALALC 

(LAFTA) 


Argentina 


1,198 

256 

1,124 

227 

1.493 

231 

1.593 

243 

Brazil . 


1,096 

190 

1,496 

167 

1.595 

i97 

1. 74 1 

1S1 

Chile 


604 

122 

757 

141 

688 

53 

881 

54 

Colombia 


454 

38 

674 

56 

539 

W 

508 

29 

Ecuador 


165 

9 

172 

S 

117 

13 

155 

12 

Mexico . 


1,560 

30 

1,605 

34 

I, III 

36 

1.037 

57 

Paraguay 


52 

II 

58 

14 

57 

18 

49 

20 

Peru 


730 

81 

817 

9i 

668 

54 

764 

52 

Uruguay 


151 

32 

164 

46 

191 

16 

186 

27 

Total . 

• 

6,009 

769 

1,867 

784 

6.459 

635 

6,914 

675 


TRADE BY COUNTRY 
($ 'ooo) 


Argentina 



1965 

1966 

Imports 

Exports 

Imports 

Exports 

Brazil 


162,600 

107,100 

132,097 

98,908 

Chile . 


29,100 

53.400 

3U554 

58,127 

Colombia . 


6,400 

7,100 

10,167 

10,504 

Ecuador 


2,400 

600 

2.893 

456 

Mexico 


7,200 

6,700 

11.993 

8,558 

Paraguay . 


19,500 

10,600 

18,044 

11,462 

Peru . 


23,300 

37,600 

14,820 

43.267 

Uruguay 


5,200 

8,000 

5,106 

11,418 

Total ALALC. 

255,700 

231,100 

226,674 

242,700 


Chile 



1965 

1966 

Imports 

Exports 

Imports 

Exports 

Argentina . 

51,200 

26,500 

64,449 

27.794 

Brazil 

20,700 

14,100 

26,833 

9.063 

Colombia . 

700 

1,900 

919 

3.317 

Ecuador 

3.5oo 

1,400 

5.602 

1,322 

Mexico 

lS,9oo 

2,800 

17.015 

4.76" 

Paraguay . 

1,100 

— 

i .447 

48 

Peru . 

24,000 

4 ,600 

17.614 

4.464 

Uruguay 

1,500 

1,900 

7.064 

2,9tS 

Total ALALC. 

121,600 

53.200 

140.943 

53.673 


Brazil 



1965 

1966 

Imports 

Exports 

Imports 

Exports 

Argentina . 

I3L994 

140,914 

116,964 

113.0S6 

Chile . 

27,023 

I9A47 

17.429 

22,639 

Colombia . 

960 

2,829 

857 

6,89s 

Ecuador 

3S 

172 

20 

293 

Mexico 

9,177 

9,101 

14.803 

6,162 

Paraguay . 

47i 

2,250 

274 

2,545 

Peru . 

12,375 

n.853 

7.2S6 

2,S6i 

Uruguay 

8,373 

11,140 

9,410 

20,028 

Total ALALC. 

190,411 

197,406 

167,043 

181,512 


Colombia 



1965 

1966 

Imports 

Exports 

Imports 

Exports 

Argentina . 

9,840 

5.154 

13.161 

11,718 

Brazil 

3,108 

377 

7.344 

460 

Chile . 

2,296 

755 

3.4SS 

1,262 

Ecuador 

6,667 

3,928 

4.972 

5.H2 

Mexico 

5.S07 

517 

9.S05 

640 

Paraguay . 

37 

192 

19 

iSS 

Peru . 

4.737 

5.10S 

10,276 

0,461 

Uruguay 

5,S6o 

279 

6,874 

263 

Total ALALC. 

3S.352 

16.700 


20,1 II 


Figures are not available for Venezuela, which joined the Association in October 1066. 

259 

























LATIN AMERICAN FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION 


Ecuador 



1965 

1966 

Imports 

Exports 

Imports 

Exports 

Argentina . 


2,690 

521 

2,929 

Brazil 


5 

291 

19 

Chile . 


1,462 

1,702 

3.725 

Colombia . 

4.441 

6,311 

4,271 

4A97 

Mexico 

1.427 

165 

879 

602 

Paraguay . 

4 

25 

7 

36 

Peru . 

594 

2,048 

552 

941 

Uruguay 

131 

345 

126 

78 

Total ALALC . 

8,876 

13.051 

8,349 

12,527 


Mexico 



1965 

1966 

Imports 

Exports 

Imports 

Exports 

Argentina . 

7. 8 47 

7.385 

9,495 

9,549 

Brazil 

11,085 

5>427 

7.383 

19,559 

Chile . 

3,527 

12,267 

5,820 

11,693 

Colombia . 

489 

5,524 

913 

8,317 

Ecuador 

183 

L 3 I 3 

533 

1,087 

Paraguay . 


81 

96 

167 

Peru . 

4,817 

3,5i7 

8,079 

4.598 

Uruguay 

1,710 

831 

1.374 

1,695 

Total ALALC. 

29,674 

36,345 

33,693 

56,665 


Paraguay 



1965 

1966 

Imports 

Exports 

Imports 

Exports 

Argentina . 

10,231 

H,723 

11,429 

15.746 

Brazil 

653 

14 

1, 7i5 

169 

Chile . 

36 

255 

18 

911 

Colombia . 

137 

15 

123 

7 

Ecuador 

42 

12 

38 

3 

Mexico 

62 

II 

109 

37 

Peru . 

l6 

114 

4 

187 

Uruguay 

214 

2,223 

871 

2,895 

Total ALALC. 

ii,39i 

17.495 

14,317 

19,954 


Peru 



1965 

1966 

Imports 

Exports 

Imports 

Exports 

Argentina . 

49,200 

19,600 

52,659 

13,675 

Brazil 

9,300 

5,300 

5,036 

5,294 

Chile . 

7,000 

17,400 

8,383 

15,051 

Colombia . 

4.500 

4,3oo 

12,760 

8,172 

Ecuador 

4,200 

1,400 

5,645 

1,126 

Mexico 

3.700 

4.300 

4U99 

6,964 

Paraguay . 

500 


422 

12 

Uruguay 

2,500 

1,700 

2,357 

1,978 

Total ALALC. 

80,900 

54,000 

91,481 

52,272 


Uruguay 



1965 

1966 

Imports 

Exports 

Imports 

Exports 

Argentina . 


8,823 

3,097 

11,922 

5A97 

Brazil 


13.472 

5,373 

22,250 

10,642 

Chile . 


2,077 

906 

2,437 

2,955 

Colombia . 


336 

4.638 

389 

5,166 

Ecuador 


261 

7i 

94 

93 

Mexico 


2,542 


2,552 

261 

Paraguay . 


2,818 

210 

4,272 

772 

Peru . 


i ,754 

1,026 

2,114 

1,665 

Total ALALC . 

32,083 

15.582 

46,030 

26,751 

































THE LENIN PRIZE COMMITTEE 


Peace: Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R., Kremlin, Moscow 
Science and Technology: 29/14 Neglinnaya ul., Moscow K-51. 
Literature and Arts: 15 Neglinnaya u!., Moscow K-51. 


ORGANIZATION 


INTERNATIONAL LENIN PEACE PRIZE 
COMMITTEE 

Chairman: Dmitry Skobkltsyn. 

Vice-Chairman: Louis Aragon. 

Members: Grigory Alexandrov, J. D. Bernal, Anna 
Sehgers, Pablo Neruda, Sahib Singh Sokiiey, 
Juan Marinello, Kaoru Yasui, Re.nato Guttuso, 
Jan Malek. 

The Prizes 

The Committee is authorized to award as many as five 
prizes every two years. Each prize is worth 25,000 roubles. 

THE COMMITTEE FOR SCIENCE 
AND TECHNOLOGY 

Chairman: M. V. Keldysh, President of the Academy of 
Sciences of the U.S.S.R. 

The Committee consists of 11S outstanding scientists 
and workers in industry and agriculture. 


The Prizes 

The Committee may award every two years up to 
twelve prizes for scientific work, and not more than thirty 
prizes for work in the field of engineering. Each prize is 
worth 7,500 roubles. 

The prizes are awarded for the most outstanding achieve- 
ments in scientific research and experiment making a 
contribution to science and engineering. 

THE COMMITTEE FOR LITERATURE, 

FINE ARTS AND ARCHITECTURE 
Chairman: X. S. Tikhonov. 

The Committee consists of 59 leading intellectuals, who 
inav be writers, composers, musicians, artists and actors. 

The Prizes 

The Committee awards every two years up to 16 prizes 
for works in literature, graphic art, music, dramatic art, 
and cinematography which have won broad recognition in 
the country. The prizes are awarded on April 2 cud. the 
anniversary of Lenin's birth. Each prize is worth 10,000 
roubles. 


PRIZEWINNERS, 19BG 


Peace: Miguel Angel Asturias, Joseph Peter Curtis, t 
Giacomo Manzu, Ziiamsaranghn Sambu, Miriam ; 
Vire-Tuominen. 1 

Science: A. A. Abrikosov, L. P. Gorc.ov, V. L. Ginzburg, 

A. S. Davidov, A. F. Prikhotko, V. L. Bkoudk, 

A. F. Lubciienko, M. S. Brodin, E. I. Nashua, E. F. j 
Gross, B. P. Zakharchenja, A. A. Kaplvansky, j 
II. V. Eeimov. Y. I. Juravljov, O. B. Lupanov. 1 
S. V. Yablonsky, V. K. Ivanov, A. X. Tikhonov, 

A. X. Nesmkyanov, X. P. Dubinin, S. A. Keyniierg. j 

Technology: M. V. Yasilchikov, V. F. Mukonin, M. V. [ 
Baruarich, M. 1 Basov, I. I. Kikiciunsky, X. A. j 
Siilyamn, V. V. Yakimankkv, 1. I. Kiselev, I. X. 
SlIKLYAROV, X. A. Bruin, S. M. IvIIAMN, I. P. SMIRNOV. 

S. V. VoRomr.v, X. A. Kovalev, A. V. Butuzov. V. D. | 


V>. REITS 

KV, 

M. 

X 

Krv 

mov, X. A. Mai 

vr.i.v, 

B. 

A 

Beit i.in 

. I- 

V. 

S\' 

►KOI.. 

V I. Z. Ilih R 

nr kg. 

K. 

I.. 

Baskin. 

V. 

K. 

Li 


v. S. j, Kccur 

V \t; 

SEN 

KO, 


* ‘ # * • * * 1 

S". A. Sm.onovNiKov. 1 . A Korop \nov. 1 ). P. Br.*i:>’. \ 

K ! Bl'MENs-ON. C. ! Bi, \ godarev. Y. 1 Lobanov. 

S V. MtKHAII.OV. M !. Xl EJMIN. A. V. K APINOVK’il. • 

P E. Tkhor. 1* \ Yazov. E. Y. Gokoiov. Y. V. < 
t‘r cm ne.is, V A! Tci ma vn i!. 1 . A Tii man. V K ' 


CtlELNOKOV, V. B. SCHUMAN, I. V. Gre.khov, 1. I. 
Y.asiliev, L. X’. Krylov, A. D. Bulkin’. I. G. Uchai- 
kin, D. A. Dosmukhambetov, B. 1'. Dvakov, X. X. 
Cherepanov, S. Ese.nov. E. I. Ivanov, X. U. Ivashev, 
V. G. Matveev, K. M a k i t am n e. r o v, K. Z. Uzbekga- 
liev. V. P. Tokarev, K. B. Ashirov, A. I. Gup a'.ov. 


Y. I. 

Kolgas 

ov. 

M. 

G. Osir 

ov. B 

E. Sazonc.- 

, ■> t 

L 

Sur.n 

ucnr.v. 

r’. 

B. 

Ivanov 

1>. 

A. T.AKOV! a 

1 

, i 

l. 

Kh.\: 

-IN, V. 

i. : 

Un 

aAVUIN'K 

o, A. 

7 . Dubinin 

, B 

V 

Sum. 

ISHNIKOV, G. I 

Suj:;-.o\ 

■, x. 

China k -j 

N 

% * 
** 

Esin 

A. A. 

Zt 

NO' 

TKV. P. 


Em e i. van" v 

L. 

I 


NOV, I. 

A. 

Ki 

J'KJ.l.V, 

A. K 

Sj»ori n>n 


V 

Bari 

NKO, K 

V. 

> r 

SKAKOV. 

E. G 

. Cill'.ENI! 


G 

Vov: 

uv. A. I 

. o 


>v. A. G 

S ! I A I 

sve-v, I. F 

k'e . 

iV 


E. S Kalinnikov, ,\ S Tochiniakv, 1. A I/m ; nh 
E. S. Golikov, V. X. Gusarov, A. I. Markelov, A. A. 
Vlasov, M. V. Kim. p. M. Muraviev, a I. Stmu, 
L. I. Ani imov. L. A. Koj-t/i:, I. Y. M \ 

BitaI'C.e. V. S. Xi:i''-Kov.':'ir-.EV, X X Lacaeiv, 
B I ,v Lp.aiilov, Y. X. K-kvaDa. Y \ s » cap iV, 
X r . A. Kalinin. 

Lileralurc nr.d ArtJ • r-.-.p* : M A sv.--.inv. K a Kav 
LA M«>rv, Ye I. i’jMi V 5; V- < :i . ... .... 



THE MAGHREB PERMANENT CONSULTATIVE 

COMMITTEE 


(COMITY PERMANENT CONSULTATIF DU MAGHREB) 
c/o Ambassade du Maroc, Tunis, Tunisia 


A permanent committee for economic co-ordination, meeting four times a year. 


MEMBERS 

Algeria Libya Morocco Tunisia 


ORGANIZATION 


Secretariat: c/o Ambassade du Maroc, Tunis, Tunisia; 
f. 1965; Pres. Mohamed Cherkaoui; mems. K. AbdellaH 
Khodja (Algeria), Mohamed Ayoub (Libya), Chadli 
Tnani (Tunisia), Abdelkader Benslimane (Morocco); 
Sec. Abdeelayib FLvmkv, budget $U.S. 100,000, provided 
by equal donations from the member states. 

Centre of Industrial Research: Tripoli, Libya; f. 1964; 
annual budget $U.S. am., to be provided by the UN and 
the Maghreb states; Head of UN Advisory Mission Faghi 
Nassr (Iran). 

Maghreb Commission on Trading Relations: Rabat, 
Morocco; established 1965 to study the market co-ordina- 
tion of the four main crops of the Maghreb region, olive oil, 
citrus, esparto grass and wine. 


Permanent Citrus Committee: f. 1965. 

Permanent Wine Committee: f. 1965. 

Committee of Experts on Olive Oil: f. 1 965 ■ 

Maghreb Esparto Bureau: Algiers, Algeria; f. 1965. 
Maritime Transport Commission: Tunis, Tunisia. 

Road Transport Commission: Tunis, Tunisia; f. 1966. 
Railway Transport Commission: Algiers, Algeria; f. 1966. 

The following committees have also been established: 
Maghreb Industry Committee. 

Air Transport Committee. 

Post and Telecommunications Committee. 

Roads Committee. 

Tourist Trade Committee. 

Trade Relations Committee. 


RECORD OF 

1964 

November Routine meeting of the Economic Ministers 
of the four Maghreb countries, Tangier. Two 
bodies to be set up: the permanent consulta- 
tive committee, which would implement 
decisions on economic co-ordination; and an 
institute of industrial studies, which would 
harmonise joint industrial planning. 

The four countries should work towards the 
establishment of a tariff union and towards 
joint negotiation with outside institutions 
and organizations. 

1965 

March First meeting of the Permanent Consultative 
Committee, Algiers. Inner organization and 
operation of the Committee: three commis- 
sions appointed: one to draw up a schedule of 
the economies of the four countries, in order to 
be able eventually to establish relations with 
theimportant economic communities; a foreign 
trade commission to consider means of 
co-ordinating the export of citrus fruits, 
wines, esparto and olive oil, and to study 
the problems of duty-free trade within the 
Maghreb; and a commission to study the 
co-ordination of industry and energy, and to 
seek markets for Maghrebi industrial products. 


EVENTS 

May Meeting of the Maghreb Economic Ministers, 

Tripoli. Plans agreed for the co-ordination of 
exports of citrus fruits, wines, esparto and 
olive oil. An esparto bureau established in 
Algiers to handle the exports of all four 
countries. Special commissions set up for 
statistics, accounting, and the steel industry, 
and it was agreed to study improvement of 
telecommunication links. Secretariat for the 
Consultative Committee established. 
December Meeting of Consultative Committee, Algiers. 

Studied reports on co-ordination of transport 
and tourism in the Maghreb, and on industry 
and postal and telecommunications agree- 
ments. 

1966 

February Fourth annual meeting of the Maghreb 
Economic Ministers, Algiers. Plans agreed for 
establishment of a permanent secretariat in 
Tunis, under direction of Mohamed Cher- 
kaoui, with budgetary and administrative 
responsibilities to aid the Consultative Com- 
mittee; Mohamed Cherkaoui appointed 
Director of Consultative Committee; agree- 
ment on co-ordination of commercial statistics 
in Maghreb; budget approved for 1966. 

262 



THE MAGHREB PERMANENT CONSULTATIVE COMMITTEE 


1966 continued 

July Meeting of Commission on Trading Relations, 

Tunis. Discussion of liberalisation of Maghreb 
reciprocal trade relations. 

August Robert Gardiner, Excc.-Scc. of UN ECA, 
announced that the proposed Maghreb Secre- 
tariat with additional UN stall was to replace 
the Consultative Committee. 

September Permanent Maghreb Committee on Tourism 
created in Algiers. 

December Meeting of Maghreb Air Transport Committee, 
Algiers ; agreement for study group to ex- 
amine constitution of a Maghreb Airlines 
Company. 


1967 

January Meeting of Permanent Consultive Committee. 

Rabat ; discussion of possible negotiations 
with EEC and inter-Maglireb trade relations. 

March Indefinite postponement of Maghreb Eco- 
nomics Ministers meeting originally planned 
for May 1966. 

October Agreement between presidents of National 
Airlines to form a single company, to be 
called "Air Maghreb". 


FUTURE PLANS 

Fields of study for future co-operation and co-ordinated 
development include use of natural gas for electric power 
and petrochemical production, tourism, labour legislation, 
and the establishment of a Maghreb airline and a Maghreb 
maritime company. 


STATUTES 

Signed at Tunis, October 1st, 19G4, by the Economic Ministers of the four member states. 


Article x. The Permanent Consultative Committee is an 
organism in which representatives of the four countries 
of the Maghreb arc brought together. It is composed of a 
President and eight members, of whom four arc titulary 
representatives and four are deputies. 

Article 2. The President of the Permanent Consultative 
Committee must have the rank of Minister. The Presidency 
is entrusted to each of the member states in turn for the 
duration of one year. 

Article 3. The President may arrange to be assisted 
by a Vice-President who will be the titulars - representative 
of the country which is holding the Presidency. 

Article 4. The Government of each of the countries of 
the Maghreb will appoint a deputy titular) - member with 
the rank of Director of Central Administration. 

The representatives of each country will be able to 
command the help of these experts in case of need. 

Article 5. The Permanent Consultative Committee is 
provided with a Permanent Secretariat headed by an 
Administrative Secretary appointed by the President. 

The location of the Secretariat will vary according to 
the location of the Presidency. 

Article 6. The Permanent Consultative Committee will 
have correspondents in each member state appointed ba- 


the government concerned. These correspondents must 
establish a Central Administration, and preferably some 
organisations and services with the object of planning 
economic programmes. 

Article 7. Meetings of the Permanent Consultative 
! Committee will be held at least once every three months 
when called bv the President. At the same time as the 

j 

t President calls members of the Committee to meetings, 
lie will present them with a programme embodying the 
proposals which he has received from the member coun- 
tries. 

Article S. The proceedings of every session of the 
1 Permanent Consultative Committee must be recorded in 
Minutes drawn up by the President in office. These minutes 
must receive the unanimous approbation of the members 
I of the Committee. 

Article 9. The President will supply each of the mcml'-ers 
! of the Committee with a copy of all documents brought 
1 to his attention, as well as any document likely to Ik of 
; value to the Committee. 

j Article to. The President will submit the budget 
planned to cover the expenses of the Permanent Con- 
sultative Committee for the approbation of the Maghreb 
■ Council of Economic Ministers. 


THE NOBEL FOUNDATION 


Sturcgatan 14, Stockholm 5, Sweden 


The Foundation was established by the will of Alfred Nobel, a Swedish chemical engineer, 

who died in 1896. 


ORGANIZATION 

BOARD OF DIRECTORS 
Chairman: Ulf von Euler-Chelpin. 

Executive Director: N. K. Stahle. 

Members: S. A. Friberg, J. Wallenberg, E. G. Rudberg. 

Deputy Members: T. Browaldh (for Chairman), K. R. 
Gierow, O. Frostman. 

PRIZE AWARDERS 

Physics: Swedish Academy of Science. 

Chemistry: Swedish Academy of Science. 

Medicine: Royal Caroline Medico-Shirurgical Institute, 
Faculty of Medicine. 

Literature: Swedish Academy. 

Peace: Nobel Committee of the Norwegian Parliament 
(Storting). 

PRIZE COMMITTEES 

Physics: E. Rudberg (Chair.), K. M. G. Siegbahn, L. 
Hulthen, I. Waller, B. Edl£n. 

Chemistry: A. W. K. Tiselius (Chair.), G. Hagg, A. 
Olander, K. D. R. Myrback, A. Fredga. 

Medicine: S. A. Friberg (Chair.), B. Unvas, S. Gard, 
S. Bergstrom, G. Klein, R. Zetterstrom. 

Literature: A. J. Osterling (Chair.), K. Gierow, E. 
Lindeguen, E. O. V. Johnson, K. H. Olsson. 

Peace: B. Ingvaldsen (Acting Chair.), A. Lionaes, H. 
Refsum, H. Rognlien, E. Wikborg. 

The will of Alfred Nobel bequeathed the whole of his 
fortune (more than 30 million kronor) to a fund, the in- 
terest of which would be paid out annually to those who 
during the preceding year “have conferred the greatest 
benefit on mankind”. The interest is divided into five 
equal parts, to be allotted as follows: “One part to the 
person who shall have made the most important discovery 
or invention within the field of physics; one part to the 
person who shall have made the most important chemical 
discovery or improvement; one part to the person who shall 
have made the most important discovery within the domain 
of physiology or medicine; one part to the person who shall 
have produced in the field of literature the most outstand- 


ing work of an idealistic tendency; and one part to the 
person who shall have done the most or the best work for 
fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction 
of standing armies, and for the holding and promotion of 
peace congresses”. 

Prizes have been distributed annually on the festival 
day of the Foundation, December 10th, since 1901 (except 
during the two world wars). 

PRIZEWINNERS 

Physics 

1966 Prof. Alfred Kastler, Ecole Normale Superieurc, 

Paris. 

1967 Prof. Hans Bethe, Cornell University. 

Chemistry 

1966 Prof. Robert S. Mulliken, University of Chicago. 

1967 Awarded jointly to: 

Prof. Manfred Eigen, Max-Planck Institute, 
Gottingen. 

Prof. George Porter, Royal Institution. 

Prof. R. G. W. Norrish, University of Cambridge. 

Physiology or Medicine 

1966 Awarded jointly to; 

Prof. Peyton Rous, Rockefeller Institute, New 
York. 

Prof. Charles B. Huggins, Ben May Laboratory 
for Cancer Research, Chicago. 

1967 Awarded jointly to; 

Prof. Ragnar Granit, Caroline Institute, Stock- 
holm. 

Prof. Haldan IC. Hartline, Rockefeller Institute, 
New York. 

Prof. George Wald, Harvard University, 

Literature 

1966 Awarded jointly to; 

Samuel Josef Agnon (Israel). 

Nellie Sachs (refugee from Germany 1940; domi- 
ciled in Sweden). 

1967 Miguel Angel Asturias (Guatemala). 

Peace 

1966 Award reserved. 

1967 Award reserved. 



THE NORDIC COUNCIL 


The Nordic Council, an advisory body, was inaugurated in 1953. Finland joined in 1956. The Council considers 

economic, social, cultural, legal and communications questions. 


MEMBERS 

Denmark Finland 

Iceland 


Norway 

Sweden 


ORGANIZATION 


PRESIDIUM AND COUNCIL 


(1967-68) 


President: Eino Siren (Finland). 

Vice-Presidents: Poul Hartling (Denmark), Sigurdur 
Bjarnason (Iceland), Trygve Bratteli (Norway), 
Leif Cassel (Sweden). 


The Council meets annually in one of the Nordic 
capitals. At each session a Presidium is elected to 
take charge of the Council’s work until the next 
session. Each delegation elects its own President, the 
Council President being the one from the country 
which is host that year. The other four are Vice- 
Presidents. 

The Council consists of 69 delegates elected annually 
from the Parliament of each country — five from Ice- 
land, and 16 each from the others — and of Govern- 
ment Representatives. Resolutions are passed in the 
form of suggestions sent to the Governments. Govern- 
ments must submit progress reports to the Council 
annually. 


Tenth Session 
Eleventh Session 
Twelfth Session 
Thirteenth Session 
Fourteenth Session 
Fifteenth Session 
Sixteenth Session 


Helsinki 

Oslo 

Stockholm 

Reykjavik 

Copenhagen 

Helsinki 

Oslo 


March 1962 
February 1963 
February 1964 
February 1965 
January 1966 
April 1967 
February 1968 


STANDING COMMITTEES 

CHAIRMEN 

Economic Committee: Arne Geier (Sweden). 

Cultural Committee: Olafur Johannesson (Iceland). 
Legal Committee: Knud Thestrup (Denmark). 

Social Committee: Lars Korvald (Norway). 
Communications Committee: Thure Salo (Finland). 

SECRETARIATS 

The Nordic Council has a secretariat in each capital 
but no headquarters. The secretariats collaborate closely 
under the Presidium. 

Denmark 

Frantz Wendt, The Danish Secretariat, Folketinget, 
Copenhagen K. 

Finland 

E. Hultin, The Finnish Secretariat, The Eduskunta- 
Riksdag, Helsinki. 

Iceland 

Fridj6n Sigurdsson, The Icelandic Secretariat, The 
Alting, Reykjavik. 

Norway 

Einar Lochen, The Norwegian Secretariat, The Storting, 
Oslo. 

Sweden 

G. Petren, The Swedish Secretariat, The Riksdag, 
Stockholm. 


ACTIVITIES 


ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION 

In 1957 a Scandinavian Co-operation Committee 
advocated a Scandinavian Common Market but in 
1959 the plan was abandoned in favour of joining 
EFTA (The Seven). A Permanent Committee of 
Ministers for Economic Co-operation (see below), and 
a committee of officials to assist them, has been set up 
to direct Scandinavian co-operation in production 
and investment, trade and economic policy, statistics 
and customs administration and to co-ordinate 
investigations in the present European market 
situation. The Council has given special consideration 
to joint assistance schemes for the developing 
countries. 

During the final phase 1966-67 of the Kennedy 
Round talks within the framework of GATT, the 
member countries of the Nordic Council acted through 
a single chief negotiator. 


CULTURAL CO-OPERATION 

The Council has recommended that Scandinavia 
should be an educational unit, with interchangeable 
scholarships. Most university examinations are recog- 
nised throughout Scandinavia. The Council has also 
encouraged the teaching of all the Nordic languages, 
especially in teachers’ training colleges and elementary 
schools. 

At the Council's recommendation a joint Scandi- 
navian college for the training of formalists was sA 
up, intended for persons who had already receive-' - 
basic journalistic training. 

Other institutions created on doe recommend- - ; 
of the Council: Nordic Jnrdr; ne of 
Nuclear Physics (Copen here: : dr. ~ti trite cd 
Law (Oslo); Institute of Studies ^ ' 

Institute of Asiatic Stuck-: >, non haver 


2G5 



THE NORDIC COUNCIL 


The Council has fostered co-operation between the 
national broadcasting and television administrations 
(NORD VISION). 

In 1967, on the recommendation of the Council, 
the governments of the Nordic countries established 
a Nordic Cultural Foundation with an annual budget 
of 3 million Danish crowns. The Fund, financed by 
the four member countries, is directed by a common 
board with supra-national authority. 

LEGAL CO-OPERATION 

The Council works towards securing uniformity of 
legislation and interpretation of the law. A large 
proportion of private law is already uniform through- 
out the Nordic countries. The Nordic Council has 
recommended an Inter-Nordic patent convention, 
and visualises one joint Scandinavian patent institu- 
tion. There are also joint or common laws on marriage, 
divorce, property, copyright and trade marks. 

There are special extradition facilities between the 
Nordic countries, but the Council would like to see 
police and courts having wider authority to examine 
suspected persons or to hear witnesses at the request 
of another country. 

The Council has arranged for citizens working in 
other Nordic countries to be given the legal status of 
nationals in many respects, and recommended relaxa- 
tion of the rules whereby foreigners may not join the 
boards of directors or corporations for a certain time. 
New rules are in preparation to make it easier to 
change citizenship of Nordic countries. 

SOCIAL CO-OPERATION 

At the Council's recommendation, a Convention 
came into force in 1954 abolishing working permits 
for wage earners in all the Nordic countries except 
Iceland, and creating a common labour market. A 
free labour market exists for certain professi ons e.g 


physicians and dentists, and the Council is working to 
this goal in other branches of the medical profession. 

Reciprocity in social security legislation was largely 
achieved before the Nordic Council was set up, but 
the Council has arranged for the 16 existing agree- 
ments to be consolidated into a single Convention, 
which came into force in 1956. 

Joint research is now taking place in all branches 
of health care and medicine. The Scandinavian Insti- 
tute of Public Health has been established at 
Gothenburg. 

TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS 

The " Sound Bridge”. In 1953 the Council recom- 
mended that a bridge be built between either Malmo 
or Helsingborg in Sweden and either Copenhagen or 
Elsinore in Denmark. A report recommending that 
construction start was published in December 1962 
and in 1965 the Council recommended that the bridge 
be built between Copenhagen and Malmo. A final 
government report was published in November 1967. 

Traffic Regulations. These are gradually being 
unified, and there is increasing common planning 
about communications between Scandinavia and the 
continent. 

North Calott. The Council has made several recom- 
mendations for the improvement of communications 
to this area, the northern regions of Finland, Norway 
and Sweden. 

Postal and Telegraphic Communications. Several 
recommendations have been executed to improve and 
cheapen facilities. 

Passports. These were abolished for nationals in 
1952, and for non-nationals in 1958, within the Nordic 
area. Customs formalities and baggage control have 
been substantially reduced, with the aim of making 
Scandinavia one unit for travel and tourist purposes 


NORDIC CO-OPERATION 


Outside the Nordic Council, there are hundreds of 
Nordic or Scandinavian societies, enterprises and 
committees, governmental, private and commercial. 
The following are some of the most important: 

MINISTERIAL MEETINGS 

The Prime Ministers of the Nordic Countries meet 
the Presidium of the Nordic Council once a year. 

The Foreign Ministers of the Nordic Countries hold 
regular informatory meetings twice a year. 

Ministers of Education and Ministers of Justice 
meet several times a year. 

Ministers of Finance, of Social Affairs, of Labour, 
of Communications, of Fisheries, of Defence, of 
Health and Agriculture meets at least once a year. 

MINISTERIAL COMMITTEES 

Permanent Committee of Ministers for Economic 
Co-operation and Trade; aims to co-ordinate 
trading policy further. 


Permanent Committee of Ministers for Co-ordina- 
tion of Assistance to Developing Countries: 
f. 1963. 

Nordic Committee for Economic Co-operation: 
assists the Permanent Committee of Ministers. 
Three officials for each country sit on the Com- 
mittee. 

Permanent Nordic Committee for Agriculture: f. 
1961; four members nominated by each govern- 
ment; discusses common problems of agricultural 
production and sales. 

Permanent Nordic Committee for Fishery Prob- 
lems: f. 1963; four members nominated by each 
government; discusses common problems of 
fisheries and sales of fishery products. 

Nordic Cultural Commission: f. 1946; advises 
governments on cultural matters. Each govern- 
ment appoints a maximum of nine members to 
cover these three fields: academic and scientific, 
education, adult education and arts. 


266 



THE NORDIC COUNCIL 


Officers Co-ordinating for Legislative Co-operation: 
f. 1959; committee of the chief officials from the 
Ministries of Justice. Annual Ministerial meetings 
co-ordinate work in Nordic legislation. 

Nordic Social Policy Committee: f. 1946; consists of 
two high officials from the Ministry of Social 
Welfare in each country. It submits proposals for 
new joint projects, organises Ministerial meetings 
and implements their decisions, and generally 
co-ordinates policy. Social Insurance Congresses 
are also held at three-year intervals. 

Nordic Contact Committee for Atomic Energy: f. 
1957; meets twice a year to exchange information 
about atomic energy problems. 

Nordic Institute for Theoretical Atomic Physics 
(Nordita): f. 1957; promotes scientific research in 
theoretical atomic physics and trains physicists. 

PRIVATE SOCIETIES, ENTERPRISES 

Nordic Council for Applied Research ( Nordforsk ): 
i. 1947; aims to exchange information about re- 


search, to arrange symposia and to help towards 
the exchange of scientists among the Scandina- 
vian countries; publishes a Scandinavian Re- 
search Guide. 

Scandinavian Tourist Committee: f. 1926; the joint 
secretariat of the national travel organisations. It 
organises festivals and co-ordinates publicity. 

Foreningen Norden ( Norden Associations): f. 1919; 
120,000 members; aims to increase co-operation 
generally; activities include information work, 
lecturing, courses, revision of textbooks and. 
exchange between towns. 

Nordic Council of the Fine Arts: f. 1945; arranges 
exhibitions, etc. 

Nordisk Andelsforbund ( Scandinavian Co-operative 
Wholesale Society). 

Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS): f. 1946; 
Bromma Airport, Bromma 10. Stockholm; con- 
sortium: Norwegian, Danish and Swedish airlines. 

Scanair: Copenhagen; f. 1961; charter company; 
SAS holds 45 per cent of the share capital. 


STATUTE 

(effective from January 1958) 


Article i. The Nordic Council is a body formed for the 
purpose of consultation among the Folketing of Denmark, 
the Eduskunta-Riksdag of Finland, the Althing of Iceland, 
the Storting of Norway and the Riksdag of Sweden, as 
well as the governments of these countries, in matters 
involving joint action by any or all of these countries. 

Article 2. The Council shall consist of 69 elected dele- 
gates and of Government representatives. 

For such terms and by such methods as shall be decided 
in each country, the Folketing of Denmark, the Eduskunta- 
Riksdag of Finland, theStorting of Norway and the Riksdag 
of Sweden shall each elect from among their members 16 
delegates to the Council and the necessary number of 
deputy delegates, and the Althing of Iceland shall elect 
from among its members 5 delegates to the Council and the 
necessary number of deputy delegates. Among the elected 
delegates of each country, different political opinions shall 
be represented. 

Each Government may appoint from among its mem- 
bers as many Government representatives as it desires. 

Article 3. The Government representatives have no 
vote in the Council. 

Article 4. The Council shall meet once a year on such 
date as it may decide (Ordinary session). Furthermore, 
special meetings may be held, if the Council so decides, or 
if a meeting is requested by not less than two Govern- 
ments or not less than 25 elected delegates (Extraordinary 
session). Ordinary sessions shall be held in the capital of 
one of the countries, as decided by the Council. 

Article 5. For each ordinary session and for the period 
until the next ordinary session, the Council from among 
its elected delegates shall elect a President and four Vice- 
Presidents who, together, shall constitute the Presidium 
of the Council. 

Article 6. The deliberations of the Council shall be 


open to the public, unless, in view of the special nature of 
a matter, the Council decides otherwise. 

Article 7. During each ordinary session the elected 
delegates shall form standing committees to undertake 
preparatory work in connection with matters before the 
Council. By decision of the Presidium, the standing com- 
mittees may meet also during inter-sessionary periods in 
special cases. 

Special committees may be set up during inter-session- 
ary periods to prepare special matters. 

Article 8. The delegation of each country shall appoint 
a Secretary and other staff members. The activities and 
collaboration of the secretariats shall be supervised by the 
Presidium. 

Article 9. All governments and delegates are entitled 
to submit a matter to the Council by written application 
to the Presidium. The Presidium shall cause such investi- 
gations to be made as it may deem necessary and shali 
send out the documentation to the governments and dele- 
gates well ahead of the session. 

Article 10. The Council shall discuss questions of 
common interest to the countries and may adopt recom- 
mendations to the governments. Recommendations shall 
be accompanied by information as to how each delegate 
has voted. 

In questions which concern only certain of the coun- 
tries, only the delegates from those countries may vote. 

Article ii. At each ordinary session, the governments 
should inform the Council of any action taken on the 
recommendation of the Council. 

Article 12. The Council shall adopt its own rules of 
procedure. 

Article 13. Each country shall defray the expenses 
involved by its membership in the Council. The Council 
shall decide how common expenses shall be apportioned. 


267 



THE NORDIC COUNCIL 


AGREEMENT OF CO-OPERATION BETWEEN THE NORDIC COUNTRIES 

Signed in Helsinki, March 23, 1962 


The Governments of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Nor- 
way and Sweden: 

Desirous of furthering the close connections between the 
Nordic nations in culture and juridical and social con- 
ceptions and of developing co-operation between the 
Nordic countries; 

Endeavouring to create uniform rules in the Nordic 
countries in as many respects as possible; 

Hoping to achieve in all fields where prerequisites exist 
an appropriate division of labour between these countries; 

Desirous of continuing the co-operation, important to 
these countries, in the Nordic Council and other agencies 
of co-operation; 


Have agreed upon the following provisions. 

Article i. The Contracting Parties shall endeavour to 
maintain and further develop co-operation between the 
countries in the juridical, cultural, social and economic 
fields and in questions of communications. 

Articles 2-7. Juridical Co-operation. 

Articles 8-13. Cultural Co-operation. 

Articles 14-17. Social Co-operation. 

Articles 18-25. Economic Co-operation. 

Articles 26-29. Co-operation in Communications. 

Articles 30-34. Other Co-operation. 

Articles 35-38. The Forms of Nordic Co-operation. 

Articles 39-40. Final Provisions. 


STATISTICS 


AREA AND POPULATION 



Denmark 

Finland 

Iceland 

Norway 

Sweden 

Total 

Area (sq. km.) . 
Population (1965) 

43.031 

4,767,600 

337.373 

4,651,000 

102,846 

*96,549* 

324,219 

3,769,000* 

449.793 

7,843,088* 

1,257,104 

21,227,237 


* 1966. 


PRODUCTION 1965 


('00 O metric tons) 


Iron Ore . 
Pig Iron . 
Crude steel 
Shipbuilding 
Woodpulp 
Newsprint 
Paper 
Canned fish 
Salted fish 
Butter 
Cheese 
Milk 


(’000 gross tons) 


Meat and Pork products . 

Eggs 

Electricity . . (mill. k.W.h.) 

Textile Yarns . 

Whale Oil 


Denmark 

Finland 

(1964) 

Iceland 

Norway 

Sweden 

4 1 

1,030 

— 

2,359 

24,876 

75 

638 

— 

63* 

2,461 

412 

355 


7*5 

4.725 

260 

* 5 ° 

0.5 

439 

1,270 

47 

5,092 

— 

1,812 

5,221 

— 

1,079 

— 

345 

679 

171 

2,050 

— 

7*3 

2,442 

II 

3 

I .O 

n.a. 

n.a. 

n.a. 

I 

82.7* 

*25 

n.a. 

166 

102 

1.8 

19 

79 

n 4 

35 

2.0 

48 

59 

5.367 

3,700 

106.5 

1,485 

3.311 

1,052 

*54 

n.a. 

*35 

37 8 

90 

40 

n.a. 

36 

97 

7.379 

13.636 

6 4 if 

48,337 

49,111 

18 

— . : 

n.a. 

II 

n.a. 



3-5 

22 

n.a. 


1966. 


t Jan.-Sept. 1965. 



THE NORDIC COUNCIL 


NORDIC TRADE 

DENMARK 


(million kroner) 


Countries 

Imports 

Expor 

TS 

196